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You are on page 1of 32

Ibrahim Sezai

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Eastern Mediterranean University

Fall 2005-2006

Pressure

exerted by a fluid per unit area.

Units of pressure are N/m2, which is called

a pascal (Pa).

Since the unit Pa is too small for pressures

encountered in practice, kilopascal (1 kPa

= 103 Pa) and megapascal (1 MPa = 106

Pa) are commonly used.

Other units include bar, atm, kgf/cm2,

lbf/in2=psi.

ME353 : Fluid Flow 2 Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

1

Absolute, gage, and vacuum pressures

the absolute pressure.

Most pressure-measuring devices are

calibrated to read zero in the atmosphere,

and therefore indicate gage pressure,

Pgage=Pabs - Patm.

Pressure below atmospheric pressure are

called vacuum pressure, Pvac=Patm - Pabs.

2

Pressure at a Point

in all directions.

Pressure has a magnitude, but not a

specific direction, and thus it is a scalar

quantity.

Proof:

Proof:

F x = max = 0 : P1z P3l sin = 0

1

F z = maz = 0 : P2 x P3l cos gxz = 0

2

W = mg = gxz / 2

x = l cos

z = l sin

Substituting into above eqn.s

1

P1 P3 = 0 P2 P3 gz = 0

2

z 0 as wedge becomes infinitesimal

P1 = P2 = P3 = P

3

Variation of Pressure with Depth

field, pressure increases with

depth because more fluid rests

on deeper layers.

To obtain a relation for the

variation of pressure with depth,

consider rectangular element

Force balance in z-direction gives

F z = maz = 0

P2 x P1x g xz = 0

Dividing by x and rearranging

gives

P = P2 P1 = g z = s z

ME353 : Fluid Flow 7 Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

Pressure

Pressure at a depth h is

P = Patm + gh

Pgage = gh

If changes with h then

dP

= g

dz

2

P = P2 P1 = gdz

1

4

Variation of Pressure with Depth

shape of the container.

Pressure is the same at all points on a horizontal

plane in a given fluid.

Pascals Law

Pressure applied to a

confined fluid increases

the pressure throughout

by the same amount.

In picture, pistons are at

same height:

F1 F2 F A

P1 = P2 = 2= 2

A1 A2 F1 A1

mechanical advantage

5

The Manometer

An elevation change of

z in a fluid at rest

corresponds to P/g.

A device based on this is

called a manometer.

A manometer consists of

a U-tube containing one

or more fluids such as

mercury, water, alcohol,

or oil.

Heavy fluids such as

mercury are used if large

P1 = P2 pressure differences are

anticipated.

P2 = Patm + gh

Mutlifluid Manometer

Pressure change across a fluid

column of height h is P = gh.

Pressure increases downward, and

decreases upward.

Two points at the same elevation in a

continuous fluid are at the same

pressure.

Pressure can be determined by

adding and subtracting gh terms.

6

Measuring Pressure Drops

-suited to measure

pressure drops

across valves, pipes,

heat exchangers, etc.

Relation for pressure

drop P1-P2 is obtained

by starting at point 1

and adding or

subtracting gh terms

P1 + 1 g (a + h) 2 gh 1 ga = P2 until we reach point 2.

P2 P1 = ( 2 1 ) gh

ME353 : Fluid Flow 13 Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

The Barometer

Atmospheric pressure is

measured by a device called a

barometer; thus, atmospheric

pressure is often referred to as

the barometric pressure.

PC can be taken to be zero

since there is only Hg vapor

above point C, and it is very

low relative to Patm.

Change in atmospheric

pressure due to elevation has

many effects: Cooking, nose

bleeds, engine performance,

PC = 0 PB = Patm aircraft performance.

Patm = gh

7

Fluid Statics

with fluids at rest.

In fluid statics, there is no relative motion

between adjacent fluid layers.

Therefore, there is no shear stress in the fluid

trying to deform it.

The only stress in fluid statics is normal stress

Normal stress is due to pressure

Variation of pressure is due only to the weight of the

fluid fluid statics is only relevant in presence of

gravity fields.

Applications: Floating or submerged bodies,

water dams and gates, liquid storage tanks, etc.

ME353 : Fluid Flow 15 Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

Hoover Dam

8

Hoover Dam

Hoover Dam

Example of elevation

head z converted to

velocity head V2/2g.

We'll discuss this in

more detail in Chapter

5 (Bernoulli equation).

9

Hydrostatic Forces on Plane Surfaces

hydrostatic forces form a

system of parallel forces

For many applications,

magnitude and location of

application, which is

called center of

pressure, must be

determined.

Atmospheric pressure

Patm can be neglected

when it acts on both sides

of the surface.

Resultant Force

P = P0 + gh = P0 + gy sin

Resultant force is

FR = PdA = (P0 + gy sin )dA

A A

= P0 A + g sin ydA

A

A

ydA = first moment of area

1

A A

Centroid of the plate is yc = ydA

Substituting,

FR = ( P0 + gyc sin ) A = ( P0 + ghc ) A = PC A = Pave A

ME353 : Fluid Flow 20 Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

10

Resultant Force

completely submerged plate in a homogenous fluid is equal

to the product of the pressure PC at the centroid of the

surface and the area A of the surface

ME353 : Fluid Flow 21 Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

the average pressure on the surface

11

Center of pressure

FR=PCA does not pass through

the centroid of the surface. In

general, it lies underneath

where the pressure is higher.

Pressure is determined by

equating the moment of the

resultant force to the moment

of the distributed pressure

force.

A A A A

2

Center of pressure

related to each other by the parallel axis theorem:

2

I xx ,O = I xx ,C + yC A

Substituting Fr and Ixx,O and solving for yp gives:

I xx,C

y P = yc +

[ yc + P0 /( g sin )] A

For Po = 0, (3-22a

I xx,C

y P = yc +

yc A

12

The centroid and centroidal moments of inertia for

some common geometries

Plate

submerged tilted plate is

FR = PC A = [ P0 + g ( s + b / 2) sin ]ab

hP = y p sin

From eq. (3-22a):

b ab 3 / 12

yP = s + +

2 [ s + b / 2 + P0 /( g sin )]ab

b b2

= s+ +

2 12[ s + b / 2 + P0 /( g sin )]

13

Submerged Vertical Plate

FR = [ P0 + g ( s + b / 2)]ab

FR = ( P0 + gb / 2)ab

plate

FR = ( P0 + gh)ab

14

Hydrostatic Forces on Curved Surfaces

requires integration of the pressure forces that

change direction along the surface.

Easiest approach: determine horizontal and

vertical components FH and FV separately.

ME353 : Fluid Flow 29 Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

FH=Fx. Line of action on vertical plane gives y

coordinate of center of pressure on curved

surface.

Vertical force component on curved surface:

FV=Fy+W, where W is the weight of the liquid in

the enclosed block W=gV. x coordinate of the

center of pressure is a combination of line of

action on horizontal plane (centroid of area) and

line of action through volume (centroid of

volume).

Magnitude of force FR=(FH2+FV2)1/2

Angle of force is = tan-1(FV/FH)

ME353 : Fluid Flow 30 Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

15

Hydrostatic Forces on Curved Surfaces

liquid block is:

W = gV

Horizontal force component

on curved surface:

FH = Fx

Vertical force component

on curved surface:

FV = Fy + W

the liquid, the weight of the

liquid and the vertical

component of the hydrostatic

force, Fy, act in the opposite

directions.

ME353 : Fluid Flow 32 Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

16

Hydrostatic Forces on Circular Surfaces

a circular surface always

passes through the center of the

circle since the pressure forces

are normal to the surface and

they all pass through the

center.

Multilayered Fluid

plane surface submerged in a

multilayered fluid:

FR = FR ,i = PC ,i Ai

PC ,i = Po + i ghC ,i

17

Buoyancy and Stability

submerged in a liquid

parallel to the free surface.

(Buoyancy force) is:

FB = Fbottom Ftop = f g ( s + h) A f gsA = f ghA = f gV

V = volume of the plate

fgV = Weight of the liquid displaced by the plate

ME353 : Fluid Flow 35 Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

body. FB=fgV.

Archimedes principal : The buoyant

force acting on a body immersed in a fluid

is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced

by the body, and it acts upward through

the centroid of the displaced volume.

18

Buoyancy and Stability

Buoyancy force FB is

equal only to the displaced

volume fgVdisplaced.

Three scenarios possible

1. body<fluid: Floating body

2. body=fluid: Neutrally buoyant

3. body>fluid: Sinking body

(AFDM-10) partially submerged board the AFDM-10

19

Example: Submarine Buoyancy and Ballast

control. Static control uses ballast tanks

between the pressure hull and the outer hull.

Dynamic control uses the bow and stern planes

to generate trim forces.

which damaged fore ballast tanks

20

Example: Submarine Buoyancy and Ballast

(USS San Francisco)

after running aground on

8 January 2005.

21

Stability of Immersed Bodies

analyzing a ball on the floor.

a) Stable if center of gravity G is below the center of buoyancy B

b) Neutrally stable if G and B are coincident

c) Unstable if G is directly above B.

ME353 : Fluid Flow 44 Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

22

Stability of Immersed Bodies

relative location of center of gravity G and center of

buoyancy B.

G below B: stable

G above B: unstable

G coincides with B: neutrally stable.

(G lower than B), it is

always stable.

Floating bodies can be

stable when G is higher

than B due to shift in

location of center

buoyancy and creation of

restoring moment.

Measure of stability is the

metacentric height GM. If

GM > 0, ship is stable.

23

Rigid-Body Motion

There are special cases where a body of fluid can undergo rigid-

body motion: linear acceleration, and rotation of a cylindrical

container.

Newton's 2nd law of motion can be used to derive an equation of

motion for a fluid that acts as a rigid body

G G

P + gk = a

P P P

In Cartesian coordinates: = ax , = ay , = ( g + ax )

x y z

Proof:

for a differential element

G G

F = m.a

m = dV = dxdydz

Net surface force acting on the element

in z-direction is

P dz P dz P

FS , z = P dxdy P + dxdy = dxdydz

z 2 z 2 z

y-directions are

P P

FS , x = dxdydz and FS , y = dxdydz

x y

ME353 : Fluid Flow 48 Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

24

Rigid body motion

element is

G G G G

FS = FS , x i + FS , y j + FS , z k

P G P G P G G

= i+ j+ k dxdydz = Pdxdydz

x y z

G P G P G P G

where P = i+ j+ k Pressure gradient

x y z

Body force acting on the fluid element is

G G G

FB , z = gmk = gdxdydzk

G G G G G

F = FS + FB = (P + gk )dxdydz

G G G

Substituting into F = m.a = ( dxdydz ).a

the general equation of motion for a fluid that acts as a

rigid body is

G G G

P + gk = a

or P G P G P G G G G G

i+ j+ k + gk = (a x i + a y j + a z k )

x y z

P P P

In scalar form = a x , = a y , = ( g + az )

x y z

ME353 : Fluid Flow 50 Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

25

Rigid body motion

G

a=0

Then

P P P

= 0, = 0 and = g

x y z

Special case 2: Free Fall of a Fluid Body

For a body falling freely

ax = ay = 0 and az = g

Equation of motion reduces to

P P P

= = =0

x y z

P = constant

If the fluid accelerates upward

with az = +g:

a z = + g P / z = 2 g

26

Linear Acceleration

acceleration a, then from eq 3-43

P P P

= a x , = 0, = ( g + az )

x y z

dP = (P / x)dx + (P / z )dz

dP = a x dx ( g + a z )dz (3-47)

Integrating between points 1 and 2

P2 P1 = a x ( x2 x1 ) ( g + a z )( z 2 z1 ) (3-48)

Taking point 1 to be the origin and point 2 any point

P = P0 a x x ( g + a z ) z

ME353 : Fluid Flow 53 Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

Linear Acceleration

free surface P1 = P2

and solving eq 3-48 for z2-z1

ax

z s = z s 2 z s1 = ( x2 x1 )

g + az

Isobar = constant pressure line

Setting dP = 0 in eq. 3-47

dzisobar ax

= = constant

dx g + az

dzisobar ax

Slope = = = tan

dx g + az

ME353 : Fluid Flow 54 Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

27

Rotation in a Cylindrical Container

ar = r 2 , a = a z = 0

P P P

= r 2 , = 0, = g

r z

Total differential of P

dP = r 2 dr gdz

On an isobar, dP = 0

dzisobar r 2 2 2

= zisobar = r + C1

dr g 2g

Equation of the free surface

2 2

zs = r + hc

2g

ME353 : Fluid Flow 55 Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

rotating fluid

2 2

zisobar = r + C1

2g

28

Rotation in a Cylindrical Container

zs, and thickness dr is

dV = 2rzsdr

The volume of of the paraboloid formed by the free surface is

R R 2 2 2 R

2 2

V = 2z s rdr = 2 ( r + hc )rdr = R ( + hc )

r =0 r =0 2 g 4g

Equating this to the original volume V = R2ho

2R2

hc = h0

4g

Then the equation of the free surface

becomes

2 2

z s = h0 ( R 2r 2 )

4g

Maximum height difference is

2 2

z s ,max = z s ( R) z s (0) = R

2g

Integrating dP = r2dr gdz

2 2 2

P2 P1 = (r2 r1 ) g ( z2 z1 )

2

Take point 1 at r = 0, z = 0, where pressure is Po

Point 2 any point

ME353 : Fluid Flow 58 Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

29

Rotation in a Cylindrical Container

distribution in the fluid

becomes

2 2

P = P0 + r gz

2

30

The Golden Crown of Hiero II, King of

Syracuse

Hiero, 306-215 B.C.

Hiero learned of a rumor where

the goldsmith replaced some of

the gold in his crown with silver.

Hiero asked Archimedes to

determine whether the crown was

pure gold.

Archimedes had to develop a

nondestructive testing method

Syracuse

nugget are the same in air: Wc =

cVc = Wn = nVn.

If the crown is pure gold, c=n

which means that the volumes

must be the same, Vc=Vn.

In water, the buoyancy force is

B=H2OV.

If the scale becomes unbalanced,

this implies that the Vc Vn,

which in turn means that the c

n

Goldsmith was shown to be a

fraud!

31

Hydrostatic Bodyfat Testing

measure body fat?

Hydrostatic Bodyfat Testing

using Archimedes Principle!

Process

Measure body weight

W=bodyV

Get in tank, expel all air, and

measure apparent weight Wa

Buoyancy force B = W-Wa =

H2OV. This permits

computation of body volume.

Body density can be

computed body=W/V.

Body fat can be computed

from formulas.

32

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