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Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

Ibrahim Sezai
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Eastern Mediterranean University

Fall 2005-2006

Pressure

Pressure is defined as a normal force


exerted by a fluid per unit area.
Units of pressure are N/m2, which is called
a pascal (Pa).
Since the unit Pa is too small for pressures
encountered in practice, kilopascal (1 kPa
= 103 Pa) and megapascal (1 MPa = 106
Pa) are commonly used.
Other units include bar, atm, kgf/cm2,
lbf/in2=psi.
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Absolute, gage, and vacuum pressures

Actual pressure at a give point is called


the absolute pressure.
Most pressure-measuring devices are
calibrated to read zero in the atmosphere,
and therefore indicate gage pressure,
Pgage=Pabs - Patm.
Pressure below atmospheric pressure are
called vacuum pressure, Pvac=Patm - Pabs.

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Absolute, gage, and vacuum pressures

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Pressure at a Point

Pressure at any point in a fluid is the same


in all directions.
Pressure has a magnitude, but not a
specific direction, and thus it is a scalar
quantity.
Proof:

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Proof:

Consider a wedge shaped fluid element in equilibrium:


F x = max = 0 : P1z P3l sin = 0
1
F z = maz = 0 : P2 x P3l cos gxz = 0
2
W = mg = gxz / 2
x = l cos
z = l sin
Substituting into above eqn.s
1
P1 P3 = 0 P2 P3 gz = 0
2
z 0 as wedge becomes infinitesimal
P1 = P2 = P3 = P

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Variation of Pressure with Depth

In the presence of a gravitational


field, pressure increases with
depth because more fluid rests
on deeper layers.
To obtain a relation for the
variation of pressure with depth,
consider rectangular element
Force balance in z-direction gives
F z = maz = 0
P2 x P1x g xz = 0
Dividing by x and rearranging
gives
P = P2 P1 = g z = s z
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Pressure

Pressure at the surface is atmospheric


Pressure at a depth h is
P = Patm + gh
Pgage = gh
If changes with h then
dP
= g
dz
2
P = P2 P1 = gdz
1

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Variation of Pressure with Depth

Pressure in a fluid at rest is independent of the


shape of the container.
Pressure is the same at all points on a horizontal
plane in a given fluid.

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Pascals Law

Pressure applied to a
confined fluid increases
the pressure throughout
by the same amount.
In picture, pistons are at
same height:

F1 F2 F A
P1 = P2 = 2= 2
A1 A2 F1 A1

Ratio A2/A1 is called ideal


mechanical advantage

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The Manometer

An elevation change of
z in a fluid at rest
corresponds to P/g.
A device based on this is
called a manometer.
A manometer consists of
a U-tube containing one
or more fluids such as
mercury, water, alcohol,
or oil.
Heavy fluids such as
mercury are used if large
P1 = P2 pressure differences are
anticipated.
P2 = Patm + gh

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Mutlifluid Manometer

For multi-fluid systems


Pressure change across a fluid
column of height h is P = gh.
Pressure increases downward, and
decreases upward.
Two points at the same elevation in a
continuous fluid are at the same
pressure.
Pressure can be determined by
adding and subtracting gh terms.

Patm + 1 gh1 + 2 gh2 + 3 gh3 = P1

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Measuring Pressure Drops

Manometers are well-


-suited to measure
pressure drops
across valves, pipes,
heat exchangers, etc.
Relation for pressure
drop P1-P2 is obtained
by starting at point 1
and adding or
subtracting gh terms
P1 + 1 g (a + h) 2 gh 1 ga = P2 until we reach point 2.
P2 P1 = ( 2 1 ) gh
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The Barometer

Atmospheric pressure is
measured by a device called a
barometer; thus, atmospheric
pressure is often referred to as
the barometric pressure.
PC can be taken to be zero
since there is only Hg vapor
above point C, and it is very
low relative to Patm.
Change in atmospheric
pressure due to elevation has
many effects: Cooking, nose
bleeds, engine performance,
PC = 0 PB = Patm aircraft performance.

Patm = gh

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Fluid Statics

Fluid Statics deals with problems associated


with fluids at rest.
In fluid statics, there is no relative motion
between adjacent fluid layers.
Therefore, there is no shear stress in the fluid
trying to deform it.
The only stress in fluid statics is normal stress
Normal stress is due to pressure
Variation of pressure is due only to the weight of the
fluid fluid statics is only relevant in presence of
gravity fields.
Applications: Floating or submerged bodies,
water dams and gates, liquid storage tanks, etc.
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Hoover Dam

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Hoover Dam

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Hoover Dam

Example of elevation
head z converted to
velocity head V2/2g.
We'll discuss this in
more detail in Chapter
5 (Bernoulli equation).

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Hydrostatic Forces on Plane Surfaces

On a plane surface, the


hydrostatic forces form a
system of parallel forces
For many applications,
magnitude and location of
application, which is
called center of
pressure, must be
determined.
Atmospheric pressure
Patm can be neglected
when it acts on both sides
of the surface.

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Resultant Force

P at any point on the plate is:


P = P0 + gh = P0 + gy sin
Resultant force is
FR = PdA = (P0 + gy sin )dA
A A

= P0 A + g sin ydA
A

A
ydA = first moment of area
1
A A
Centroid of the plate is yc = ydA
Substituting,
FR = ( P0 + gyc sin ) A = ( P0 + ghc ) A = PC A = Pave A
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Resultant Force

The magnitude of FR acting on a plane surface of a


completely submerged plate in a homogenous fluid is equal
to the product of the pressure PC at the centroid of the
surface and the area A of the surface
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Pressure at the centroid

The pressure at the centroid of a surface is equivalent to


the average pressure on the surface

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Center of pressure

Line of action of resultant force


FR=PCA does not pass through
the centroid of the surface. In
general, it lies underneath
where the pressure is higher.

Vertical location of Center of


Pressure is determined by
equating the moment of the
resultant force to the moment
of the distributed pressure
force.

y P FR = yPdA = y (P0 + gy sin )dA = P0 ydA + g sin y 2 dA


A A A A

y P FR = P0 yc A + g sin I xx ,O I xx ,O = y dA = second moment of area


2

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Center of pressure

The second moments of area about two parallel axes are


related to each other by the parallel axis theorem:
2
I xx ,O = I xx ,C + yC A
Substituting Fr and Ixx,O and solving for yp gives:
I xx,C
y P = yc +
[ yc + P0 /( g sin )] A
For Po = 0, (3-22a
I xx,C
y P = yc +
yc A

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The centroid and centroidal moments of inertia for
some common geometries

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Special Case: Submerged Rectangular


Plate

The resultant force on the


submerged tilted plate is
FR = PC A = [ P0 + g ( s + b / 2) sin ]ab

The force acts at a vertical distance


hP = y p sin
From eq. (3-22a):
b ab 3 / 12
yP = s + +
2 [ s + b / 2 + P0 /( g sin )]ab
b b2
= s+ +
2 12[ s + b / 2 + P0 /( g sin )]

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Submerged Vertical Plate

Setting = 0 for a vertical plate:


FR = [ P0 + g ( s + b / 2)]ab

Vertical rectangular plate (s=0):


FR = ( P0 + gb / 2)ab

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Horizontal Rectangular Plate

For a horizontal rectangular


plate

FR = ( P0 + gh)ab

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Hydrostatic Forces on Curved Surfaces

FR on a curved surface is more involved since it


requires integration of the pressure forces that
change direction along the surface.
Easiest approach: determine horizontal and
vertical components FH and FV separately.
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Hydrostatic Forces on Curved Surfaces

Horizontal force component on curved surface:


FH=Fx. Line of action on vertical plane gives y
coordinate of center of pressure on curved
surface.
Vertical force component on curved surface:
FV=Fy+W, where W is the weight of the liquid in
the enclosed block W=gV. x coordinate of the
center of pressure is a combination of line of
action on horizontal plane (centroid of area) and
line of action through volume (centroid of
volume).
Magnitude of force FR=(FH2+FV2)1/2
Angle of force is = tan-1(FV/FH)
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Hydrostatic Forces on Curved Surfaces

The weight of the enclosed


liquid block is:
W = gV
Horizontal force component
on curved surface:
FH = Fx
Vertical force component
on curved surface:
FV = Fy + W

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Curved Surface Above Liquid

When a curved surface is above


the liquid, the weight of the
liquid and the vertical
component of the hydrostatic
force, Fy, act in the opposite
directions.
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Hydrostatic Forces on Circular Surfaces

The hydrostatic force acting on


a circular surface always
passes through the center of the
circle since the pressure forces
are normal to the surface and
they all pass through the
center.

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Multilayered Fluid

Hydrostatic forces acting on a


plane surface submerged in a
multilayered fluid:

FR = FR ,i = PC ,i Ai

PC ,i = Po + i ghC ,i

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Buoyancy and Stability

Consider a flat plate


submerged in a liquid
parallel to the free surface.

The net upward force


(Buoyancy force) is:
FB = Fbottom Ftop = f g ( s + h) A f gsA = f ghA = f gV
V = volume of the plate
fgV = Weight of the liquid displaced by the plate
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Buoyancy and Stability

Buoyancy is due to the fluid displaced by a


body. FB=fgV.
Archimedes principal : The buoyant
force acting on a body immersed in a fluid
is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced
by the body, and it acts upward through
the centroid of the displaced volume.

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Buoyancy and Stability

Buoyancy force FB is
equal only to the displaced
volume fgVdisplaced.
Three scenarios possible
1. body<fluid: Floating body
2. body=fluid: Neutrally buoyant
3. body>fluid: Sinking body

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Example: Floating Drydock

Auxiliary Floating Dry Dock Resolute Submarine undergoing repair work on


(AFDM-10) partially submerged board the AFDM-10

Using buoyancy, a submarine with a displacement of 6,000 tons can be lifted!

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Example: Submarine Buoyancy and Ballast

Submarines use both static and dynamic depth


control. Static control uses ballast tanks
between the pressure hull and the outer hull.
Dynamic control uses the bow and stern planes
to generate trim forces.

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Example: Submarine Buoyancy and Ballast

Normal surface trim SSN 711 nose down after accident


which damaged fore ballast tanks

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Example: Submarine Buoyancy and Ballast

Damage to SSN 711


(USS San Francisco)
after running aground on
8 January 2005.

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Example: Submarine Buoyancy and Ballast

Ballast Control Panel: Important station for controlling depth of submarine

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Stability of Immersed Bodies

Stability is easily understood by


analyzing a ball on the floor.

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Stability of Immersed Bodies

An immersed neutrally buoyant body is


a) Stable if center of gravity G is below the center of buoyancy B
b) Neutrally stable if G and B are coincident
c) Unstable if G is directly above B.
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Stability of Immersed Bodies

Rotational stability of immersed bodies depends upon


relative location of center of gravity G and center of
buoyancy B.
G below B: stable
G above B: unstable
G coincides with B: neutrally stable.

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Stability of Floating Bodies

If body is bottom heavy


(G lower than B), it is
always stable.
Floating bodies can be
stable when G is higher
than B due to shift in
location of center
buoyancy and creation of
restoring moment.
Measure of stability is the
metacentric height GM. If
GM > 0, ship is stable.

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Rigid-Body Motion

There are special cases where a body of fluid can undergo rigid-
body motion: linear acceleration, and rotation of a cylindrical
container.

In these cases, no shear is developed.


Newton's 2nd law of motion can be used to derive an equation of
motion for a fluid that acts as a rigid body
G G
P + gk = a
P P P
In Cartesian coordinates: = ax , = ay , = ( g + ax )
x y z

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Proof:

Newtons second law of motion


for a differential element
G G
F = m.a
m = dV = dxdydz
Net surface force acting on the element
in z-direction is
P dz P dz P
FS , z = P dxdy P + dxdy = dxdydz
z 2 z 2 z

Similarly, net surface forces in x- and


y-directions are
P P
FS , x = dxdydz and FS , y = dxdydz
x y
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Rigid body motion

The surface force (pressure force) acting on the entire


element is
G G G G
FS = FS , x i + FS , y j + FS , z k
P G P G P G G
= i+ j+ k dxdydz = Pdxdydz
x y z
G P G P G P G
where P = i+ j+ k Pressure gradient
x y z
Body force acting on the fluid element is
G G G
FB , z = gmk = gdxdydzk

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Rigid body motion

Total force acting on the fluid element becomes


G G G G G
F = FS + FB = (P + gk )dxdydz
G G G
Substituting into F = m.a = ( dxdydz ).a
the general equation of motion for a fluid that acts as a
rigid body is
G G G
P + gk = a
or P G P G P G G G G G
i+ j+ k + gk = (a x i + a y j + a z k )
x y z
P P P
In scalar form = a x , = a y , = ( g + az )
x y z
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Rigid body motion

Special Case 1: Fluids at rest


G
a=0
Then
P P P
= 0, = 0 and = g
x y z

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Rigid body motion


Special case 2: Free Fall of a Fluid Body
For a body falling freely
ax = ay = 0 and az = g
Equation of motion reduces to
P P P
= = =0
x y z
P = constant
If the fluid accelerates upward
with az = +g:
a z = + g P / z = 2 g

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Linear Acceleration

If a container is moving with


acceleration a, then from eq 3-43
P P P
= a x , = 0, = ( g + az )
x y z
dP = (P / x)dx + (P / z )dz
dP = a x dx ( g + a z )dz (3-47)
Integrating between points 1 and 2
P2 P1 = a x ( x2 x1 ) ( g + a z )( z 2 z1 ) (3-48)
Taking point 1 to be the origin and point 2 any point
P = P0 a x x ( g + a z ) z
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Linear Acceleration

Choosing 1 and 2 to be at the


free surface P1 = P2
and solving eq 3-48 for z2-z1
ax
z s = z s 2 z s1 = ( x2 x1 )
g + az
Isobar = constant pressure line
Setting dP = 0 in eq. 3-47
dzisobar ax
= = constant
dx g + az
dzisobar ax
Slope = = = tan
dx g + az
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Rotation in a Cylindrical Container

Container is rotating about the z-axis


ar = r 2 , a = a z = 0
P P P
= r 2 , = 0, = g
r z
Total differential of P

dP = r 2 dr gdz

On an isobar, dP = 0
dzisobar r 2 2 2
= zisobar = r + C1
dr g 2g
Equation of the free surface
2 2
zs = r + hc
2g
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Surfaces of constant pressure in a


rotating fluid
2 2
zisobar = r + C1
2g

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Rotation in a Cylindrical Container

The volume of a cylindrical shell element of radius r, height


zs, and thickness dr is
dV = 2rzsdr
The volume of of the paraboloid formed by the free surface is
R R 2 2 2 R
2 2
V = 2z s rdr = 2 ( r + hc )rdr = R ( + hc )
r =0 r =0 2 g 4g
Equating this to the original volume V = R2ho
2R2
hc = h0
4g

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Rotation in a Cylindrical Container


Then the equation of the free surface
becomes
2 2
z s = h0 ( R 2r 2 )
4g
Maximum height difference is
2 2
z s ,max = z s ( R) z s (0) = R
2g
Integrating dP = r2dr gdz
2 2 2
P2 P1 = (r2 r1 ) g ( z2 z1 )
2
Take point 1 at r = 0, z = 0, where pressure is Po
Point 2 any point
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Rotation in a Cylindrical Container

Then, the pressure


distribution in the fluid
becomes
2 2
P = P0 + r gz
2

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Examples of Archimedes Principle

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The Golden Crown of Hiero II, King of
Syracuse

Archimedes, 287-212 B.C.


Hiero, 306-215 B.C.
Hiero learned of a rumor where
the goldsmith replaced some of
the gold in his crown with silver.
Hiero asked Archimedes to
determine whether the crown was
pure gold.
Archimedes had to develop a
nondestructive testing method

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The Golden Crown of Hiero II, King of


Syracuse

The weight of the crown and


nugget are the same in air: Wc =
cVc = Wn = nVn.
If the crown is pure gold, c=n
which means that the volumes
must be the same, Vc=Vn.
In water, the buoyancy force is
B=H2OV.
If the scale becomes unbalanced,
this implies that the Vc Vn,
which in turn means that the c
n
Goldsmith was shown to be a
fraud!

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Hydrostatic Bodyfat Testing

What is the best way to


measure body fat?
Hydrostatic Bodyfat Testing
using Archimedes Principle!
Process
Measure body weight
W=bodyV
Get in tank, expel all air, and
measure apparent weight Wa
Buoyancy force B = W-Wa =
H2OV. This permits
computation of body volume.
Body density can be
computed body=W/V.
Body fat can be computed
from formulas.

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