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Convert the following statement to clause form:

x[B(x) ( y [ Q(x,y) P(y) ]

y [ Q(x,y) Q(y,x) ]

y [ B(y) E(x,y)] ) ]

E1 E2 = E1 E2

x[ B(x) ( y [ Q(x,y) P(y) ]

y [ Q(x,y) Q(y,x) ]

y [ ( B(y)) E(x,y)] ) ]

2- Move the negation down to the atomic formulas (by using the following rules)

(PQ) P Q

(PQ) P Q

((P)) P

x ( P (x) ) x ( P (x) )

x ( P (x) ) x ( P (x) )

y [ Q(x,y) Q(y,x) ]

y [ B(y) E(x,y)] ) ]

Babylon University / College of Science / Computer Dept. / Third Class / AI lectures

The function that is eliminate the existential are called Skolem function

x[ B(x) ( [ Q(x , f (x)) P(f (x)) ]

y [ Q(x,y) Q(y,x) ]

y [ B(y) E(x,y)] ) ]

x[ B(x) ( [ Q(x , f (x)) P(f (x)) ]

y [ Q(x,y) Q(y,x) ]

z [ B(z) E(x,z)] ) ]

x y z [ B(x) ( [ Q(x , f (x)) P(f (x)) ]

[ Q(x,y) Q(y,x) ]

[ B(z) E(x,z)] ) ]

E1 (E2 E3 E4 ) (E1 E2) (E1E3) .

E1 (E2 E3 E4) (E1 E2) (E1E3) .

[ B(x) Q(x,y) Q(y,x) ]

[ B(x) B(z) E(x,z)] ]

( B(x) P(f (x) ) )

( B(x) Q(x,y) Q(y,x) )

( B(x) B(z) E(x,z) ) ]

Babylon University / College of Science / Computer Dept. / Third Class / AI lectures

x [ B(x) ( Q(x , f (x) ]

x [ B(x) P(f (x) ) ]

x y [ B(x) Q(x,y) Q(y,x) ]

x z [ B(x) B(z) E(x,z) ]

8- Rename all the variables, as necessary, so that no two variables are the same.

x [ B(x) ( Q(x , f (x) ]

w [ B(w) P(f (w) ) ]

u y [ B(u) Q(u,y) Q(y,u) ]

a z [ B(a) B(z) E(a,z) ]

B(x) ( Q(x , f (x)

B(w) P(f (w) )

B(u) Q(u,y) Q(y,u)

B(a) B(z) E(a,z) )

Babylon University / College of Science / Computer Dept. / Third Class / AI lectures

Resolution is a technique for proving theorems in the propositional or predicate

calculus that has been a part of AI problem-solving.

Resolution describes a way of finding contradictions in a database of clauses

with minimum use of substitution. Resolution refutation proves a theorem by negating

the statement to be proved and adding this negated goal to the set of axioms that are

known (have been assumed) to be true. It then uses the resolution rule of inference to

show that this leads to a contradiction. Once the theorem prover shows that the

negated goal is inconsistent with the given set of axioms, it follows that the original

goal must be consistent. This proves the theorem. .

Resolution refutation proofs involve the following steps:

1. Put the premises or axioms into clause form .

2. Add the negation of what is to be proved, in clause form, to the set of axioms.

3. Resolve these clauses together, producing new clauses that logically follow from

them.

4. Produce a contradiction by generating the empty clause.

5. The substitutions used to produce the empty clause are those under which the

opposite of the negated goal is true.

The following example illustrates the use of resolution theorem for reasoning with

propositional logic.

Babylon University / College of Science / Computer Dept. / Third Class / AI lectures

Unification of Predicates

Two predicates P (t1,t2,, tn) and Q (s1, s2,, sn) can be unified if terms ti can

be replaced by si or vice-versa. Loves (mary, Y) and Loves (X, Father-of (X)) , for

instance, can be unified by the substitution S ={ mary / X , Father-of ( mary) / Y }.

Conditions of Unification:

1- Both the predicates to be unified should have an equal number of terms.

2- Neither ti nor si can be a negation operator, or predicate or functions of different

variables, or if ti = term belonging to si or if si = term belonging to ti then

unification is not possible.

1. The-humidity-is-high v the-sky-is-cloudy.

2. If the-sky-is-cloudy then it-will-rain

3. If the-humidity-is-high then it-is-hot.

4. it-is-not-hot

and the goal : it-will-rain. Prove by resolution theorem that the goal is derivable from

the knowledge base.

Proof: Let us first denote the above clauses by the following symbols.

p = the-humidity-is-high, q = the-sky-is-cloudy, r = it-will-rain, s = it-is-hot. The

Conjuctive Normal Form (CNF) from the above clauses thus become :

1. p v q

2. q v r

3. p v s

4. s

Babylon University / College of Science / Computer Dept. / Third Class / AI lectures

and the negated goal = r. Set S thus includes all these 5 clauses. Now by resolution

algorithm, we construct the solution by a tree. Since it terminates with a null clause,

the goal is proved.

Babylon University / College of Science / Computer Dept. / Third Class / AI lectures

Example 2:

"All people who are not poor and are smart are hippy. Those people who' read are not

stupid. John can read are is wealthy. Happy people have exciting lives. Can anyone be

found with an exciting life?"

Sol.:

a) First change the sentences to predicate form:

b) These predicate calculus expressions for the happy life problem are

transformed into the following clauses:

Babylon University / College of Science / Computer Dept. / Third Class / AI lectures

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