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1. We use comparatives to compare two things or two people. (e.g She is taller than her husband.)
2. Superlatives are used, however, to compare to show the difference between more than two things or more
than two people. (e.g Paris is the biggest city in France)
3. To form comparatives and superlatives you need to know the number of syllables in the
adjective. Syllables are like "sound beats".

Irregular Adjetives

Adjectives Comparatives Superlatives

bad worse worst
far(distance) farther farthest
far(extent) further furthest
good better best
little less least
many more most
much more most

One-syllable Adjectives * When an adjective ends in the letter E, we just add

To form the comparative, we add -er to the end of the the -R (for comparatives) or -ST (for superlatives). We
adjective. do not write two Es together. Wider (correct)
not wideer (incorrect).
To form the superlative, we add -est to the end of the
adjective. ** When an adjective ends in a consonant + short
vowel + consonant (C + V + C), we normally double
the last letter. big - bigger - biggest, wet - wetter -
Adjective Comparative Superlative
London is bigger than Santiago.
small smaller the smallest Mike is taller than John but James is the
cold colder the coldest Yesterday was the hottest day of the year.
light lighter the lightest It is the oldest building in the village.
wide * wider the widest I want a faster car.

hot ** hotter the hottest Notice how comparatives are often followed
by than when comparing two things or people
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narrow - narrower, simple - simpler, quiet - quieter
Two-syllable Adjectives
ending in -Y
To form the comparative, we remove the -y and add -
ier to the end of the adjective.
Irregular Forms
To form the superlative, we remove the -y and add -
iest to the end of the adjective.
Adjective Comparative Superlative

Adjective Comparative Superlative good better the best

bad worse the worst
crazy crazier the craziest far *** further / farther the furthest / farthest
happy happier the happiest little less the least
early earlier the earliest many/much more the most
old **** older/elder the oldest / eldest

It was the happiest day of my life.

My joke was funnier than your one.
This section is easier than the rest. I am a better tennis player than you but
Marcelo is the best.
Steve is a worse liar than me but Adrian
Adjectives with Two or more is the worst
Syllables *** Farther - Further
For Adjectives with 2 syllables (that don't end in -y)
and higher (3, 4 syllables etc), we use more for Further / farther, furthest / farthest are all used for
comparatives and the most for superlatives. distance.
Only Further / furthest are used to mean 'additional' or
Adjective Comparative Superlative 'more advanced'.

Puerto Montt is further / farther than Valdivia

the most is from here (in Santiago).
handsome more handsome
handsome If you require further information, please
nervous more nervous the most nervous contact reception.
more the most
enthusiastic Remember that the opposites of 'more' and 'most' are
enthusiastic enthusiastic
'less' and 'least', respectively.

**** Older - Eldest

My girlfriend is more beautiful than yours.
Alex is more intelligent than you but I We use elder / eldest when we are talking about
am the most intelligent. family relationships and normally only before a noun
It was the most wonderful day I have ever (not by itself unless it is a pronoun).
He is my elder brother. (We cannot say: My
Some exceptions with two-syllable adjectives ending brother is elder than me. - incorrect)
in -er and -est: The eldest sister would pass on her dresses
to the younger one.
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1. When do we use much and when many?
much: uncountable nouns (milk, marmalade, money, time etc.)
many: countable nouns (bottles of milk, jars of marmalade, dollars, minutes etc.)
How much money have you got?
How many dollars have you got?
In informal English these questions are often answered with a lot of, lots of. There is no much difference
between the two phrases.
2. When do we use a little/little and when a few/few?
a little: non countable nouns (milk, marmalade, money, time etc.)
a few: countable nouns (bottles of milk, jars of marmalade, dollars, minutes etc.)
He has a little money left.
He has a few dollars left.
We use few and little without the article a to point out a more negative meaning.
A few students of our school know this. (There are some student who know it.)
Few students know this. (It is almost unkonown.)
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When do we use some and when any?
We use some and any for an amount which is not known e.g. Have you got any crisps?


some: affirmative statements, offers, requests and in questions when you expect the answer yes
any: negative statements, questions

Have you got any bananas? No, we haven't got any. But we've got some oranges.


I would like to buy fruit at a market. I see the man has wonderful apples so I can ask him:

Can I have some of these apples?

If I do not see apples or if I am not sure whether there are apples at all I use any in this question.

Have you got any apples?

Most of the nouns are countable. You can combine
them with numbers, e.g one, two or three. Here is If you want to express a quantity, you have to use a
an example: special phrase e.g. a glass of water.

one pencil Note:

two pencils
Some nouns can be either countable or
three pencils uncountable. We recommend to use a good
dictionary to find out whether a noun is countable or
four ... uncountable or both.

2. UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS Here is an example:

These nouns cannot be combined with numbers. hair hairs

water You've got some hairs on your T-shirt. (There might

butter be 5 or 6 of them.)

coal Your hair looks lovely. (Here you think of the