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Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually

from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposits. These deposits form a mineralized
package that is of economic interest to the miner.

Underground Mining is a method of Mining, where the mineral is extracted without removing the
top soil and rocks. In this way we do not disturb the surface feature such as forest, agriculture land,
rivers and residential areas. The major disadvantages of UG Mining are

1. Dangerous in nature for the miners. Persons who work in UG mines will be under
Continuous danger from Strata ( from collapse from side and roof), poisonous and toxic
gases. There will be danger of explosion, fire and also inundation (flooding).
2. As the working area is limited, high mechanisation is limited. You can not put bigger
machine like in surface Mining.
3. Long gestation period. It took very long time to develop an UG mine before it give full
4. Generally very high wage cost and labour intensive. As the productivity is limited.
5. Overall high cost of production.
Advantage s of UG Mining

1. Very less land acquisition and RR problem. The land above the mineral property is not disturbed,
only small area is required for pit top, offices, workshop etc. Unlike in opencast Mining where all
land above the mineral property has to be acquired. This land acquisition is very big task, whether it
agriculture land or forest land.

2. The soil and agriculture land is destroyed in opencast Mining. Not in the case of UG Mining.

3. No destruction of Forest and ecosystem is not disturbed.

4. Very less socioeconomic impacts, hence very less people are affected.

5. Opencast mines generally generate dust, noise and

wastewater problems.

Well-structured mining engages with the locals and provides them with jobs, raising the
living standards of the community. Revenues generated from mining activities help in
developing facilities, such as schools, hospitals and other social amenities. These
activities promote business enterprise in the mining regions. For instance, they promote
growth in rental houses to provide accommodation for miners. Growth in businesses,
such as hotels, is expected to cater to worker needs. Mining resources are important
foreign exchange earners and contribute significantly to gross domestic product.

Mining is a source of mineral resources important for maintaining and upgrading living
standards. It is the extraction of valuable and non-renewable minerals or other
geological substances from the earth. Materials acquired through mining include metals,
limestone, rock salt, gemstone, coal, oil, gravel, gold and clay. Mining is intended to
obtain resources that cannot be produced through agricultural activities or manufactured
artificially in a laboratory or factory.
Mining provides much of the raw material needed in both the developed and developing world;
oil mining, for example, provides the fuel most vehicles require. Mining also provides much of
the raw material needed for products made of plastic and metal. Mining can also provide
economic benefits to local communities.

One of the major and more easily identified offenders of the ecological balance of the earth is the
mining industry. Mining industries and companies can not but have negative impacts on the
environment. Notable studies reveal that mining is not good. Many mining areas throughout the
world show the impact of mans assault on the earth in polluted bodies of water such as rivers, mine
dumps and waste areas. Environmental degradation and deterioration due to mining is a major
problem in many countries all over the world. Needless to say, the Philippines is one of these
countries that is unquestionably facing serious biological disturbance and environmental damage
due to irresponsible mining industries.

The major drawback of industrial mining is the damage mining operations cause to the
environment. Removal of large areas of topsoil can destroy habitats, and the chemicals used in
mining operations can leach into the groundwater and pollute the area. Air pollution and
radioactive pollution are other possible downsides.