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Example 1.

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The bottle of an aluminum kettle is 20 cm diameter and 1.2 mm thick. If water in
the kettle is boiling off at 0.833 g/s. Find the flame temperature for the following
values of heat transfer coefficients:
hi (boiling) = 4000 W/m2K and ho (gas flame) = 40 W/m2K
Enthalpy of vaporization of water is 2260 kJ/kg. The thermal conductivity of
aluminum is 204 W/m K
Given:
 o
T3 = 100 C x = 1.2 mm = 1.2 x 10-3 m
h
Water i T2 r = 20/2 = 10 cm = 10 x 10-2 m
x = 0.833 g/s = 0.833 x 10-3 kg/s
T1 Hv = 2260 kJ/kg
Flame k = 204 W/m K
ho To ho = 40 W/m2K
hi = 4000 W/m2K

Equations used:
 =   =  
 =
1 1  1
Answer: To = 1614 oC = + +
    
1
1 1  1 1 1 1.2 10 1
= + + = + +
     40 204 4000

Uo = 39.6 W/m2K

" %
 =  = 0.833 10 2260 = 1883 &
# "

 = '(
= 3.14 10 10
= 3.14 10


 =   =  

1883
 = 

= 1514 oC
3.14 10 39.6

= 1514 + 100 = 1614 oC

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Example 1.5
There is a heat exchanger designed as below. How much area is required for the
heat exchanger? With cp for oil is 0.74 Btu/lbm oF and Uo for the steam is 150
Btu/(hr ft2 oF)

Saturated steam Saturated water


Hot
280 oF 280 oF

Oil Cold Oil


110 oF, 900 lbm/min 35 oF, 900 lbm/min

Equations used: Answer: 97.5 ft2

 = 23


-
, =

ln (
)
-

 =  , 3
- = 280 35 = 245 oF


= 280 110 = 170 oF

245 270
, = = 205 oF
245
56 170

900 57, 0.74 9:;


 = 23 = 100 35 < = 49950 9:;/86
86 57, <

9:; 60 86
 49950 86
= = = 97.5 >:

, 150 9:; 205



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