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4 schools/ pillars of psychology: all mammals learn in the same manner.

Three laws of learning:

1) Voluntarism: Wilhelm Wundt
Study of the elements of thoughts and consciousness. 1) Law of readiness: (law of action tendency)
Apperception: selective attention Learning takes place when an action tendency is aroused through
Creative synthesis: our ability to willfully arrange our thoughts (think) preparatory adjustment, set or attitude.
2) Structuralism: Edward Thorndike If one is not prepared to learn, learning cannot be automatically installed
Systematic study of consciousness and its elements. in him.
Similar to voluntarism; it was after the raw experience. When someone is ready to perform an act, to do so is satisfying.
Were more interested in the contents of the mind, rather than where When someone is ready to perform an act, not to do so is annoying.
these elements came from. When someone is not ready to perform an act and is forced to do so, it is
3) Functionalism: William James annoying.
The utility of consciousness and behavior adjusts to the environment. 2) Law of Exercise: Connections grow stronger when used- where strength
Was influenced by the Evolutionary Theory is defined as vigor and duration as well as the frequency of its making
Consciousness is a whole and cant be reduced to structures. and grow weaker when not used.
Biggest contribution to learning is that it emphasized the importance of a) Law of use: connections between a stimulus and responses are
the relationship and the environment. strengthened as they are used.
4) Behaviorism: John B. Watson b) Law of disuse: connections between situations and responses are
Consciousness could only be studied through the process of weakened when practice is discontinued.
introspection, which is a notoriously unreliable tool. 3) Law of effect: Response which occur just prior to a satisfying state of
Behavior is something that could be measured unlike consciousness. affairs are more likely to be repeated, and responses just prior to an
annoying state of affair are more likely not to be repeated.
Watsons important contributions to Psychology: If a response is followed by an annoying state of affair, the strength
of the connection is decreased.
He changed psychologys goal from attempting to understand If a response is followed by a satisfying state of affair, the strength
consciousness to prediction and control of behavior. of the connection is increased.
He made behavior psychologys matter.
Additional laws and principles of Thorndikes learning theory:
Types of Learning:
a) Multiple response of varied reaction: when faced with a problem. An
a. Classical conditioning animal will try one response after another until it finds success (Trial and
b. Operant conditioning Error)
c. Observational Conditioning b) Set or attitude: learning is guided by a total set or attitude of the
d. Insight learning organism, which determines not only what the person will do but what will
satisfy or annoy him.
Classical Conditioning: IVAN PAVLOV c) Partial activity or prepotency of elements: the learner reacts
Association learning: selectively to the important or essential in the situation and neglects the
In traditional classical conditioning, a neutral stimulus becomes other features or elements which may be irrelevant or non-essential.
associated with a meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit d) Law of response by analogy: the individual makes use of old
a similar response. experiences or acquisitions while learning a new situation.
Operant Conditioning is a form of learning in which the consequences e) Law of associative shifting: we may get a response, of which a learner
of behavior produces changes in the probability of the behaviors is capable, associated with any other situation to which he is sensitive.
Operant Conditioning: B.F. Skinner
Basic Difference:
Major theoretical concepts:
Classical conditioning: involves placing a neutral signal before a reflex.
Focuses on involuntary, automatic behaviors. Respondent Behavior: elicited by a known stimulus
Operant Conditioning: involves applying reinforcement or punishment Operant Behavior: emitted by the organism; controlled by its
after a behavior. consequences
Focuses on strengthening or weakening voluntary behavior. Type S Conditioning: (Respondent Conditioning) identical to classical
In classical conditioning, an association is learned, but rather than an Conditioning
association between a stimulus and a response. In operant conditioning, Type R Conditioning: behavior is strengthened through reinforcement;
the association is between a response and its consequences. no reinforce until subject makes the required response.

Classical Learning: Involves learning to associate an unconditioned Principles:

stimulus that already brings about a particular response (i.e. reflex) with a Any response that is followed by a reinforcing stimulus tends to be
new (unconditioned) stimulus, so that the new stimulus brings about the repeated.
same response. A reinforcing stimulus is anything that increases the rate with which
Acquisition: the initial learning of the stimulus link an operant response occurs.
Generalization: the tendency of a new stimulus (similar to the original) to Shaping:
elicit a response similar to the Conditioned Response. Differential reinforcement: some responses are reinforced and others
Discrimination: the process of learning to respond to certain stimuli and are not.
not to others. Successive approximation: only those responses that become
Extinction: the weakening of the conditioned response in absence of the increasingly similar to the one the experimenter wants is reinforced.
unconditioned stimulus overtime. Extinction and Spontaneous recovery
Spontaneous Recovery: the process by which a conditioned response Superstitious behavior: when the delivery of a reinforce or punisher
can recur after a time delay with no further conditioning. occurs close together in time (temporal contiguity) with an independent
behavior. Therefore, the behavior is accidentally reinforced or punished,
Connectivism Theory: Edward Thorndike increasing the likelihood of that behavior occurring again.
The learning theory of Thorndike represents the original S-R framework Discriminated operant: an operant response that is under the stimulus
of behavioral psychology: learning is the result of associations forming control of a discriminative stimulus. Such control s established by
between stimulus and responses. reinforcing the response in the presence of that discriminative stimulus.
Major Theoretical Concepts: Discriminative stimulus: influences the occurrence of an operant
Selecting and Connecting: trial and error learning response because of the contingencies of schedules of reinforcement or
learning is incremental, not insightful paradigms of reinforcement/ punishment that are or have been
learning is not mediated by ideas associated with that response.
Primary Reinforcers: occur naturally and do not need to be learned Experimentation and creativity
Examples of primary reinforcers includes things that satisfy basic survival Trial and error experiments
needs. STAGE 2: Pre-Operational Stage (Age 2-7)
Secondary Reinforcers: a situation in which a stimulus reinforces a Ability to represent objects with images and words
behavior after it has been associated with a primary reinforce. While the Language skills
primary reinforcers are biological in nature, secondary reinforcers require Imagination
association with these innate reinforcers before they can produce a Children learn through imitation and play during this stage. The begin to
response. use reasoning however, it is mainly intuitive, instead of logical
Generalized Reinforcers: a secondary reinforcement that has been STAGE 3: Concrete Operational Stage (Age 7-12)
paired with more than one primary reinforce. The fundamentals of logic
Chaining: involves on response leading to the occurrence of anothera) Ability to sort objects
response. b) Ability to clarify objects
Punishment: is either taking away something an organism wants, or Understanding of conservation (physical quantities do not change based
giving it something it does not want. This decreases the probability of the on the arrangement and/ or appearance of the object)
behavior. STAGE 4: Formal Operational Stage (Age 11-15)
Ability to hypothesize, test and re-evaluate hypotheses
+ - Children begin thinking in a formal systematic way
Reinforcement Social Learning Theory Albert Bandura
Giving a wanted Taking away an
Increases Also called observational learning
stimulus unwanted stimulus
desired response Theory that emphasizes learning through observation of others
Punishment We learn not only how to perform a behavior but also what will
Decreases Giving an unwanted Taking away a wanted happen to us in a specific situation if we do perform it.
undesired stimulus stimulus
response Types of Observational Learning Effects

Schedules of reinforcement: Inhibition: to learn not to do something that we already know how to do
because a model being observed refrains from behaving in that way or
1. Continuous reinforcement (CRF) schedule: every response produces does something different from what is intended to be done.
a reinforcer. Disinhibition: to learn to exhibit a behavior that is usually disapproved of
2. Fixed Interval (FI): the interval is the same after each reinforcement. by most people because a model does the same without being punished.
3. Fixed Ratio (FR): every nth response produces a reinforcer. Facilitation: to be prompted to do something that is not ordinarily done
4. Variable Interval (VI): a new interval is selected after each reinforcement; because of insufficient motivation.
the schedule specifies only the average interval size and the subject Observational Learning: to learn a new behavior pattern by watching
cannot predict how long the next interval will be. and imitating the performance of someone else.
5. Variable Ratio (VR): like the fixed ratio schedule, except that the ratio
requirement changes unsystematically following each reinforcer delivery. Elements of observational learning
The schedule specifies only the average number of responses required
for reinforcement. Attention
Mental focus or motivation
Piagets Cognitive Development Theory Willingness of the child to observe and mimic the behavior of a
3 basic components to Piagets Cognitive Theory: Retention
To encode the behavior in the memory
1) Schemas: building blocks of knowledge Ability to store information
2) Adaptation processes that enable the transition from one stage to Production
another (Equilibrium, Assimilation, Accommodation) To actually perform the behavior observed
3) Stages of development Motivation/Reinforcement
Force that drives one to act
Schemas: the basic building blocks of such cognitive models and enable
us to form a mental representation of the world. Three forms of reinforcement:

Adaptation processes: Direct Reinforcement: occurs when an individual watches a model

perform, imitates that behavior and is reinforced or punished by some
1.) Assimilation: using an existing schema to deal with a new object or individual.
situation. Vicarious Reinforcement: The observer anticipates receiving a reward
2.) Accommodation: when the existing schema (knowledge) does not from behaving in a given way because someone else has been so
work, and needs to be changed to deal with a new object or situation. rewarded.
3.) Equilibration: this is the force which moves development along. Self-Reinforcement: The individuals strive to meet personal standards
Piaget believed that cognitive development did not progress at a steady and does not depend on or care about the reaction of others.
rate, but rather in leaps and bounds.
Equilibration occurs when a childs schemas can deal with most new ATTENTION AND CONSCIOUSNESS
information through assimilation. However, an unpleasant state of
disequilibrium occurs when new information cannot be fitted into existing Attention: the cognitive process of selectively concentrating on one
schemas (assimilation). Equilibration is the force which drives the aspect of the environment while ignoring other things.
learning process as we do not like to be frustrated and will seek to restore the means by which we actively process a limited amount of
balance by mastering the new challenge (accommodation). Once the information from the enormous amount of information available
new information is acquired, the process of assimilation with the new through our senses, stored memories, and our cognitive processes.
schema will continue until the next time we need to make an adjustment It allows us to use our limited resources judiciously.
to it.
Five Levels of Awareness:
Stages of Development:
1. Subconscious Awareness (Pre-conscious Processing):
STAGE 1: Sensorimotor stage (birth- age 2) Processing information that is available for cognitive processing but
Reflexes information currently lies outside of conscious awareness.
Habits Tip of the tongue phenomenon
Hand-eye coordination Priming: occurs when recognition of a certain stimuli is
Object permanence (knowing something exists, even though it cant be affected by prior presentation of the same or similar stimuli. It works
seen) through activation of associations in our memory.
2. Lower Level Awareness (Automatic Processing): Information : movement particularly facilitates visual search when the conjoining
processed involving little or no conscious control. feature is a distinctive shape than a conjoining feature.
Attributes of Automatic Processes: Feature Search: we simply scan the environment for a specific feature.
Conjunction Search: we look for a particular combination of features
a. They are concealed from consciousness 3. Selective Attention: focuses on Filters
b. They are unintentional a. Broadbent Model: filters at the sensory level
c. They consume few attentional resources b. Morays Selective Filter Model: highly salient messages are so
3. Higher Level Awareness (Controlled Processing): information powerful that they burst through the filtering mechanisms
processed with conscious control. c. Treismans Attenuation Model: instead of filtering it merely
4. Altered states of consciousness attenuates (weakens the strength of) the stimuli other than the
5. No Awareness (Physical unconscious or in a Freudian Sense) target stimulus.
d. Deutsch and Deutschs late Filter Model: filtering happens after
Factors that influence our ability to pay attention: preceptual processing for recognition of meaning in the stimuli.
Neissers Synthesis: there are two processes governing attention
1. Anxiety
2. Arousal a. Preattentive Process: can be used to notice only physical
3. Task difficulty sensory characteristics of the message.
4. Skills b. Attentive Process: is used to synthesize fragments into a
Automatization: also called proceduralization meaningful representation.
It is the process by which a procedure changes from being highly
conscious to being relatively automatic.
Instance Theory- gradually accumulating knowledge about 4.Divided Attention: when the attentional system is performing two or
specific responses to specific stimuli. more tasks at the same time.
Mistakes: errors in choosing an objective or in specifying a means of
achieving it. Errors in intentional controlled processes. Benefits of conscious attentional process:
Slips: are most likely to occur when (a) we must deviate from a routine
and automatic processes inappropriately override intentional, controlled Helps in monitoring our interactions with the environment.
processes and (b) when automatic processes are interrupted- usually as Assists us in linking our past (memories) and our present
a result of external events or data, but sometimes as a result of internal (sensation) to give us continuity of experience.
events, such as highly distracting thoughts. Helps us in controlling and planning for our future action
Habituation: our becoming accustomed to a stimulus so that we
gradually pay less and less attention to it. PERCEPTION
Sensory Adaptation: a lessening of attention to a stimulus that is not
subject to conscious control. It is the set of processes by which we recognize, organize and
make sense o the sensations we receive from environmental
Four main functions of attention: stimuli.
Sensation occurs at the level of sensory receptors, perception is a
1. Signal Detection: detecting the appearance of a particular stimuli. cognitive activity.
2. Search: engaging in an active search for a particular stimuli. What we sense (in our sensory organs) is not necessarily what we
3. Selective Attention: choosing to attend to some stimuli and to perceive (in our minds)
ignore others.
4. Divided Attention: allocating our available attentional resources to Five Perceptual Systems (Gibson)
coordinate our performance of more than one task at a time.
Vigilance: a persons ability to attend to a field of stimulation over a 1. Visual Perceptual Systems
prolonged period, during which the person seeks to detect the 2. Auditory Perceptual Systems
appearance of a particular target stimulus of interest. 3. Haptic (touch) Perceptual Systems
: paying attention over a long period of time to see a stimuli at any given 4. Savor (smelling and tasting) Perceptual Systems
time. 5. Basic Orientation to Gravitation Perceptual System
1. Signal Detection Theory: selecting a particular stimuli from
unnecessary ones. The Perceptual Process
: a particular target stimulus of interest.
Event 1. Environmental Stimulus: is all the things in the environment that
signal noise we can potentially achieve.
2. Attended Stimulus: is the stimulus our attention is captured. It can
Respond yes Hit False alarm change from moment to moment.
Correct 3. Stimulus on receptors: the transformation of the stimulus into
no Miss
Rejection another form: a mental representation
4. Transduction: the transformation of one form of energy (like light
Signal detection is influenced by: energy, mechanical pressure, or chemical energy) into another
form of energy (electrical energy) that occurs in the nervous
a. Vigilance and doubtfulness system.
b. Training 5. Neural Processing: the process by which electrical signals
c. Fatigue activate neurons which in turn activate more neurons (neural
d. Expectations impulse)
2. Search (actively looking): actively and often skillfully seeking out a 6. Perception: conscious sensory experience- when electrical signals
target. are transformed by the brain into ones experience of seeing,
: scanning the environment for a particular feature hearing, smelling, tasting and feeling.
: made more difficult by distracters 7. Recognition: our ability to place and object into a category.
a. Feature Integration Theory: we store mental maps (features) of a 8. Action: the behavioral outcome of the perceptual process that is
stimulus important for survival.
b. Similarity Theory: targets that are highly similar to distracters are
hard to detect. The Visual Perceptual System
c. Guided Search Theory: the activation process of the parallel initial
stage helps guide the evaluation and selection process of the serial One of the five complex perceptual modes and one of the
second stage of the search widely researched topic.
d. Movement Filter Theory: movement can enhance the ease and 1. Locating Objects: determining where objects are
speed of conducting visual search, sometimes it inhibits. 2. Recognizing Objects: discerning what objects are
3. Object Constancy: keeping the appearance of objects constant in Ecological model
mind. Template Matching Theories
We have stored in our minds sets of templates and then we choose
A. Locating Objects the exact template that perfectly match what we observe.

1. Perceptual Segregation: How objects are seen as separated from Problems with template theories:
the rest of the scene in which they appear.
Gestalts Figure-Ground Principle: we have a natural tendency to a. the comparison requires that the template be in the same position,
organize a stimulus into regions corresponding to figure and ground. orientation and size of each pattern you want to recognize.
: a Figure is a well defined object standing out against a less distinct b. Great variability of patterns
background (ground) c. Doesnt reveal how two patterns are different (we can only tell they
: the figure is what we focus our attention to are similar because of substantial overlap, e.g. P or R)
Prototype Matching Theories
Figure and Ground We have stored in our minds an average of a class of related
objects or patterns, which integrates all of the most typical features of the
a. The figure has a definite shape, whereas the ground appears to class.
have no shape. The figure is a thing while the ground is only a Highly representative of a pattern
substance. Feature Matching Theories
b. The ground appears to continue behind the figure. We attempt to match features of a pattern to features stored in
c. The figure seems close to us, with a clear location in space. In memory, rather than to match a whole pattern to a template or
contrast, the ground is father away, and there is no clear loaction in prototype.
space; it is simple somewhere in the background.
d. The figure is more dominant and more impressive than the ground; Top-down approaches:
it is also remembered better and associated with greater number of
shapes. Constructive Perception
1. Perceptual Organization: Why certain elements are seen to be a. Intelligent Perception: higher order thinking plays an important
perceived together, rather than independent or isolated units role in perception. Here we consider prior knowledge, expectations
: regardless of the form or the structure of an incoming physical stimulus, and experiences.
the human perceptual system has a natural tendency/ preference to b. Context Effects: influence on surrounding environment on
organize the perceptual experience in a satisfyingly holistic way. perception.
a. Law of Pragnanz (good figure or simplicity): every stimulus Viewer-centered representation: the individual stores the way the
pattern is seen in such a way that the resulting structure is as simple as objects look to him/her
possible. Object-centered representation: the individual stores a representation
b. Law of Similarity: similar things appear to be grouped of the object, independent of its appearance to the viewer
c. Law of good continuation: when connected, result in
straight or smoothly curving lines are seen as belonging together, and the C. Object/ Perceptual Constancy
lines tend to be seen in such a way as to follow the smoothest path.
d. Law of proximity or nearness: things that are near to each
other appear to be grouped together. Keeping the appearance of objects approximately the same in spite
e. Law of common fate: things that are moving in the same of the large changes in stimuli received by our sense organ.
direction appear to be grouped together. 1. Size Constancy: the tendency to interpret an object as always
f. Law of closure: even if a figure has a gap, we tend to being the same size, regardless of its distance from the viewer.
perceive it as a whole. 2. Shape Constancy: the tendency to interpret the shape of an object
g. Law of meaningfulness and familiarity: things are more as being constant even when its shape changes in the retina.
likely to form groups if the groups appear familiar or meaningful 3. Color (brightness) Constancy: the tendency to perceive the
2. Perceptual Depth: How far the object is from us or perceiving apparent brightness of an object as the same even when the light
objects in 3D conditions change.
a. Relative size
b. Superposition MEMORY
c. Height in field
d. Linear perspective : the means by which we retain and draw on our past experience, and
use that information in the present.

B. Recognizing Objects Types of memory:

Assigning it to a category. 1. Sensory Memory: the shortest- term element of memory. It is the
ability to retain impressions of sensory information after the original
Pattern Recognition Systems stimulus have ended. It acts as a kind of buffer for stimuli received
through the five senses which are retained accurately, but very
Recognition of parts of objects and in assembling those parts into briefly.
distinctive wholes. 2. Short- term Memory: temporary recall of the information which is
Recognizing larger configurations and not equipped to recognize being processed at any point in time. It holds a small amount of
smaller configurations information in mind in an active, readily- available state for a short
period of time.
Theoretical Approaches to Perception 3. Long-term Memory: storage of information for a long period of
1. Bottom-up processing (data based processing): Incoming data is
always the starting point of perception because if there is no Depth of processing:
incoming data, there is no perception. (data driven)
2. Top-down processing (knowledge based processing): the 1. Shallow Processing: physical and perceptual features are
perceiver builds (constructs) a cognitive understanding of a analyzed
stimulus. Driven by high-level cognitive processes. 2. Intermediate Processing: stimulus is recognized and labeled.
Bottom-up approaches 3. Deep Processing: semantic, meaningful, symbolic characteristics
Direct Perception (James Gibson) are used.
The array of information in our sensory receptors, including Working memory model: holds the most recently activated or conscious
the sensory context, is all we need in perceiving anything. portion of long term memory, and it moves these activated elements into
What we perceive in the environment is picked up directly and out of brief, temporary memory storage.
Why do we forget?
4 elements of working memory:
Decay: gradual disappearance of memory.
1. Central Executive: coordinates attentional activities and governs Interferance: certain information interfere with the recall of other
responses. information.
2. Visuouspatial Sketchpad: briefly holds some visual image. a. Retroactive Interferance: new-old
3. Phonological Loop: briefly holds inner speech for verbal b. Proactive Interferance: old-new
comprehension and for acoustic rehearsal.
Phonological Storage: holds information in memory The Constructive nature of memory:
Subvocal Rehearsal: used to put information in memory
4. Episodic Buffer: integrates information from different parts of We remember what we want to remember
working memory so they make sense to us. Autobiographical Memory: memory of an individuals history.
It is constructive. One does not exactly remembers what exactly
Process of memory: has happened. Rather, one remembers ones construction of what
happened. (false memories)
1. Encoding: transforming sensory information to a mental Flashbulb Memories: memories of events that are so powerful that you
representation. can remember vividly.
Short-term memory: acoustic
Long-term memory: semantic Seven sins of memory:

How is information transferred from short term memory to long term 1. Transcience: decreasing accessibility of memory over time.
memory? 2. Absent- mindedness: lapses of attention that result in forgetting.
3. Blocking: information is present but temporarily accesible.
Consolidation: process of integrating new information into stored 4. Misattribution: memories are attributed to an incorrect source.
information/ memory. 5. Suggestibility: implanted memories about things that never
Rehearsal: repeated action of an item. occured.
Maintenance Rehearsal: low level repetitive kind of information 6. Bias: current knowledge and beliefs distort our memories of the
recycling. past.
a. Simple repetition 7. Persistence: unwanted recollections that we can never forget.
b. Cumulative repetition Explicit/ declarative memory: (knowing what) memory of facts or
Elaborative Rehearsal: more complex; uses and elaborates events, and refers to those memories that can be consciously recalled (or
meanings of information declared). it is sometimes called explicit memory since it consists of
a. Paraphrasing information that is explicitly stored and retrieved, although it is more
b. Selective note taking properly a subset of explicit memory. Declarative memory can be further
c. Questioning sub-divided into episodic memory (memory of experiences and specific
d. Predicting events) and semantic memory (structured record of facts, meanings,
e. Summarizing concepts and knowledge about the external world)
f. Teaching others Implicit/ procedural memory: (knowing how) the unconscious memory
Spacing effect: peoples memory for information depends on how they of skills and how to do things, particularly the use of objects or
acquire it. Their memory tends to be good when they use distribute movements of the body. These memories are typically acquired through
practice. Their memory for information are not as good when information repetition and practice, and are composed of automatic sensorimotor
is acquired through mass practice. behaviors that are so deeply embedded that we are no longer aware of
2. Storage: retain encoded information in memory. them. Its called implicit memory because previous experiences aid in the
a. Categorical clustering performance of a task without explicit and conscious awareness of these
b. Interactive images previous experiences, although it is more properly a subset of implicit
c. Pegword system memory.
3. Retrieval: how one gains access to information stored in memory.
Highly influenced by how the information was encoded. Representation and manipulation of knowledge in memory

Retrieval from short term memory: IMAGERY

Parallel processing: the simultaneous handling of multiple operations. Mental Representation: (MR) a mental construct or entity that stands for
Serial Processing: operations being done one after another. something else.
Exhaustive Serial Processing: the individual goes through all the Mental Imagery: mental representations of physical objects, settings, or
information even though the correct information has been found. events that are no longer present.
Self- terminating serial processing: the individual stops looking Mental representations of things that are currently not being
through all the available information when the correct information has sensed by the sensory organs.
been found. If images are perceptually-based, they should preserve the
structure of perception and represent perceptual information on
Retrieval from long term memory: the objects including:
a. Location
Availability: presence of information stored in the long-term memory. b. Color
Accessibility: the degree to which we can gain access to the available c. Shape
information. d. Orientation
e. Size
Factors that can affect the retrieval process: Images do not seem to act like 2-dimensional (flat) representations.
Mental images can be moved and rotated.
Context Effect People can look at the back of the image.
1. Sequential Context: sequence of information affects the ease of The object can be observed from different vantage points.
retrieval. People can put themselves inside their images.
2. Physical Context: retrieval and learning context is similar. Functional Equivalence Hypothesis: although visual imagery is not
3. State Dependency: events experienced in one state of identical to visual perception, it is functionally equivalent to it.
consciousness are not easily remembered in a different state. Manipulation of Images: mental rotation, image scanning, zooming
4. Emotional Context: memories that are emotional are easier to Mental Rotation: Involves rotationally transforming an objects visual
retrieve. Congruence of current emotional state and memory is important. mental image.
Primary Effect: remember items that are in front
Recency Effect: remember items that are recent Experimental Evidence suggests that:
The mental process of rotation is analogous to physical rotation of a. Gap- filling: scripts allow us to infer and fill-in gaps in our
the object. memories of events (but distorts technical accuracy of the
The images goes through a series of mental transformations memory).
congruent to the physical operations a person might perform on the b. Memory for atypical events: when we experience a script
actual object. violation or a atypical event, we represent the event with a tag or a
To rotate objects at larger angles of rotation, there is a marker to distinguish it from the script.
corresponding increase in response time. Schema plus tag: (Art Graesser) most tags are emotional in nature. We
Visual Scanning: images can be scanned in much the same way as a remember singular events and have distinct episodic memories because
physical percept can be scanned. of these tags.
c. Flashbulb Memories: when highly emotional or traumatic events
Experimental Evidence suggests that: occur, even the most ordinary script-like circumstances surrounding that
event are frozen in memory and get remembered along with the main
Relative distances in the physical stimuli are replicated in the event.
image- as measured by the time to mentally scan from one point 3. They guide and direct behavior (performative structures)
into another. Cultural Scripts: scripts that we have to learn
Image scaling/ zooming: we represent and use mental images in ways They become so implicit and automatic that we hardly reflect upon
that are functionally equivalent to our representations of percepts. them until we get exposed in to other cultures or when the scripts
get violated.
Experimental Evidence suggests that: Learned through: socialization
If culture may be loosely defined as the usual way we do things,
Just like with actual physical screens, the resolution quality of our then being a member of a culture means learning (e.g. having
mental screen affects how we inspect and use our images. mental representations) of the usual way things are done.
People need more time to focus on properties of smaller and
therefore, blurrier images. Become frozen in the form of:

Uses of Imagery: a. Customs

b. Traditions
a. Aid to memory c. Norms
b. Solve problems d. Rituals
c. Learn new skills

SCRIPTS Propositions:
express basic units of meaning without having to preserve the
The general mental structures that represent our knowledge of actual form or wording in which the information was first seen,
everyday, ordinary, stereotyped events and situations. heard, read or experienced.
A strucutre that describes appropriate sequences of events in a Meaning underlying a particular relationship among concepts.
particular context. A script is made up of slots. The structure is an Are said to encode or carry the most basic unit of meaning.
interconnected whole, and what is in one slot affects what can be in Represent the meaning of the information, stimulus or event (or the
another. Scripts handle stylized everyday situations. They are not basic idea)
subject to change, nor they provide apparatus for handling totally Propositional Theory: we do not store mental representations in the
novel situations. form of images, rather it more closely resembles the abstract of a
People know more than just the meaning of words and concepts proposition.
(captured by their propositional representations) Kintschs Notation
a. Schema for an event
b. We have this for most of our common activities Two parts of the proposition:
c. Procedural memory
Script Theory: 1. the argument: nouns or values of a variable.
People construct in their memories a generalized representation of 2. The relation: verbs, adjectives and other relational terms that link the
events they have repeatedly experienced. arguments.
The proposition asserts a relation between two arguments.
The meaning of events: Example 1: The hippie touched the debutante at the park.

Resides in various parts of the event; the sequence in which these Represented as follows:
parts happen; and what the event is for (e.g. its goals)
(relations, arguments)
What for? (touched, hippie, debutante, park, past)
Hippie is the agent
The script enables the person to have a set of expectations about Debutante is the recipient
what will happen when the same kind of event happens. Park is the location
Past is the time
Scripts explain several behavioral phenomenas: The debutante was touched by the hippie in the park.
In the park, the debutante was touched by the hippie.
1. They aid in the comprehension of events: without an MR of an The hippie, who was in the park, touched the debutante.
event, its every recurrence is like a new experience. Propositional representation accurately reflects the meaning of a
Instead, the script of the event is invoked or retrieved every time a sentence.
new experience matches with the script; allowing us to make sense The representation is unaffected by the superficial aspects of the
of it. sentence.
When we fail to comprehend an event, it results to confusion, The propositional system does not have to store everything.
bewilderment, even anxiety (usually experienced the first time we Such redundant representations are avoided in a meaning-based
witness or participate in an event) but may have more serious representational format.
adaptive consequences- medical procedures, educational Constraints: there are limits to how much and how fast we can process
implications, etc information.
Transcripts are best learned through repeated experiences with an the human cognitive system is subject to information-processing
event. constraints.
2. They account for many kinds of memory phenomena therefore, the system must operate in a manner that is most
economical and efficient.
Cognitive Economy: cognitive psychologists believe that our mental 5.) Maximum degree of sound reasoning, based on considering
representational systems must therefore encode and store concepts or all the aforementioned factors!
ideas in ways that fulfill the cognitive economy principle. Bounded rationality: we are rational, but within limits (Simon, 1957)
How are propositions related? Satisficing: we consider options one by one, and then we select an
We do not process or understand only simple ideas and concepts option as soon as we find one that is satisfactory or just good enough for
or single propositional statements. Our knowledge consists of the minimum level of acceptability.
complex chunks of information and elaborated concepts. Therefore, Elimination by aspects: we eliminate alternatives by focusing on
propositions themselves must be interrelated. aspects of each alternative meeting a minimum one at a time.
a hippie is a cool dude. Heuristics are mental shortcuts people rely on. They require less mental
A debutante is a young female. energy, and decision making can be done quickly.
Semantic Network: Collins and Quillian proposed that our propositional
knowledge of the word is best represented by a semantic network of Why use Heuristics?
Where each concept is represented as a node 1.) For cognitive: heuristics provide rapid ways of estimating
And nodes are linked by pathways data thats helpful to quick decision making.
And the pathways form a hierarchy 2.) No algorithms exist for most of the important matters that
Features of the semantic network: people make decisions about.
1. it can represent both conceptual and episodic knowledge. 3.) We usually need a lot of information to apply an
2. Because it is meaning based, it represents gist, not verbatim forms. algorithm yet most human decision making is done under
3. The size of the network depends on how many connections we have conditions of uncertainty!
made among different concepts. It represents the extent of our
knowledge in a particular domain. Common Heuristics
4. Cognitive economy is accomplished via hierarchical organization.
At the lowest level of the hierarchy is information directly Representativeness: we judge the probability of an uncertain event
perceived or experienced according to (1) how obviously it is similar to the population from which it
At the highest level is abstract or highly conceptual is derived, and (2) the degree to which it reflects salient features of the
information. process by which it is generated.
Spreading activation: the major process that operates on semantic Availability Heuristics: we make judgements on the basis of how easily
structure. we can call to mind what we perceive as relevant instances of a
It is the mental activity of accessing and retrieving propositionally phenomenon. What can easily be recalled!
represented semantic information or meaning from the network.
Nodes in the network are in a quiet resting state but get activated 1. Salience/Vividness
when stimulated then spreads rapidly across connected nodes. 2. Recency
What semantic networks cant account for: 3. Imaginability
a. Strength of association Anchoring-and-adjustment heuristic: people adjust their evaluations of
b. Other kinds of knowledge (e.g. imagery, procedural tacit, etc..) things by means of certain points called end-anchors.
The use of imagined and verbal codes for representations: Framing effects: the way that the options are presented influences the
Dual-code theory: the use of both words and images in mental selection of an option.
representations. Framing refers to how the costs and benefits, outcomes and
Analogue codes: preserving the main perceptual features of whatever is contingencies of a particular choice are presented.
being represented for the physical stimuli we observe in our
environment-image. Biases
Symbolic code: words that are chosen arbitrarily to stand for something
and that does not perceptually resemble whatever is being represented. Illusory correlation: we are predisposed to see particular
events or attributes and categories as going together even
Overconfidence: an individuals overvaluation of her or his
:are used to select from among choices or to evaluate opportunities own skills, knowledge or judgement.
Hindsight bias: when we look at a situation retrospectively,
Classical Decision Theory we believe we easily can see all the events leading up to a
particular outcome.
Economic Man and Woman Groupthink: a phenomena characterized by premature decision making
o Decision makers are fully informed regarding all that is generally the result of group members attempting to avoid conflict
possible options for their decisions and possible (Janis, 1971)
o They are infinitely sensitive to the subtle distinctions Conditions that lead to Groupthink
among decision options.
o They are fully rational in regard to their choice of 1.) An isolated, cohesive, and homogenous group is
options. empowered to make decisions.
Subjective Expected Utility Theory 2.) Objective and impartial leadership is absent.
- We seek to maximize pleasure (Positive Utility) and minimize 3.) High-levels of stress impinge on the group decision-making
pain (Negative Utility). process.
o Subjective utility (Value or Weight)
o Subjective probability (Individuals estimates of 6 Symptoms of Groupthink
1.) Closed-mindedness
Decision = SP(PU) SP(NU)
2.) Rationalization
3.) Squelching of dissent
Well-reasoned based decisions
4.) Formation of a mindguard
1.) Consideration of all possible known alternatives, given that 5.) Feeling invulnerable
unpredictable alternatives may be available. 6.) Feeling unanimous
2.) Use of maximum amount of available information, given that Decision Traps: a person decides to embark on a promising or positive
some amount of information may not be available. course of action which later on turns out to have undesirable or harmful
3.) Careful, if subjective, weighing of potential costs (risks) and consequences but difficult to escape from.
benefits of each alternative. Time Delay Trap: when the immediate consequences of a decision are
4.) Careful (although subjective) calculation of the probability of positive; but with the passage of time, outcomes becomes negative.
various outcomes, given that some outcomes cannot be Time-delay trap is potentially present every time we decide in favor
known. of more gratification without weighing long-term consequences.
Ignorance Trap: when decisions are made without full knowledge or Domain-specificity: The problem space differs depending on the
understanding; a person is not aware or forewarned of negative domain of the problem and the operators involved.
Investment Trap: when prior expenditures of time, effort, money and The Problem Solving Cycle
other resources trap people in an originally good decision whose
outcomes have turned out to be pretty bad. (1) Problem Identification: There must be discrepancy
between my goal state from my real initial state.
The Collective Trap: when individual persons make a decision favorable (2) Problem Definition & Representation: What is the
for themselves. But when all decisions are added up, outcomes turn out problem?
to be bad for everyone. This is very crucial because one needs to know what the
Prisoners delema (E/N: dilemma?) discrepancy is between the goal and initial state.

Escaping from Traps Two Types of Problems

1.) Bring phase out costs forwards. (1) Well-defined problems: where the goal state is clear and
2.) Set limits in advance. the operators needed to solve the problem, no matter how
3.) Be present-oriented. complex, are evident.
4.) Ask different people to make initial and subsequent (2) Ill-defined problems: where the goal state itself cannot be
decisions. clearly specified (part of the problem is knowing when the
problem itself is solved!) OR the problem space is unspecified
PROBLEM SOLVING and the operators needed to move from initial state to goal
state are not immediately evident.
:is a HOTS (higher-order thinking skill) supported by: Inaccurate definition and representation of a problem leads to
(1) general/basic cognitive processes such as learning, memory, inability to solve the problem.
reasoning, decision-making and planning; plus (3) Constructing a strategy: The planning a strategy for
(2) specific knowledge or experiences in the problem-solving solving it
domain (domain knowledge). (4) Organizing information: What information do I have?
- Without (1), a person can have all the facts and concepts at Sometimes people fail to solve a problem because they do not
his or her fingertips, but not know where to start, how to realize what information they have or how it fits together.
proceed, or what to do with the knowledge at hand. Organizing information strategically, finding the best that
- On the other hand, without (2), a person may know how to enables you to implement a strategy.
go about solving problems in general but lack sufficient (5) Resource Allocation: What are our resources and
information or knowledge about the topic or the domain in limitation?
which the problem arises. Time, money, equipment and space!
Spatial Metaphors: permeate much of ordinary peoples common sense (6) Monitoring: Checking along the way if we get closer to the
understanding of problem-solving. goal.
(7) Evaluate: Evaluate solutions when one is finished.
People usually think that problem-solving has a GOAL, and Through evaluations, new problems might recognize, redefined,
they think of this GOAL as a metaphorical location in space and new strategies (more efficient/effective/ economical) may
that they want to reach. come to light!
The problem SOLUTION is metaphorically conceived as the
PATH that leads to the GOAL. Two Types of Strategies

Im trying to find a way to reach my goal. There were many obstacles on (1) Strong Strategies: when the exact procedure for arriving at
our path. Cant we find a shortcut solution? Lets approach the problem a solution is specified; these methods guarantee the correct
from another angle. We have to get around these roadblocks. I was answer or solution if applied correctly (What do we call these?)
forced to backtrack. We got lost along the way. Look before you leap. We Algorithms: a process or set of rules to be followed in calculation or
reached a dead end. other problem-solving operations.

Search: Cognitive psychologists have therefore found it useful to exploit Classic Decision Theory
these commonsense metaphors by conceptualizing the PROCESS of
PROBLEM-SOLVING as a search through a prolem-space (Newell & (1) Decision makers are fully aware of the options and
Simon, 1972). outcomes of their decisions.
(2) They are infinitely sensitive to the subtle distinction among
Four Elements of the Problem-Space Formulation decision options.
(3) Fully rational in regards to their choice of options.
(1) Initial State: where the problem-solving process begins.
(2) Goal State: the problem-solver wants to achieve. Company A or Company B?
(3) Operations or Actions: needed to change the initial state Cost calculations of potential benefits and costs and then picking a job
into the goal state. with the highest expected value.
(4) Path Constraints: impose additional conditions for a
successful solution. Subjective Expected Utility Theory: In making decisions we seek to
Problem solving: a goal to accomplish, with an initial state and goal maximize pleasure (positive utility) and minimize pain (negative utility).
state, with obstacles to overcome which are not obvious how to get
around. Subjective utility (value or weight)
Problem Space: the set of all cognitive states that can potentially be Subjective probability (individuals estimates of likelihood).
reached by applying the available operators. Decision = SP(PU) SP(NU)

The MAZE of mental activities through which our mind Well-reasoned based decisions
wanders in search of a solution.
In other words, the problem space itself consists of all the 1.) Consideration of all possible known alternatives, given that
mental representations generated by the person working unpredictable alternatives may be available.
on a problem solution. 2.) Use of maximum amount of available information, given that
Operations or Actions: procedures for arriving at a problem solution. some amount of information may not be available.
3.) Careful, if subjective, weighing of potential costs (risks) and
The correct solution is the sequence of operators or actions benefits of each alternative.
that transforms the initial state into the goal state in
accordance with the path constraints
4.) Careful (although subjective) calculation of the probability of some of these errors can have fatal consequences (e.g., pilot
various outcomes, given that some outcomes cannot be error)
known. 4.)
5.) Maximum degree of sound reasoning, based on considering A note on incubation
all the aforementioned factors!
(2) Weak Strategies: when a smaller number of alternatives 1.) Unimportant details are not in active memory therefore
are selected (instead of considering all possible operators) that easier to reconstruct, redefine, re-evaluate the problem and the
can most likely lead to a solution (Heuristic Search) solution.
a. Generate and test: least focused method. 2.) As time passes, recent memories are integrated to existing
- systematically selecting one out of several memories.
possible operators, testing it, and re- evaluating 3.) As time passes, new stimuli may activate new perspectives
the situation after each move. on the problem.
- efficient to use when the problem space is 4.) When relaxed, we may toy with cues that may be perceived
smaller and choice of operators is limited. as irrelevant or distracting when in a high state of cortical
b. Working forward: applying operators to current arousal.
state until a new state is generated that moves
one nearer to the goal state. Why fail to solve problems?
c. Working backward: beginning from goal state;
efficient to use when there is only one way to 1.) failure to represent the problem space correctly and thoroughly
reach the goal state and one retraces the steps
backwards. a. Initial state is not specified correctly (e.g., the givens)
d. Means-ends analysis: combination of working b. Goal state is not specified correctly (e.g., whats asked
forwards and working backwards. for)
- solver detects differences between current state c. The rules that govern the operators are not
and goal state and works to reduce these represented correctly; legal moves are not known
differences. (e.g., using the wrong formula; substituting the wrong
- may be necessary to decompose the problem values into the equation)
into subgoals so that movement towards goal 2.) functional fixedness: the tendency to see and use objects or
state can take place in increments. concepts in their customary and usual way.
3.) negative set: a mindset where a way of solving problems that has
Kohlers Insight at Problem Solving succeeded in the past is used over and over again even when a simpler
solution is possible
Kohler stated that problem solving does not necessarily 4.) not having enough domain knowledge: knowledge of the facts,
involve trial and error or S-R connections. concepts, principles, or procedures involved
Insight learning is a form of problem solving in which an 5.) negative transfer: when solving another problem makes it harder to
organism develops a sudden insight or understanding of a solver a later one
problems solution. 6.) not having enough sleep

Four Characteristics of Insight

1.) Suddenness
2.) Solution precedes behavior
3.) Smoothness
(once solution is arrived at, executed fluently and
4.) Novel
(not just the application of existing habits, but a whole new way
of looking at the problem)

Gestalt-influenced models (e.g., Wallas)

a. Preparation: formulating the problem and focusing

intensely on it
b. Incubation: setting the problem aside when no initial
solutions can be found
c. Illumination: achieving some important insight into the
d. Verification: checking to make sure that the solution
actually solves the problem

Planning:The importance of planning in problem-solving varies with the

extent to which error recovery is possible.

To the extent that errors may be irreversible or reversible

only with great difficulty, planning becomes extremely crucial.

Types of Errors

1.) Ignorable errors: wrong solution attempts that can simply

be set aside and another attempt made
they have no serious consequences
2.) Recoverable errors: wrong solutions attempts that require
explicit undoing to return to the state prior to the error
undoing the error varies in the degree of effort, time,
resources, or inconvenience involved
3.) Irrecoverable errors: wrong solution attempts that cannot
be undone, or can only be undone with the greatest of difficulty