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Material and Momentum Transport in

Axisymmetric Turbulent Jets of Water

General Electric Research Laboratory, Schenectady

The spread of momentum and heat in-air issuing into a moving stream of be the case. Measurements of turbulent
in turbulent axisymmetric jets of in- air. heat transport rates in this medium
compressible fluids has been examined The evidence, then, is that material would be of value here, but none ap-
by numerous investigators since Toll- and heat are transported in turbulent pear to be reported in the literature.
mien, using Prandtl's mixing length air jets at about the same rate, a rate For several reasons, there is justifica-
theory, first approximated the solution which is appreciably greater than that tion for adding the present measure-
to the transport problem in 1926. The for momentum. It is generally accepted ments to the literature. Much of the
reasons for the interest in this flow sys- that the explanation for this difference available data are taken from heated
tem are at least twofold: the jet is a lies in the detailed structure of the tur- air jets, jets which are not entirely free
technologically important flow, appear- bulence which until only relatively re- from buoyancy effects, particularly
ing in many large-scale chemical and cently was unknown. For a detailed where temperature differences are
physical operations, and the jet is a discussion of the precise role played by large (as they must be in order to make
relatively simple shear flow regime for the turbulence in transport processes, the measurements.) This problem is
which, ostensibly at least, dynamic see the paper by Corrsin and Kistler easily avoided by using liquid jets with
similarity is achieved for the various (7) or the book by Townsend (8). concomitant material transport. There
transport processes, that is, of heat, Although different results are not ex- is the advantage of the rate of molecu-
material, and momentum. It is the lat- pected, still there have been few lar material transport in liquids. This
ter point with which most of the work measurements reported for turbulent is slower by orders of magnitude than
has been concerned. material and momentum transport rates molecular heat and material transport
Much of the experimental work re- in liquids. The chief paper here is in gases. There is, therefore, greater
ported in the literature concerns jets of probably that of Forstall and Gaylord assurance that only the turbulent trans-
air and the relative rates at which mo- ( 9 ) who used a jet of fresh water is- port phenomena are being measured.
mentum and heat spread out down- suing into a 1% solution of sodium In general, the object of the present
stream of the orifice. Less has been chloride. The general behavior of this effort has been to examine the relative
done with material transport, primarily jet was the same as that observed for rates at which momentum and material
because local concentration measure- jets of air, that is, the jet spread linearly are transported in a turbulently flow-
ments are always difficult to make. with distance downstream, etc., but ing jet of water when, ostensibly at
Corrsin and Uberoi (1) measured mo- they obtained turbulent Schmidt num- least, the conditions are such that com-
mentum and heat transport rates in bers ranging between 0.75 and 0.85. plete analogy exists; to determine
turbulent jets of air and found the tur- Their best value appears to be about whether or not the reasonable assump-
bulent Prandtl number (the ratio of 0.8, a value significantly larger than tion that the relative rates are inde-
turbulent momentum transport to tur- the 0.71 to 0.74 obtained for gas jets. pendent of the fluid is a valid one, and
bulent heat transport) to be 0.74, the Forstall and Gaylord offer no comment to test an instrument which is designed
same as the Prandtl number for trans- on this other than that it may be due to to provide detailed information on the
port by molecular motion. Hinze and some experimental error. Owing to the structure of the turbulently fluctuating
van der Hegge Zijnen ( 2 ) ,Ruden ( 3 ) , difficulty of making local concentration concentration field in the jet.
and Reichardt ( 4 ) report similar meas- measurements, this may very probably In this report only the structure of
urements on jets of air, and these agree the mean flow and the mean concen-
well with a turbulent Prandtl number tration field is considered. A later
of 0.74. Hinze and van der Hegge paper will consider the structure of the
Zijnen also measured the rate of spread randomly fluctuating concentration
of material (1% city gas in air) in field.
their system and found that it spreads
at the same rate as heat. They obtained
a turbulent Schmidt number (the ratio Jet System
of turbulent momentum transport to A schematic of the % in. submerged
turbulent material transport) of 0.74. jet is shown in Figure 1. The jet itself
Keagy and Weller ( 5 ) obtained a was a dilute solution of sodium chlo-
value of 0.72 for a nitrogen jet issuing ride driven by gravity from a large
into still air and Forstall and Shapiro head tank into a quiescent larger vol-
(6) a value of 0.71 for a jet of helium- Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of the jet system. ume of only slightly less salt concen-

Page 386 A.1.Ch.E. Journal May, 1963

tration, the latter being contained in a the jet but here the measurements are
receiving basin 4 ft. long x 2 ft. wide inaccurate anyhow) and are disre-
x 2 ft. deep. A constant level was garded.
maintained in this basin by an over- The potential velocity core of the
flow system (not shown). The jet is- jet is seen to disappear at about 3.5
sued horizontally through a 1/16-in. diam downstream and even earlier, at
thick sharp-edged orifice located about about 2 diam., the uniform concentra-
1 ft. below the surface. Because of the Fig. 2. Schematic diagr0.m of the electronic tion core disappears. This early disap-
large volume of ambient fluid, and be- circuitry. pearance of the uniform concentration
cause of the small difference in salinity core is not owing to molecular diffu-
between the jet and the ambient fluid, also read directly with a vacuum tube sion, but is in fact owing to intermit-
the salinity of the ambient fluid rose voltmeter or was displayed on an oscil- tent turbulence in the potential veloc-
but slightly in the course of a measure- loscope for visual inspection. ity core. While the intermittancy is not
ment. For these measurements, the ve- A conductivity cell was used identi- sensed by the total head tube, its pres-
locity of efflux from the orifice was 1.2 cal to that used in reference 12, ex- ence can readily be detected by suita-
ft./sec., giving a Reynolds number, cept that in this work the receiving ble measuring devices. It can be de-
based on the diameter of the orifice, of basin serves as the distant electrode. tected, for example, with the conduc-
about 30,000. Mean velocity and con- The series capacitance of the cell was tivity cell used in this work.
centration profiles near the orifice were measured in situ and was found to be As expected, the concentration of
measured and found to be rectangular less than 1 p p F . Impedance losses salt along the axis of the jet falls more
within the accuracy of the measure- were therefore negligible for frequen- rapidly than does velocity and SO is
ments. cies well beyond those encountered in indicative of the higher transport rates
this work. for material. This is confirmed in Fig-
Measuring Equipment
ure 4 where the spread of material and
Mean velocities were determined RESULTS momentum are shown in terms of the
from measurements made of the total Except for the axial traverses, the half radii of the jet. The half radius,
head using a 24-gauge hypodermic measurements are largely confined to n, is by definition the point in the jet
tube. Measurements were made at in- the region beyond x/d = 10. In this where the concentration is equal to
tervals of 1/32 and 1/16 in. (depend- region the flow is fully developed, at one-half the value on the axis in the
ing on the distance from the orifice) at least insofar as mean values are con- same plane: r2 is the equivalent point
various stations in the jet. cerned, and so radial profiles of mean for the momentum, and ro is the radius
Concentration measurements were velocity and mean concentration when of the orifice. Beyond about 6 to 8
made using a conductivity cell and a suitably normalized are affine. The flow diam. the rate of spread for both is
sensitive detector circuit shown sche- is not, however, hlly developed in the seen to be linear. Corrsin and Uberois
matically in Figure 2. detailed structure of the turbulence data (1) for a turbulent jet of air
Signal detection, in principle at but, since the present work is con- 15C. above ambient are shown for
least, is the same as that first used by cerned only with mean values, this comparison. The Reynolds numbers of
Prausnitz (10) and later by Cairns need be of no great concern here. their jets were 30,000 to 50,000, or
(11) and Manning (12). This detec- Axial distributions of the mean val- about the same as for the present jet.
tor is, however, linear over a wider ues for total head, velocity, and salt The rate of spread of momentum is
range of concentrations, and its fre- concentrations are presented in Figure seen to be very nearly the same for the
quency range is from d.c. to about 5 3 as functions of the distance down- two systems.
kcycles/sec. The precise details and stream of the orifice. The ordinate and Radial profiles for total head and
characteristics of this circuit will be abscissa values are normalized using jet salt concentration were obtained for
presented at a later date. The measure- entrance conditions. Velocities are various distances downstream of the
ments were taken continuously by tra- computed from the mean total head orifice. Except for the region nearest
versing slowly (as slowly as 0.5 in./ measurements according to the rela- the orifice, that is to say, for x / d < 10,
min.) across the jet. tionship - - the mean flow of momentum and
The output from the detector qmax/;Fo = U%ax/U%J (1) material essentially achieved the fully
(- fluctuating concentration) was fed
to an impedance matching amplifier, This equation is not quite accurate for developed stage described earlier. The
and the mean value of this signal re- turbulent flows, but the corrections are measurements will be presented in a
corded. The output of the detector was normally small (except at the edge of later section of this paper.


I -m

Fig. 3. Axial distribution of total head, velocity, and concen-

tration. Fig. 4. Half widths of mean velocity and concentration profiles.

Vol. 9, No. 3 A.1.Ch.E. Journal Page 387

- - jrn 0017 I It01

Oo 002 a04 a006 om aio aiz 014 016 018 020 I,. r/(XtO)

(2: 'J{t+O)

Fig. 5. Radial distribution of mean velocity. Fig. 7. Radial variation of the eddy viscosity coefficient.

PHENOMENOLOGICAL air jets a small amount ( 1 % ) of town pends somewhat on the entrance con-
CONSIDERATIONS gas and the rate of spread of heat by ditions and on the state of motion in
Axial Distributions elevating the temperature of the jet the secondary fluid surrounding the
For the case of a jet- of fluid issuing relative to the ambient fluid. They ob- jet (that is, inordinately large motion
tained a value of 0.192 for the constant due to the proximity of walls can in-
with uniform velocity, Uo, into a me- in Equation ( 3 ) in both cases. Forstall crease the rate of spread). Since the
dium of zero velocity, it can be shown and Gaylord (9) found the constant axisymmetric jet has not been exam-
from momentum-conservation argu- to be 0.202 for sodium chloride in ined in the self-preserving region in
ments and similarity assumptions that water, and from Corrsin and Uberoi's any of the work cited here, this may
in the region where the flow is fully measurements ( 1 ) a value of 0.198 for be particularly important.
developed, the spread of the jet is heat in a jet of air 15C. above ambi- The predicted hyperbolic decrease
linear with distance from the orifice ent is obtained. The agreement be- in axial velocity and axial concentra-
(x + a ) and that its axial velocity tween various investigators is seen to tion with increasing distance down-
decreases hyperbolically in the same be not nearly as good as in the case of stream is shown in Figure 3. Alge-
direction ( 1 3 ) .Figure 4 shows that the the velocity measurements. This result braically this decrease is given by
linear spread is obtained in the present may reflect the sensitivity of the differ- Equations (4)and ( 5 ) respectively:
work not only for the momentum but ent measuring instruments. Hinze ob- -
also for the concentration. The spread tained his measurements by withdraw- UmaXn/,= 6.1 (4)
of the former is given in terms of the ing samples and probing with a ther-
half-velocity radius, rz, by mocouple, while Corrsin used a hot- C,dCo = 5.0 t 1 - I (5)
r d r o = 0.163 (x 4-a ) / d (2) wire anemometer as a resistance ther- for the region beyond x/d = 10. By
mometer. Forstall used a conductivity definition
The concentration, given by cell, PartiaIIy at least it may also be ti = (x + a ) / d
r d r o = 0.208 (x +a)/d
attributable to the strong diffusive na-
ture of the systems studied (excepting The concentration data are in very
is seen to spread more rapidly than the of course the liquid jet). This kind of good agreement with that of Weddell
momentum. Within the accuracy of the error in measuring turbulent transport as reported by Hottel ( 1 6 ) . Since the
measurements both curves extrapolate rates was pointed out earlier in the spread of the jet radially and the hy-
to the same apparent origin at x = a paper. Because the transport of con- perbolic decrease along the axis are not
= 1.15d. For a jet of air at 15"C., Corr- taminant is sensitive to the detailed independent behavior, this need not
sin and Uberoi's data (1) give a value structure of the turbulence, and be- be dwelt upon.
of 0.166 for the constant in Equation cause this structure is not likely to be
Radial Distributions
( 2 ) . Hinze and van der Hegge Zijnen the same in every system in the region
(2) obtained the same value for their studied, (compare the mesurements of In general, none of the various phe-
air jets, while for the submerged jet of Rosensweig, et al. ( 1 4 ) with those of nomenological theories of turbulent
water Forstall and Gaylord ( 9 ) ob- Corrsin and Uberoi (15 ), preliminary transport adequately
- fit experimentally
tained the larger value of 0.182 which intensity measurements for the present determined C - and --distributions
appears to be in error. system check more nearly those of ref- over the whole jet. Some fit well near
Hinze and van der Hegge Zijnen erence (15) the spread is greater where the axis while others fit better near
(2) also measured the rate of spread the turbulence is the more intense. the edges, and where one fits for mo-
of material by introducing into their The character of this turbulence de- mentum transport another fits better



'b OLZ 014 Ob6 O L 010 0!2

(2: '/lx+a)
014 0!6 018 OiO Oh2

Fig. 6. Radial distribution of mean concentration.

Page 388 A.1.Ch.E. Journal May, 1963

) Turbulent Schmidt Number
TAKEN FROM THE LITERATURE The ratio is the turbulent
Schmidt number which for the present
Fluid Tracer ( Nsc ) turb or ( N P ~turb
) Ref. system, with the half-radii data is equal
to 0.67. This value is somewhat lower
Air Temp. 0.74 2 than obtained by others as may be
Air Town gas 0.74 2
seen from Table 1.
(mostly methane)
Air Temp. 0.72 3 However, when the eddy difhsivities
Air Nitrogen 0.72 5 are calculated from the radial data, it
Air Temp. 0.71-0.73 1 is seen that no single value for either
Water NaCl 0.80 ( a vvz ), 9 of these quantities can be made to fit
Air Temp. 0.77 17 the whole distribution. Neither is con-
Air Helium 0.70 18 stant across the jet. These results are
Water NaCl 0.67 Present Work shown in Figures 7 and 8, respectively.
A value for ( N s c )turb > 0.67 will give
a better fit to the data in Figures 5
and 6 in the core of the jet and so will
for material or heat transport. The calculated in a similar manner from the be more in agreement with the data in
problem is known to lie in the assump- half-velocity radii data. Table 1. There will be a corresponding
tion of a gradient type of diffusion From Equations ( 6 ) and ( 8 ) , the deterioration in the fit at the edges
mechanism as the sole mechanism of radial distribution for the mean veloc- however.
transport across the jet. (A corollary of ities and the mean concentrations re-
this is that the flow is completely tur- spectively were calculated. The results CONCLUStONS
bulent but of varying intensity across are presented in Figures 5 and 6. It is
the entire width of the jet.) In reality, seen there that _such _ an operation The results of this work are in good
- -
continuously turbulent flow exists at all leads to values of U/Umax and C/Crnax agreement with those of others: mate-
times only in the core of the jet (7, 8), which, in general, are less than those rial diffuses turbulently neither more
a region which extends outward only obtained experimentally in the central rapidly nor more slowly in liquid sys-
to somewhere near the half-velocity region of the jet and greater than those tems (relative to momentum) than it
radius, and turbulent transport is by a obtained experimentally near the edge. does in gaseous systems. Small differ-
combination of two distinct mechan- This is usually the case with the mix- ences are noted but these can be at-
isms: gradient-type in the core, and ing length theory. Nevertheless, the fit tributed either to differences in meas-
convective near the edges. This then of the theory to the velocity measure- uring techniques or to differences in
accounts for the reasonably good fit of ments is quite good over much of the the detailed structure of the turbulence
the classical theories near the axis of jet. The concentration measurements which is known to vary from system to
the jet. It also provides an explanation on the other hand are fitted poorly system. Preliminary concentration fluc-
for the experimentally observed fact everywhere. tuation measurements (not reported
that contaminant is more rapidly dif- As is evident from Figure 6, a some- here) when compared with equivalent
fused than is momentum.
While the true picture of the trans-
what better fit of the experimental c- data in the literature shows variations
distribution is obtained by a constant
port mechanisms in turbulent jets (and eddy diffusion coefficient assumption The mean value measurements were
certain other types of free turbulent fitted to the half-concentration radii best fitted with a Gaussian error curve
flows) has been elucidated and while data. From these data a value of in the case of the concentration field
it contributes greatly to the under- and the mixing length theory in the
standing of turbulent shear flows in +
EC = 0 . 0 0 3 0 T m a x ( x a) (9) case of the velocity field. Usually best
general, the state of development is results are obtained with a constant
such that the complexity of the calcu- was calculated.
eddy diffusivity in the latter case. A
lations and measurements presently A similar assumption for the 5-dis- value of 0.67 has been obtained for
required more than offset the advan- tribution leads to the turbulent Schmidt number in the
tages to be gained in using it. For most
practical purposes, the generally rea- Em = 0.0020 ( x + a) (10)
usual manner, that is, from the half-
radii data, but it is shown that this
sonable results obtained with the vari- but as seen in Figure 5, the fit is, if varies appreciably across the jet.
ous phenomenological theories suffices. anything, worse than that obtained Finally, because the mean concen-
It is therefore worthwhile to attempt with the mixing length theory, espe- tration measurements were determined
the fit of these data with several of cially near the edges of the jet. by taking average values of instan-
these theories.
From the half-concentration radii
The best fit of the experimental c- taneous values (which actually were
data, and using the methods of Toll- data is seen in Figure 6 to be given by measured) and these are consistent
a Gaussian error curve with with the literature, the measuring
mien summarized in reference 13, a - - equipment appears suitable for making
value for the mixing length 1, can be C/Cmax = exp [- 0.492 ( ~ / T z ) ~ ]
calculated for the jet. The result in measurements of the fluctuating con-
(11) centration. Of course mere agreement
terms of the half-radius, r3, is
The error curve for the experimental of mean values is not a sufficient test
Ic = O.22T3 (6) - U-data is of the adequacy of the instrument. The
or, in terms of the half-velocity radius - - frequency response of the cell and,
U/Umax = exp [- 0.694 ( r / r ~ ) ~ ] more particularly, the volume element
1, = 0.26~2 (7) (12) of the probe sees has to be determined
This compares with a momentum mix- but this does not give nearly as good a precisely. The latter point is important
ing length of fit as does the mixing length theory for conductance cells have been much
I , = 0.21r2 ( 8 ) either. criticized for seeing volume elements

Vol. 9, No. 3 A.1.Ch.E. Journal Page 389

which are not small compared to the Subscripts 8. Townsend, A. A., The Structure of
dissipative scale of the turbulence. c = material Turbulent Flow, Cambridge Univer-
m = momentum sity Press, New York (1956).
9. Forstall, W., Jr., and E. W. Gaylord,
NOTATION max = maximum value at a cross-sec- J. Appl. Mech., 22, 161 (1955).
= apparent origin of jet meas- tion 10. Prausnitz, J. M., and R. H. Wilhelm,
ured from orifice o = at the orifice Rev. Sci. lnstr., 27. 941 ( 1956).
= mean concentration at a point Pr = Prandtl number 11. Cairns, E. J., Ph.D. dissertation, Univ.
(relative to ambient fluid) Re = Reynolds number of Calif., Berkeley, California (1959).
= orifice diameter Sc = Schmidt number 12. Manning, F. S., Ph.D. dissertation,
turb = turbulent Princeton Univ., Princeton, New
= transport mixing length
Jersey ( 1959).
= dimensionless number 13. Hinze, J. O., Turbulence, McGraw-
= mean dynamic pressure at a LITERATURE CITED Hill, New York (1959).
point 1. Corrsin, S., and M. S. Uberoi, Natl. 14. Rosensweig, R. E., H. C. Hottel, and
= radial distance from jet axis Advisory Comm. Aeronaut. Tech. G. C. Williams, Chem. Eng. Sci., 15,
= (= 1 / 2 4 Rept. 998 (1950). 111 (1961).
2. Hinze, J. O., and B. G. van der Hegge 15. Corrsin, S., and M. S. Uberoi, Natl.
= value of r for which? = 1/Z Advisory Comm. Aeronaut. Tech.
- Zijnen, Appl. Sci. Research, lA, 435
qmax ( 1949). Rept. 1040 (1951).
= value of T for which
- v = 1/2 3. Ruden, P., Naturwissenschaften, 21,
375 (1933).
16. Hottel, H. C., Fourth Symposium on
Combustion, pp. 97-113, Williams
Umax and Wilkins, Baltimore, Maryland
4. Reichardt, H., Forsch. Gebiete In-
= value of r for which
- C= 1/2 genieurw., 414 (1951). (1953).
Cmax 5. Keagy, W. R., and A. E. Weller, 17. Cleeves. V.. and L. M. K. Boelter.
Proc. Heat Trans. Fluid Mech. lnst., Chem. Eng. Progr., 43, 123 (1947).
= axial component of mean ve- 18. Forstall, W., Jr., Sc.D. dissertation,
locity at a point p. 89, Berkeley, California ( 1949).
6. Forstall, W., Jr., and A. H. Shapiro, Mass. Inst. of Technol., Boston, Mass-
= axial distance from orifice J . Appl. Mech., 17, 399 (1950). achusetts ( 1949).
= (x+a)/d 7. Corrsin, S., and A. L. Kistler, Natl.
= T/(X + a) Advisory Comm. Aeronaut. Tech. Note Manuscript received May 21, 1962; revision rc-
ceived September 24, 1962; paper accepted Octo-
= turbulent diffusion coefficient 3133 (1954). ber 30, 1962.

The Prediction of Vapor-Liquid Equilibria

Using a Theory of Liquid Mixtures
Applied Science Laboratories, Incorporated, State College, Pennsylvania

Much investigation in the field of I I amount of experimental data. The

thermodynamics of liquid soIutions
has been undertaken in connection
0-17-0-n-CI-0 more modest attempts have been
aimed at predicting the most essential

with vapor-liquid equilibrium phenom- data, vapor composition as a function
ena. The nature of such investigations a-1 B I- 0- 0- 0- 0 of liquid composition, from other more
has been determined by the objective. I I I I
easily obtained experimental data. An
One objective is to determine whether example is the calculation of these
the experimental data, specifically the 0
I -0 9 0- - - -0 data from experimental determinations
measured relationship between liquid I +--A I I I I of vapor pressures of pure components,
and vapor compositions, temperature
in an isobaric system or pressure in an
0 1
and the boiling temperatures of mix-
tures at constant pressure.
isothermal system, and vapor pres- I
I i B-4
I I The more ambitious attempts at pre-
sures of the pure substances, are
thermodynamically consistent. The ob-
0-0- 0 - 0 2 0- 0- diction involve calculation of complete
equilibria from the properties of the
jective is accomplished by determin- I - 0-
I I -1 ! I I- I - pure substances and a measure, inde-
ing whether or not the variables fol- pendent of experimental vapor-liquid
low the Gibbs-Duhem relationship, and I I I I I I equilibrium determinations, of their
the degree to which they do is a behavior in mixtures. The simple ex-
measure of the reliability of the ex- 17-D-u-n-O-n ample of such a method is a common
perimental data. Such investigations Raoults-law prediction in which the
are referred to as correlations. vapor pressures are used and it is as-
The other objective is to predict the Fig. 1. Interaction between molecules on o sumed that the behavior upon mixing
vapor-liquid equilibria from a limited lattice. is ideal. Where this assumption can-

Page 390 A.1.Ch.E. Journal May, 1963