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Foundation Course-I Project (SEM-1)2017-

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Name: Qais Y Shaikh Signature:________


Roll no: 517
Class: Fybcom
Division: E
Title of the project: Drug addiction- Causes
and remedial measures.
Submitted to:
Index

Sr No. Contents Page No.

1. Introduction 3-6

2. How drug addiction begins? 7

3. Causes of Drug addictiom 8-10

4. Remedial measures of Drug 10-12


addiction

5. Solution to drug addiction 13-15

6 Prevention and treatment of 16-17


drug addiction.

7. Biblography 18

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Introduction

What is drug?
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that,
when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved
under the tongue causes a physiological change in the body.
In pharmacology, a pharmaceutical drug, also called a medication or medicine, is a chemical
substance used to treat, cure, prevent, or diagnose a disease or to promote well-
being. Traditionally drugs were obtained through extraction from medicinal plants, but more
recently also by organic synthesis. Pharmaceutical drugs may be used for a limited duration,
or on a regular basis for chronic disorders.
Pharmaceutical drugs are often classified into drug classesgroups of related drugs that have
similar chemical structures, the same mechanism of action (binding to the same biological
target), a related mode of action, and that are used to treat the same disease.The Anatomical
Therapeutic Chemical Classification System (ATC), the most widely used drug classification
system, assigns drugs a unique ATC code, which is an alphanumeric code that assigns it to
specific drug classes within the ATC system. Another major classification system is
the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. This classifies drugs according to their
solubility and permeability or absorption properties.
Psychoactive drugs are chemical substances that affect the function of the central nervous
system, altering perception, mood or consciousness. They include alcohol, a depressant (and
a stimulant in small quantities), and the stimulants nicotine and caffeine. These three are the
most widely consumed psychoactive drugs worldwide and are also considered recreational
drugs since they are used for pleasure rather than medicinal purposes. Other recreational
drugs include hallucinogens, opiates and amphetamines and some of these are also used in
spiritual or religious settings. Some drugs can cause addiction and all drugs can have side
effects. Excessive use of stimulants can promote stimulant psychosis. Many recreational
drugs are illicit and international treaties such as the Single Convention on Narcotic
Drugs exist for the purpose of their prohibition.

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Etymology
In English, the noun "drug" is thought to originate from Old French "drogue", possibly
deriving later into "droge-vate" from Middle Dutch meaning "dry barrels", referring to
medicinal plants preserved in them.The transitive verb "to drug" (meaning intentionally
administer a substance to someone, often without their knowledge) arose later and invokes
the psychoactive rather than medicinal properties of a substance.

Medication

A medication or medicine is a drug taken to cure or ameliorate any symptoms of an illness or


medical condition. The use may also be as preventive medicine that has future benefits but
does not treat any existing or pre-existing diseases or symptoms.Dispensing of medication is
often regulated by governments into three categoriesover-the-counter medications, which
are available in pharmacies and supermarkets without special restrictions; behind-the-
counter medicines, which are dispensed by a pharmacist without needing a doctor's
prescription, and prescription only medicines, which must be prescribed by a
licensed medical professional, usually a physician.
In the United Kingdom, behind-the-counter medicines are called pharmacy medicines which
can only be sold in registered pharmacies, by or under the supervision of a pharmacist. These
medications are designated by the letter P on the label.[17] The range of medicines available
without a prescription varies from country to country. Medications are typically produced
by pharmaceutical companies and are often patented to give the developer exclusive rights to
produce them. Those that are not patented (or with expired patents) are called generic
drugs since they can be produced by other companies without restrictions or licenses from the
patent holder.
Pharmaceutical drugs are usually categorised into drug classes. A group of drugs will share a
similar chemical structure, or have the same mechanism of action, the same related mode of
action or target the same illness or related illnesses. The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical
Classification System (ATC), the most widely used drug classification system, assigns drugs
a unique ATC code, which is an alphanumeric code that assigns it to specific drug classes
within the ATC system. Another major classification system is the Biopharmaceutics
Classification System. This groups drugs according to their solubility and permeability
or absorption properties.

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Spiritual and Religious Use
Some religions, particularly ethnic religions are based completely on the use of certain drugs,
known as entheogens, which are mostly hallucinogens,psychedelics, dissociatives,
or deliriants. Some drugs used as entheogens include kava which can act as a stimulant,
a sedative, a euphoriant and an anesthetic. The roots of the kava plant are used to produce a
drink which is consumed throughout the cultures of the Pacific Ocean.
Some shamans from different cultures use entheogens, defined as "generating the divine
within"to achieve religious ecstasy. Amazonian shamans use ayahuasca (yag) a
hallucinogenic brew for this purpose. Mazatec shamans have a long and continuous tradition
of religious use of Salvia divinorum a psychoactive plant. Its use is to facilitate visionary
states of consciousness during spiritual healing sessions.
Silene undulata is regarded by the Xhosa people as a sacred plant and used as an entheogen.
Its root is traditionally used to induce vivid (and according to the Xhosa, prophetic) lucid
dreams during the initiation process of shamans, classifying it a naturally
occurring oneirogen similar to the more well-known dream herb Calea ternifolia.
Peyote a small spineless cactus has been a major source of psychedelic mescaline and has
probably been used by Native Americans for at least five thousand years. Most mescaline is
now obtained from a few species of columnar cacti in particular from San Pedro and not from
the vulnerable peyote.
The entheogenic use of cannabis has also been widely practised for
centuries. Rastafari use marijuana (ganja) as a sacrament in their religious ceremonies.
Psychedelic mushrooms (psilocybin mushrooms), commonly called magic
mushroom or shrooms have also long been used as entheogens.

Smart drugs and Designer drugs


Nootropics, also commonly referred to as "smart drugs", are drugs that are claimed to
improve human cognitive abilities. Nootropics are used to improve memory, concentration,
thought, mood, learning, and many other things. Some nootropics are now beginning to be
used to treat certain diseases such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Parkinson's
disease, and Alzheimer's disease. They are also commonly used to regain brain function lost
during aging.
Other drugs known as designer drugs are produced. An early example of what today would
be labelled a 'designer drug' was LSD, which was synthesised from ergot . Other examples
include analogs of performance-enhancing drugs such as designer steroids taken to improve
physical capabilities and these are sometimes used (legally or not) for this purpose, often by
professional athletes. Other designer drugs mimic the effects of psychoactive drugs. Since the
late 1990s there has been the identification of many of these synthesised drugs. In Japan and
the United Kingdom this has spurred the addition of many designer drugs into a newer class
of controlled substances known as a temporary class drug.
Synthetic cannabinoids have been produced for a longer period of time and are used in the
designer drug synthetic cannabis.

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Recreational drug Use
Recreational drug use is the use of a drug (legal, controlled, or illegal) with the primary
intention of altering the state of consciousnessthrough alteration of the central nervous system
in order to create positive emotions and feelings. The hallucinogen LSD is a psychoactive
drug commonly used as a recreational drug.
Some national laws prohibit the use of different recreational drugs; and medicinal drugs that
have the potential for recreational use are often heavily regulated. However, there are many
recreational drugs that are legal in many jurisdictions and widely culturally
accepted. Cannabis is the most commonly consumed controlled recreational drug in the world
(as of 2012). Its use in many countries is illegal but is legally usedin several countries usually
with the proviso that it can only be used for personal use. It can be used in the leaf form
of marijuana (grass), or in the resin form of hashish. Marijuana is a more mild form of
cannabis than hashish.
There may be an age restriction on the consumption and purchase of legal recreational drugs.
Some recreational drugs that are legal and accepted in many places
include alcohol, tobacco, betel nut, and caffeine products, and in some areas of the world the
legal use of drugs such as khat is common.
There are a number of legal intoxicants commonly called legal highs that are used
recreationally. The most widely used of these is alcohol.

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How drug addiction Begins?
There are many factors that lead people to drug addiction.

1. Curiosity : Frequent references to drugs by public media create curiosity for


having a personal experience of the drugs.

2. Friends pressure : Frequent appreciation of drug experience by friends


allures others to start the use of drugs.

3. Frustration and Depression : Some people start taking drugs to get relief
from frustration and depression.

4. Desire for More Work : Students sometimes take drugs to keep awake the
whole night to prepare for examination. It is not desirable as it may cause
mental breakdown.

5. Looking for a Different World : A wrong notion that the drugs open up a
new world tempts some young octers to start taking-drugs.

6. Relief from Pain : A prolonged use of pain-relieving drugs with physicians


advise at times leads to addiction.

7. Family History : Children may take to drugs by seeing their elders in the
family.

8. Excitement and Adventure : The young take to drugs to satisfy their instinct
for excitement and adventure.

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Causes of Drug Addiction among Youth

The reasons why a young person gets addicted to these harmful drugs are many.

Curiosities, desire for pleasure, social excommunication, mental gap, lack of self-reliance are
some of the reasons why these youth becomes a drug-addict.

Lack of self-confidence, that is inferiority complex, has been marked as cause of ones
becoming a drug addict.

Peer pressure, excessive stress, lack of parental involvement in childs activities, are among
the leading causes for drug addiction among youth and teen people.

The problem of drug addiction is all the more serious because the addicts are mostly young
school or college going boys and girls, the future citizens of a country, on whom will depend
in future its welfare and the welfare of its people. So, it is imperative to see that such young
boys and girls may be no means fall victims to drug addiction.

The Psychological Causes of Drug Addiction


Even if drug addiction originates because of some biological process, recovery from drug use
requires people to become motivated to make significant changes. Addictions like drug
addiction are fundamentally a behavior. Psychology is a science that studies human
behavior.
Most human behavior is a learned behavior. This is true of addictive behavior as
well. Psychological research has helped us to understand how people learn to engage in an
unhealthy behavior. More importantly, this research enables us to understand how people
can unlearn a behavior.
Another psychological cause of addiction is people's thoughts and beliefs. This is because
much of our behavior originates from our thoughts and beliefs. This includes addictive
behaviors. For instance, if someone believes that recovery is not possible, it is highly
unlikely they will put forth any effort to quit. Psychologists have developed techniques to
help people change their thoughts and beliefs. Their feelings and behavior subsequently
change as well.
A third psychological cause of addiction is a person's developmental maturity. The capacity
to align our actions with our beliefs and values is what separates mature human beings, from

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immature ones. This capacity ultimately distinguishes human beings from other species. If
we routinely act without thinking, and instead act according to every craving, whim, or
impulse, we are operating at the developmental level of a two year-old child. Addictions like
drug addiction can occur because someone lacks this developmental maturity. They may be
very self-focused and intent on pursuing impulsive desires without regard to the
consequences. Psychotherapy can be considered a form of accelerated
development. Therefore, it can be very helpful for people who are attempting to recover
from alcoholism or other addictions.
Psychology has also helped us to understand while people find it so difficult to discontinue an
unhealthy behavior like drug use. People may find recovery difficult because they lack good
problem-solving skills and sufficient motivation. Drug addiction can also occur as a means
of coping with uncomfortable feelings or stress. Psychotherapy can help to strengthen
people's motivation and to improve their problem-solving skills, stress reduction skills, and
coping skills.

In India drug abuse has become wide-spread and a cause of concern for the people and the
government. The major causes of drug abuse and addiction are given below:

1. It is to be noted that despair very often drives many to drug addiction. Students who
remain far away from parents and guardians and live in hostels and messes become
victims of addition.
2. Their keeping contact with bad company pushes them to be addicts. There is no proper
direction, no goal or objective before young men and women to move forward and
reach.
3. Our education is such that it does not prepare students to fit into life. Coming out of the
schools and colleges, they find that they have no future, no prospects in life.

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Remedial measures of drug addiction

Drug abuse is a serious psycho -sociological problems often difficult to be cured.The best
way to avoid these tragedies is to never start taking drugs.However ,nowadays ,specific
treatments are available for different types of mental illness.A regular, prolonged and sincere
treatment is required .Social therapy or rehabilitation has got a very significant role.The
following activities can be done for the control of drug addiction:

1. Early detection ,treatment and rehabilitation of drug addicts can reduce drug users,
2. Parents should set a warm and friendly atmosphere at home so that the drug users can feel
easy to cooperate with,
3. Motivation of the addicts to make up their mind up for detoxification ,
4. The youth should be motivated to be involved in the fight against drug abuse,
5. By educating the community about the problems of drug addiction ,
6. Enforcement of laws ,rules and regulation for the control and supply of drugs.
7. The educational course should contain about the drug addiction and drug abuse in detail,
8. Various effects of drug addiction must be advertise through
newspapers,radio,television,magazine and vice-versa.
9. The experience of drug users can be advertised to the people through media to aware those
who might start taking drugs.
Parents, teachers, educationists and governments should think how best to improve education,
so that it brings a full development of the personality and teaches the essence of life and the
art of decent living.

1. Moral instructions should form a part of teaching.


2. Mass media and voluntary organizations should do their best in the field and highlight
the dangers of drug addiction.
3. The various drugs are capturing the market and holding young and old alike in their
grip.
4. The Anti-Narcotic Squads and Drug Enforcement Agencies should work in a more
vigilant manner to prevent drug trafficking and trade.
5. There should be more counseling centers and rehabilitation centers. Government and
voluntary agencies should have co-ordinate efforts to deaddict people and spread
awareness against the great evil.
6. Police can play a great role to check smuggling and drug trafficking.
7. The constitutional provision about prohibition of intoxicating drinks and drugs must be
strictly enforced by all State Governments in our country.

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There is a reason that addiction can be very difficult to overcome: the substance or activity to
which we become addicted changes our brain chemistry. After a certain period of time
addicted, our brains may begin to crave the drug of choice to the neglect of everything else in
our lives. We become hardwired to feed our addiction.

If a change in our brain chemistry is the rule in drug addiction, can we resist becoming
addicted in the first place? Thankfully, yes: there are a few preventative measures you can
take against drug addiction, including scouring your family history, dealing with pressure,
balancing your life, and seeking help for mental illness.

Scour Your Family History


To begin on a path toward preventing drug addiction, you may first need to look at your
familys history of addiction. Although addiction can happen to anyone, some families are
more apt to become addicted to substances and activities than others. Genetics and brain
chemistry could be to blame, so if your grandfather was addicted to cigarettes and gambling,
you are probably much more likely to exhibit an addictive personality as well.

Unfortunately, the very genetic makeup that grandpa passed down to you could make it easier
to become addicted to any substance or activity. For example, even though your grandfathers
addiction was tobacco, you could become addicted to an illegal drug easier than someone
whose family does not possess an addictive genetic makeup.

Fortunately, though, if you are aware of your familial addictive tendencies, you can take steps
to better avoid drugs. These can include hanging out with friends who dont use, avoiding
parties where drugs may be involved, and being prepared to turn down an offered drug.
Abstaining from drugs entirely can be one of the best ways to avoid becoming addicted. For
more information about abstaining, you may wish to contact an addiction treatment recovery
center in your area.

Deal with Pressure


Another area to watch in your quest to prevent an addiction to drugs is life pressures. When
life gets rough, it can become easier to desire pills or drugs to ease the pain, especially if you
have an addictive personality. In this case, you may wish to seek other activities that can help
relieve pressure, like yoga, meditation, exercise or therapy.

In fact, even if you are battling the choice to become addicted, addiction treatment at a
recovery center, like Vista Taos in New Mexico, could help you arm yourself with alternate
ways to battle lifes pressures. At an addiction treatment recovery center, the staff could
guide you to the best methods for addiction resistance for your particular scenario, thereby
arming you personally with the tools necessary for continuing a drug-free life.

Balance Your Life


In a similar line of thought to dealing with pressure, finding life balance can help you resist
an addictive lifestyle. Sometimes life pressures present themselves all at once, like above, but

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other times, lifes pressures build over time. If you are not balancing these pressures on a
daily basis, they can snowball to become one huge issue. And when this happens, it is much
more difficult to resist the call to drugs.

To balance your life, you may need to take up yoga, meditation, exercise or therapy, like
above. However, other methods to combat imbalance can be taken. You might need some
time to yourself, so finding a friend or family member to take the kids for a few hours could
help. Maybe you need help at work; talking over pressures at work with your boss can help
you feel more in control. No matter what pressures in life you are facing, there may be a
perfect solution; if you have trouble finding this solution on your own, seeking help through
an addiction treatment recovery center may set you on the right path.

Seek Help for a Mental Illness


Those who face mental illness may have more trouble resisting addiction to drugs, so if you
suspect mental illness may play a part in your life, seeking help could set you on a path to
both a happier life and a better ability to resist drugs. Counselors can help pinpoint your
specific mental illness in a caring environment, without judgment; mental illness is nothing to
be ashamed of, and tackling the issues may lead to a higher quality of life, without
dependence on illegal substances.

Addiction to drugs can happen to anyone; however, there are many contributing factors that
may make addiction more likely. Family genes, life pressures, an unbalanced life, and mental
illness can all contribute to drug addiction. Thankfully, watching for these four triggers can
help you be more aware of the influence they may play in your life. If you are having trouble
resisting the call to drugs for any of these reasons, you may benefit from
preventative addiction treatment at a recovery center.

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Solution to drug addiction
Drug addiction solution and treatment

The single most important thing to remember when talking about an addiction solution and
treatment is that every good treatment program is individually created to meet the personal
needs of the patient. The second most important thing to consider is that if the person is
already in treatment all efforts should be made to keep him/her there to complete the program
and get into a solid recovery program.

Many Wont Get Treatment


Lets back up for a moment. Its all too often very difficult, if not nearly impossible, to get
someone into treatment if they are well advanced in their disease. The drug has taken over
their life, their life has unraveled and they may even be suffering negative consequences,
such has health issues, run-ins with the law and even incarceration.

Sometimes people go into treatment two, three or four times without success
before something clicks and they get on the right track. The number of times a
person tries isnt what counts, trying is what counts. Relapse is often part of the
disease and dont give up if you or your loved one relapses, keep supporting them
and get them to get back into treatment if you can.

No One Want to get Drug addiction solution and treatment.

Its a busy world and people dread the thought of having to go into treatment and people are
worried about missing time at work. However, there are options. Treatment used to mean 90-
120 days in a residential facility, but now, more and more, there are out-patient options,
especially for opiate addicts.

Something that works for YOU!

Whether in-patient or out-patient, its important to find a Drug addiction solution and
treatment program that is sensitive to age, gender and respectful of cultural and religious
background. What you need to get better is the important issue, but also remember that the
professionals at a treatment center will understand what you need. You may not like it. CBT
is often a good choice for Drug addiction solution and treatment.

So what kind of treatment will you get? One proven effective approach to Drug addiction
solution and treatment is cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), which focuses on our thoughts
that cause feelings and behaviors, not the external factors.

A patient might go through 10-15 sessions and will receive homework assignments
in this highly instructive interaction. The focus is the patient learning new skills.
Its a collaborative effort between the patient and the therapist.

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Group therapy can really work if you work it.

Treatment centers also offer group therapy, which is valuable because when people open up
and share their experiences, there is an energy and power that a group can offer. Unlike CBT,
which is one-on-one, the group setting brings another dynamic and is an excellent lead-in to
meetings that people attend after treatment.

12 step programs should ALWAYS be part of the plan.

Drug addiction solution and treatment can also include 12 Step recovery, art therapy, music
therapy and physical activity. Treatment programs are set up to meet the body, mind and
spirit needs of the patient, not just the physical addiction part. The idea is to rebuild a life, not
just get somebody off drugs.

Because we are all spiritual beings, regardless of religion or the lack of religion, the spirit
needs care the same way the body and mind need care, and so any Drug addiction treatment
program will take time to tend to spiritual needs.

The 12 Step does a pretty good job of bringing out the spiritual in people, but there are also
rituals that people embrace, which may or may not carry a religious theme. It might be the
lighting of a candle, or the way the house is decorated for the holidays, or the way friends
come together and support each other in times of trouble, but these rituals are important.

Some drugs like Suboxone can support the recovery process.

During treatment, patients may or may not require medication. Often, medical detoxification
is necessary at the beginning of a treatment program, and as we mentioned treatment
programs for opiates may include the use of Suboxone or other drugs to help with the
withdrawal symptoms of the addiction.

Patients also may need nutritional supplements or special dietary considerations depending
on their overall health when they enter treatment.

Trust your gut!

You can see that treatment centers take great care and try to insure that the needs of each
patient are met. When selecting a treatment center it is always good to ask plenty of questions
and have an understanding of how things will work. The important thing is to stay with it and
work

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Prevention from drug addiction
The best way to prevent an addiction to an illegal drug is not to take the drug at all.
Use care when taking an addictive prescription drug. Doctors prescribe these medications at
safe doses and monitor their use so that you're not given too great a dose or for too long a
time. If you feel you need to take more than the prescribed dose of a medication, talk to your
doctor.

Preventing drug abuse in children and teenagers


Take these steps to help prevent drug abuse in your children and teenagers:

Communicate. Talk to your children about the risks of drug use and abuse.
Listen. Be a good listener when your children talk about peer pressure, and be supportive
of their efforts to resist it.
Set a good example. Don't abuse alcohol or addictive drugs. Children of parents who
abuse drugs are at greater risk of drug addiction.
Strengthen the bond. Work on your relationship with your children. A strong, stable
bond between you and your child will reduce your child's risk of using or abusing drugs

Types of Treatment
Treatment programs are different for each individual and can be customized based on their
unique needs and situations. The most effective types of treatment programs ensure that
individuals in recovery are actively involved every step of the way.

Inpatient Rehab
Inpatient rehab is a residential treatment center where patients reside for various
lengths depending on their program. The average stay is 30 days, but most addiction
treatment facilities offer longer programs (60 days, 90 days or even longer).

The length of treatment depends on several factors, including the severity of the addiction,
the existence of any co-occurring mental health conditions, and whether the person has been
through rehab before.

Most inpatient centers offer family programs, where members of the patients family
participate in family counseling and activities. This provides the opportunity to mend
trust and identify dysfunctional relationships or dynamics that could trigger a relapse.
Families can help encourage and support their loved one by being actively involved in their
recovery.

Each inpatient residential facility provides its own unique accommodations. Some are basic,
with shared rooms, cafeteria-style meals and recreational activities like pool and ping-pong.
Others may offer private luxury suites with gourmet meals and a host of amenities, like a
pool, spa and gym.

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Outpatient Rehab
A severe addiction to certain substances, such as heroin or oxycodone, is typically best
treated in an inpatient residential program to help manage detoxification and withdrawal.

However, a mild substance abuse problem caught in the early phases can often be
successfully treated in an outpatient rehab program.

Outpatient rehab is an ideal option for people who are motivated to stop using their substance
of choice, but require the flexibility of a program that will work around their schedules.

There are different types of outpatient rehab based on things like the substance abused or the
individuals severity of addiction and stage of recovery.

The general types of outpatient rehab fall into the following three categories:

Day Programs
Outpatient day programs have the highest level of care and structure provided within an
outpatient setting. In a day program, clients commit to meeting 5-7 days per week at an
outpatient facility for multiple hours each day. During this time, patients will participate
in ongoing therapy, group counseling, biofeedback, and other adjunct therapies, such as art or
music therapy.

Patients may return home after each session, either to their families or a sober living home.
Day programs require a considerable time commitment, which can limit an individuals
availability to work or go to school until the program is finished.

Intensive Outpatient Programs (IOP)


Intensive outpatient programs establish a treatment plan with defined, measurable milestones
in place to indicate progress. As these milestones are met, the time commitment required per
week decreases.

The IOP is a good option for those serious about abstaining from drugs and alcohol, but that
still need to be able to work and perform daily responsibilities. An IOP may require multiple
sessions for a few hours each week to conduct counseling sessions, group therapy, relapse
prevention education, and attendance in a 12-step or similar recovery support group.

Continuing Care
Continuing care groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous or Narcotics Anonymous are
ongoing support resources to help an individual solidify their commitment to sobriety. The
groups are typically facilitated by a licensed therapist and meet weekly. Some continuing care
groups may be gender-specific or age-specific, and others may focus on a particular aspect of
recovery.

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Biblography

1. www.google.com
2.www.wikipedia.com
3.Drug addiction websites.

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