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ti rl1'ilL'nn
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cl
'ilJu'YI 4.3 'llTlaumLm:::un~mv.'YI .............. .. ..... ..... ............. ................. .... ..... .
ii .... '
4-27
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L1tl.J'Yl 4.3.1 fl11'il\111>1U.L'OJLf1E.J'lfllJ'il11'1Uf'll .......................... ..... ............. ... 4-28
d.J "'1J&I~tf
L7l\l'Yl 4.3.2 m1~~a~ 'OJLnmnuu,-1~nrurrmi=i~\:limn ......... .................... . 4-33
.
111eiuri 4.4 ni1Uin11. ... ..... .. ........ ....................... ......... ...... ......... .. ... ................ . 4-36
I I I
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L7D.:l'YI 4.4.1 LL'\.f.1fl~mmn1J1J1m1 .. .... . ... . .... .... . .. .. . ..... ..... .. .. .... ..... ... .... .... 4-37
A' A' C 'I A A
m:i.:i'Yl 4.4.2 nnEJ'Ylm'l1.:im1~i:ll\11 ~u.tpn'11J7m7 .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. . . . .. .. ... .. .. .. . . 4-39
I I
All "" A .._, ~ Al
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l.l11fl.l.ll.fn73.J . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. .. . .. .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . ... . ... . ... . . 4-44
(7)

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'1U1rJ'1 5 flilQrtfi1'1fl1............................................................................................... 5-1
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0

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..
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5-21
5-25
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b':iJ\IYI 5.3.2 n1-.iuW'Slf'llbY.IBn11'1\IL'113Jn1"l<il~ll?I ... ..... ............. .. ... .. ... ... . 5-30
J ..I I"' ..J I A ., '
L1eJ\J'Y1 5.3.3 m1um11m<1113J'11Uu1:::neit1~~'ilflru.<n ...... ..... .... .... ........... . 5-32
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f .Q' J U o I
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(8)

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L"HJ.:l'YI 6.3.3 1"t1.JtJ'1JEl~i1 1'Vl1tJ SCM.. . .... .. .. . ..... .. .. . ..... ... . ... .. ... . ... .. ... .... ... . 6-38

tJ~1"1m:1J . .. .. . .. .. .. . . .. .. .. . .. . ... .. .. . ... .. .. . ... . ... . ... .. ... . . ... .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .... . .. .. .. .. .. .... . 6-41

11u1EJ~ 7 naqTI~f1T~Seu11n11ftlllR ....................................................................... 7-1


..171
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II.I II.I '
7-37

L~e:i.:r~ 7.3.1 LLu1~i;ivf1LuLftmnum1u1~16":1JYl'wrr: m1:1J'Vla.11u


LLr1ru'Ylu1ri"lle:i.:im1u,.t"l!1a:1JYl'w.fim,-'ilmlil . .. . . ... . . .. . . . .. . . .. . ... . . . 7-38

L~e:i.:r~ 7.3 .2 m1~~auL"OJLum11h~'lflaa.1Yl'wL ................. .. ........... ...... .... . 7-39


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111ElU~ 7.4 m1ri.:rLITTa.!n1Tll1U ...... ......... .. .... ..... ..... .. ............ .. ..... .. ......... ... ... ..... . 7-43
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L1El..:l'YI 7.4.2 n1'7b1..:ILb1"UJnlT!J1 U'Y1~.:l~~lJ11Jlfl .................... .... .. ..... ... ... ... .. 7-48
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I

filtl~~ 7.5 ni~~n11~1"'4-n1tJ ....... .. ....... ........ .... .......... ..... ....... .. ..... .... .......... ...... 7-55
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L~t1'1f1 7 .6.2 ni1t1Tvi1~U1~~1~1J1tl.. .. .. . .. ... .. .. .. ... ... ..... .. . ...... .... ... ... . .. .... .. 7-60
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L~e:i.:ifi 7.5.3 ~~1.J:mn"ll1t1 .. ................ ... ..... ...... .... ... ......... . ..... ....... ..... ...... 7-66

tJTim111n1:1-1 . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . ... . . .. . . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . ... . . .. . ... . . .. . 7-71


(9)

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(Marketing and Strategic Management)


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Product Customer Solution
Price Customer Cost
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a:i~rn.n1~\f'1~'!<11LL'1~ma.11,-rii.t13-11'lfr1v.'tilei~1._:i~ri..:i Luu~n~l).J~<r:.rlr.1..n~Luv.u1i;ini7a.iLvta.i'l
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iim".ir!'fi.:1LL1"\J~~LVl1lmLL~~fl'J13.Jiffl~qle:Ji)11rl'1e:iL'1Lfltp)~'\.l.rl1J~1J~1Jif!5n~1ll ~\J~U mnm~m,'jfl~l
'115ti~~um,-.ia1~~3J~unm"r'l~.:1Luuna~'YIM!it1~qiri"'t'"t5nm".i'1l51~i1-;;i~u1,1,
mTifl1"1'Jnti'1 (Customer Retention)
m1"'1151~~ e.J1U3.J1~m1~Luuvi~n~\Jm".iL-.a1tLLfttL-lf1t'l.:i'Jnti'1'lvia.1'1 3J1nn11mTin1!11~mi1i1-..i-,uu
'l'1fl..:ie:i ~ LL5~* L1XumTimJ m1"LffUe:J'll1lla.J1nn11m11.l;.m1V1~eim".i~~'1113J'li..m1 llV1~..:1 '1J~L~mn1,1,e:i.:i~m
m"1<il~ltp) ~fl'tvi3.J;j11,1,'liunn#l'1m13.J~1'1qi'1leimnn~1~nfl1 LLa::rri\.:i'GlaJ~unm"v'lLU".itlltm1 ~.:id~1 ll
~tp)*V13J1u~e:imTYi1'l'1~nti13'.lm13..1vrnhi(iuei.:i

u "
n1:'lJ11.lfl11'nfN1.11\)flfl1 (The Customer Development)
~~L~a.i~wnei.:iei.:ifim1Lfimnu~n~1~ei m1V11~n~1m~~mi~'iJJit1L"4eit'1aJ1Luit~n'11'1Jei.:iei-.:i~m
t~ll~~'\.l.'1le:JU~~1f1'qi~.:id
iuil l l.Jflflavf1Ltl (Suspects) 'Vl3.J1ufi.:i 'YJfl'1 f!U~m'OJ~El~Utll"i!El\Jfl.:J~m
::,4 IJIJ 1 " ... - ' I ,:;.J.J.d.?71 I .J
11Jlfl 2 'Jfl'11~~\l'Vl'l.:I (Prospect) 'Vl3J1Ufl\I fl1'l1Lfl71t'Vl'"'11fln'j3JflU~U'llU'YlVIU\J"ll'\ILuump.JflU'YI
,t ._, ~ '1 _! ,...
3Jf1rn..1mvui.5~au L'iJ'11aei~-..iU3.Jm'j..l,1'0J Lum'?lflau~n"ll ei.:ifl.:i flm m~flflft u.i:i.J~rnrr:i.Ju11tp)..:inm'J'iJ~L"H..1 m1
.. " A D " t; <VA ._, I ..... I

Lllun~3Jfl'\..l,~fl~3JU~La.1L-lf1'll1u L7lln11 Disqualified Prospect


fl r I ... I.I II' I I

.Wun 3\jnti1Y1;aeiau~1LUUf!~\ILL".in (First-time Customers) V1~1iiii..:i \'!fl~l'iJ1n-tfuVirre:i"Vi5eh'I


~fl~ut11"1Je:i..:i ei..:i~n7
,, ,, iuil 4 \'!Fl~1~ijm7~fl~ (Repeat Customers) Ln~~1n~nti1'lu~u~ 3 ~..:1$lm1~"v'lfltliJ'OJULn~
...
fll".i"lffl'lfl
.fuil s ~nt111h~;j1 (Clients) \'jfl~1~.:i5'.tm~fl~1tle:i ll'1 'iJ'l-UUU\'jn~1tl,-~;j1~.:ie:i..:i ~m4fo..:i~ LLa
mh:iYiL~mL5tL4r1h~\1~'11h"llfl.:l\'!fl~1L'Vla1d
iuif 6 ~3J1~n (Members) '0Jln\'!nt11tl7~'-31~..:13lm1~~~1L~3.Jfl'OJ~Flt11na1rnu~m~mn1~
~ ., ,; x ' I ti T ' .. ~ - - ..l ., ..
'16.J"r'IUti"VtLL'\.l.l.JbbUW.Jlfl"iJUL~te:J\Jflm'"Jmlu.u~~ "IBLU'lf'1.l.Vl".itl'1'Y11ML~lftl1\lt:llll\lbbfl~flfl1'Yl'13.Jfl7~~1~n
I I .,

I
...
A
L'Vlftl'l-1.
iuif 7 \'!mi1~rruu'11iu (Advocates) ~fl ~n~1~"'~~unLLU1JLLU'l-l. LL~~ei~{i'1..:ie:i.:i~m-oJuvi~u
LLUt'l-t1au~l"lJfl'1 fl\!~fl7LLrl ~~
., U Vl1e:J 'W
., tp) LUL~fl-.:1 ~61 b~ mnun'OJ fl1'7U~~~ut11"1J fl\lfl\I ~m
I

iuif s ~uri11,1, (Partners) ~fl m13.Ja~~un~m.imLYliu.nn~'!~~\J~\l\'!nti1LL~~n-;;im,-iim"1


Yi1..:11wi1~nuei ~i.:i'l.nwa~ LL~::i~mumbuvirt..:1"1Jfl.:11pn-oJ~..:inu.LL~~nu.
Disqualified
Prospects

First-time
Customers

Repeat
Custome~
1,

Partners

m'@Ju1~n~1Jf-:i bbYi-iu~ 3 ~U~-l~U~~Vi'1~diite:im~~'Jn~1~~L~~ei~u~1V11eim:nmliu'Jn~1


L'l-iei~~L~'ilftel~b1ft1 (Inactive or Ex-customers) tl'1~n~1bn~fl'll:!.i1.3JvmhV1~e:ij~n":l1b~u~"il1~Ltl~
~a..i~1nuflrufi1Yi)~-ru

O!'i~ U ti I
f'l1l'IJ~lluU&Ufl11'1'tnngnf'lltfll (The Need for Customer Retention)
m":imm~nt'11 Lri1LV'lurh'l'1\ln'11LnV'lm1aJYrnhei ~<ili'ltlV'IL1i:l1ei~h:ic;lmdei..:i,Xu ~~113! m1aJ
"ii1Lflt.mm~Shh~Lti'!ftUnn.;,i1 tiVli:l1 rn.htm1 flei

'lu1.m.)1._:i
\jnfllliltUJei' eii.tLV11c;l eimlLt-1~1Vl~ei&'l..:i Lm.;,im1<ilm~V17eim,-~m1 T111m..:i~u'll..:i~u
\lnt'111i1~'l'1i'maumLu::V17mLu1~~<il1..:i'l LLrin'OJm1
qJWt'JUL\.bnl'1LaUti 1Jm1l'Vl7t1~c;l1..:1'1 ~LnV'lll'JJ~n~1Lrl1V17ti\jnfl11.h~1tti.t'OJt~1m1
m-ni1frmn.;,iL~mnunu\ln'11'lV13.i
' "il o;.l,_lt A'" ., "'I ){
tl-:lfln':i'Yll-:tm71fii:ll~ L\.b 'OJ-o:ilJWi11tVIUrnL~tTIJlfl..:lfl113J011flqj LUn1'7'7nM1\jnf11Lnl341n"llU
<; <;

Liit1..:i'OJ1n-ifmn'OJ'OJi-:1~u1auh 'lu1htL~uc;l1..:1'1 ~-:id


nll'l~~\ln~1 LVl~iiuclfei..:i 'l-if~Wr'J'l-li~~LflU 5 LYl1Lrim.YiE.Junu~Wr'J'I-\'li.tmnf1M1\lf1~1Lri1LL~t
mTYi1L~\ln~1L~aJilm13.l'Vit1h Liiei..:i'OJ1n~fo\l Lolfm1aJ'VitntnaJei~1..:iaJ1n'lunTTDJtVl1\jnfl'1LVl~~..:icli'eN~..:13J1
'OJ1n~LL"li.:i'1luV11ei L~aJ~U'lVla.iJf\I LL<ii~ULLln'l
t~E.JunWILL~1ei\lfin,-~n~tyL~E.J~n~1Lri1'Luf1~dJ"~eiti~t 10 'llel.:l'Jn~1'lim<il~::n
m,-~~nT':i'jtlJL~ti"llei..:1\ln~1~..:17mm:: 5 'OJ~Yi1'l'1fililm":irimn~ri1'tn~aJ~u7eiEJ~~ 25 ~" 85
~ ~if LI !

Yl\l\.b'YJ\.bfl'JJLL<ilr!~lh'~L11Yl'l<ilmV1nTI3.I

ti ~ ti I
flU'JUillflfll'li'lflUr.19flf'lllfll (The Cost of Lost Customer)
il1iJ~uuei.:i~m1pfi'OJ"ii1u1\.b341n~3lm13.1ijqJLifo~1nm~\ln'11Lri1'iil1nLtlv!7eiLu~ei5u~1 ~LL'll.:i'1lu
n'OJm":i~.:lclfei.:iL'1m1aJauhei~1.:iLn~i'~c;lei-ffm1m1"baE..1\lf1~1Lfl1 ~.:lLT1L~E.Jn11 Customer Defection
Rate t1\l~ma1aJ1":iri~~n<11T1'lltl\lm'7ijtlJL~E..1\lnfl'1L~ 41nm":i~\ld
1. ei\l~n-:r~ei.:iri1V1u~~1~1~11nm1m':l-inM1\lm')1,Xulilt1'~lil1nm~h L"llu el<ilTlm":i<iieim~
G'{3J1~rnltl\l\ln'11 Lflit~\.li
2. ei.Jfim~ei..:i1Lf1Tlt~V11a1LV1~11\ln~1'0J1nLuL'ViTlteith Liu \ln~1eiein"il1mpn-;;ili J ~n~1~u
'VilJ~u~15u~ ~n11V17ei~aJt11aJ1nn11 V1iei\1nfl11i11nLu L~ll~L~.it~wf1113JauhVl~til~l.~wmw1m~
~Ll11~m':i ~\l~n"iltLij~mLV1<f1ri1Ti'ty~ei\l~n":ijjm,~tyLarnjn~1lu
3. t1.Jfi'm~tl\lf11u1ni.11ri1L1"'0Jt~llJLfltiLu Liju-.S1u1uLl11'l~t11qi'ei.J\!t1JLftrnjn~1Lu lumm~ Lllu
~u~1.nfl LLc;ifl~fluttumTIV'!fl1ri1'l~ijtlJVl1 E.JLu ~m.i3lf11 LYi1nu~~fl1cri~ei~~'Vi"lJtl.J~n~1iiU'l (Life Time
Value) ~i~n~1iXuE'.f\l~ei~u~1'1Jei.Jt1.Jfim~nqieiLu 'lunm~ei.J~m3l~nfl'1Ltlu'"31u1w.i1n~t1'lf11u1ni.11
~~fi1"llt1-:it1ei~"l!1t1V1;.eifi1L~vn EJLu'"l1nm'~~fl\l"lltl\l~n~1 LflitLiii.L7 411 ei~1.JL'!lu
- I d 4 I.I o
n~n-:1LL'Vl.:J'VIU\13J~nfl'1-;;J1u1u 50,000 flU

fi~mit1tlJL~~~nti'1'tt:~utl"~ 5 LULLlil":1'.l
;::; (0.05 (50,000)
;::; 2,500 flU
\jnti'1~ ~tlJVl1 t1'ttl LL<ii"~flu'V!m tiil-:11; t1't~~'V!1t1l.tl~u 5, ooo rn'Ylftl
;::; 12,500,000 1J1'Yl
fi~mijjri1'tnm1m: 10 ~\ld~13J'Vl3.i~t1m13.1-J1't~\1~L~t1ri1'tivLtJ
= 0.10 ( 12,500.000 u1'Y1/tl
= 1,250'000 tn'Ylitl
e:i\l~mc;le:i.:iu'J~a.nnm1n1turniri1?1Blfli1nw~~L~~~nTi1i1u"OJ~c;i'u.:ili~,,.'YJUL'Yl1Ll?I11muLYl
4.
~ cli'u'Ylu~1m1n11,~ \1~L~ul.iJ e:i.:i~mmi~:tl-if~~u~vlu"Ylel'lfl~1m1~C1J L~rn ti.:i\jnf1'1
Y11t1~~1?1LL~1 m~mfl111'11~Yl<1113.JLL'1~~1J'Vl1~u3.JG'l"i11fl~nf11Ln1~1ti1nmi<ii1.:i'1
~ \I
LvJe:itViL~-ifu3J'1.
~ ~

<iii.:i'l a.J1tlwtl1\lLLnL'l!m~d1u\lnumi"1?1El'm1m1~qJL~E.J~n~1'l~ifou~~Y'l

"' ..,
fll1fltl1AtT:IJ'WUtifll'W (Relationship Marketing)
n1"Wlflll?lft3J~U1l1ll"llil:lJ11LUUfl~~'Yl~~t-ifnum.h\ln11.:i'1J11.:i1u t'Jfl'1 lh~U"l'Yl"ilel\1~1n"l LL"~'YJfl
n~ a.i~n~1 Cfl"eJYl'O.JUwu1 rn1u~i..t'1 1ut1.:if!n11!1fi"il~\l'VIU1rn1u.rnt11.ULL"~m E.JUu ne:i\l~fli 1.u~d"il~L~u
m1'ilm1?1ifa.i~unm"tln'Ll\jnq;)1
_'1u A J._, I.I.Ji.,, .., I.II.I A .J
m1~1"1Yl'13J"tlU1lfl1"tl 'Vla.JlE.ltN n11Cfl~1Yl'YILUUnT'jG'fj1\1'13J"tlU1lfl1Ym'Ll~nfl-:Y'l1tlbL1.:JE.JYlL'VIUm
.. ~ ... I ' ) r:..l<]v.. .,,.,~..,""' rt
'Vliel 6'1'Ylf!lJj~ LH'lf'UL"flt! b'VI LflYlfl1la.J11fl<;) 'ilu'1Wi'll'Vliu u-:!fln'j'lJeJ\I L":il

.., "' .,...


1~~1J'\ltl~fll1fll11AO':IJ'WUl.fll'W (Level of Customer Relationship Marketing)
m":i'ilmYl~a.i~u1!mw~m1a.ia14i'qJ ~.:i'h.1.i1"il'lllUL'l"li1~'0J~l'111~e:i.:i~mma.J11ri-!n1"1 ~nf11 Ln1't~
LLfi~"YlelCfldlfl17'ijty L~E.J'llu\l~flfl1L~,,\~ E.J~ ~Yl LfJ e:irimnl?I ~mri1'h<liflno;;irnT'll~L~ mnu'OJ~UG'fYl.:Ji)\lfl113.J
~e:ih~~n'11~'1it1flu~11u1mT11e:i.:im5n~1t1
1um-n-11m1'ilmYl~a.i~un-m~~w;i'ei\l"L-HL~\uvlei~il~Gln~n-.;inn3,1c;l1.:i'1 -;l1u1\\L~u-;;i~3-11nV1~u
I.I x I t.t ._, )!I, a,,, 'I
.. J' '
Ut1H~1um.1nu1~1?11J'llu\lt'13J~unm~'Ylti\lflmcri1.:imim:m1 LY!Lfl~'llunrnjnfl1~.:iv:u lJ\\
SI 't ,:: e S,, - U S, a,,, I

1. iunu11nnviu-lugm (Basic Marketing) 'VilUn~1w111t1 b~ u.:i LL'li'll1ti~u;f1~~1~:nm1~1?1~ E.J

2. i'unu11mniudunu (Reactive Marketing)~~ "llurn1u'll1u~u~1"1lrn~~~mffum~~u1~


II~ .A A ' IJ A ,J II j .... a I A .c!. II I
~"l!'e:ia.imima.i 1o;;i1~ ":ifl.:Jb1uummnua\.l.m Li?IEJYiU~\11u"li1mrJu~1mLwnT7'1Ur:".1.1nu~nmnt1u
llJ Q,I

7
3. tnJJY'U11111rt'flU11-l iJ (Accountable Marketing) ~Urn1Wil1E.J"lt~'Yli~YfV1'i1Yl<il13.J i::.mfll'l'!iltl
u CV ::, "' T ~A

:"f .J.&1 J. - \1.,


t ~t:L'Yl7~tlr:rnwre:i~~nmwmtli~~a.:u~.113-IYiEl"\bbfi~'il.n-o:Glti'LlTla.J'llu'Llfl'V'l11.:Ju~b"ill1\l!i'.ti.:ir11irr1"S".J1mi
V II 9. !Ai.I I 9"' A

Lfl3Jb~.;.JLu~~'tv.uu1.:i
1-36

4. iJJnusnn1i'u1i.J7n (Proactive Marketing) Yi1Xn.:nu"111t1f113.J1m1'Yl'w1~e:i9illl'iitintJ~fl;J1


dJit,-:m~'l LvlmaitmL~'li1.J'1 'il61e:J(;)-.;iuii1Lfl'l.l.tiimt1rli).l~~r1ni.-n'1.V1:i.i'1
5. iunu1m1Hiu1ihnjuihu (Partnership Marketing) ~n'11nuv..:i~m"fi1..:nu~13-1nuLv:itivn
uw;i'Y11..:i1.v.m~qJJu1~..:1<il~'1 L~ei'l~LnC11m11.i..:11u'llti..:i~it~1~~u

4.' ~ ' Q,,I Q,I'


ltl1tl~ll81VUlfti.n~nnJ'n\Uifll'n (Tools for Relationship Marketmg)
mni1m1~~1 l'l-3.Jwunm'V'l'luu"J~:Liv.i1uipn'l~m1~1.~Lfl~ti..:i ~ti'Vlm E.J'l ti ~1..:i L~ eiafi..:1fl11a..1
~3.J~U~~c;Jmiiei..:i L~ti
. 'l~~n'11~mLri~L~ftu;J1"llti..:1L-nc;ivLtlu1it'1 Lfl~tl..:1~ti~..:in~111JILLf1
.,
" _/ ~ J " ...
1. m1m11u1~1tJ'f'Uff1'Ufl111'1U (Adding Financial Benetit) 1nm1un-.;im,-"i1~Lflittl .u,-LLm3.J
_ _. "'.. 1
I

~1.-X~n~1 L~:J.Jffl13.J~Lumi~ti ~u;J1 LLrl~l"111..:11rlLLri~n'11~~tl3.Jlfl'l V17e:i~n;J1i1ti1'Vlqj L'l1L~tJn11


Frequency Marketing Program (FMPs) ~1ti~1.u-Ilu LL4f3Ja~a:J.Ji.3.J~'iJEJ..:lfl1t1mwu<il1..:1'l ucil:J.Ja~a3.J
"llti..:1:U11mfli~~ t)1~n;J1~..:i1.~:1-J1n"i1~ ~.:itJJLL4f3Ja~a3J:J.J1nfu V1~ti~7fi"Jm..:1LL'Vi..:1m~Lauti1ihLLm:J.Ja:i.n~n
I ..i ., ~ ., 11 ...~ I ') ..: .J
QQ x d o !!) V Q ., ..:

'if:i..J73.JG11..:l'l La.J va:J.Jfl1fl3.J1"LJnLLm'DJ~ blll '1'Ylti'V'IL~1ffi7tlu7~ btl'l!UEJ'l-l.'l L11u "!ftl'1'l-l.fl1/tJ1m1(;)1 E.J71fl1'Yl\ln


Jl1u1nm1~..:1n~nd~..:i~v..:i~m't.;JL~;.1L~3J imnnnm1a~..:1fl113.J'litiLttv..:i'ilti..:1m~v'il1E.J~11..:1ei..:1~n1
nua3J1~mLG\'1 ~~1~GJ~..:l~titl..:i~m"i1~L~j1Uifmt1rl~n~1 (Customer Database) L~tll.tlunW'l1..:ILL~u
'Y11..:i~nlil<ii v'tt1
~ JI/ .,, _.,. ~ ... .... .I ' , .,
2. m11n11il1~ 1EJY'UR1'11i.T~'1JJ (Adding Social Benetits)1tm1TIJ. L"ll'Vlnnm7'Yl El..:lflfl1'V'l tJ1E.J13.J L'VI
nzj3.J~n~1"llv..:1~uLn~LL1..:1 ~(;)L'Vlrim~..:inuLm~nu1l'l E.J~uuaitu'l"15jfi~nn:1J~1:i..1nu i~nii~1u11a..1 Lm:::Lu u
~1u'Vlii..:i'Ylti..:i~..:if13Ji1u'l '"Jln\jn~1t1TI3.J(;)llil:::mnrnll'l-\~n'111h~..j1 <i11v ~1..:JL"liu m~nim'l-\E.JU~ Hailey-
Davidon, Apple Computer 'DJ:::1L~:J.JL"1\jn~111a.1n~a,inuL(;)E.Jm'lfl11..:1,-3J'll'WllEJ\l'il71ri"1mXu'l Yi-!v:1Jn1J
Gf..:I Lm:J.Jfi"'1nTI3.J<ii1..:161 1 ~1..:!'liti Liiei..:i
J . m11rl11Tl91'1afNtrnnU1{(Adding Structural Ties) fiom11mliljjm~..:1"r'J'l-\L"1\jml1'Vlie:Jrl..:l'YJU
113.J L'1-l.Lfl~El..:I SlvtJ1..:I El ~1\1 LYi el miafi..:i Lfl~ti-n1 E.J~ L~el:IJ 111 tl nu L"liu Lfl~tl,/1 tJ1.\.b1~1J1J supply Chain Lvi tl
.,.. .,11.,"X
'l'VltJ,.n17~nfl1 d. .. "' "' ,. .e ~ 'i ~ 'X
L~ LTI'YJU L'V'l ilfl17tJ7'Vl17.J1'\.t~\.bf11 LLn:::a\.bfllf1..:I L'Vlrl m ~ m tl eitl-:r::: LE.J"lf'l-l. L'\.tfl1j~.J'l5tlLLn~U1

au~i'tt1E1..:1~1J7Lnf1Vfforin;J1't~tl~l..:ITil'lLi1
" . LUu4i'u
v1..:1V1:1-Jl'ld fiti LLU1~l'lm1qimlll~flL'Vl:i.i~dj'l-\m1a-l1..:1~ruf11un~L~'l-\tl~nt.~1'l\1\~n~1 L-rJei'l\1\~nf11
Ln~f1113J'V'ltll'DJLn~f111:1J~n~\1.ntJa'l-\t-l1LLn:::ei..:it1ni1.u1:::t1~m1'iitiLtl

.. I '
u '!:!! "" Al "" " T. I -1"" ._.,.
'HG~'illnnfll!lll\18'H1Gl1~118Ul 1.3.3 mn IU'1~U{)Uflfl9n1UI 1.3.3
1
, '!:!! ...t ...'
Al ...
\lll\llnl1nfll!ll'H'Ultlfl 1 fl8'i.tTI 1.3 118~'1 1.3.3
Jerome McCarthy. (1996). Basic Maketing: A Managerial Approach. 1:fh ed. Home-wood, IL:
Irwin.
Aichael E. Porter. (1985). Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance.
New York: Free Press.
Philip Kotler. Marketing Management. The Millennium Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Regis McKenna. (1991). Relationship Marketing Reading MA: Addison-Wesley, 199'.i.
Robert S. Kapla.-ri and David P. Norton. {1996). The Balanced Scorlcard: Translating Strategy Into
Action. Boston: Marvard Business School Press.
Sam Hill and Glenn Rifkin. (1999). Radical marketing. New York: Harper Business.
'
2
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1lil 1'Yl.u., ~u .i..J. (lJ~'Vl1~1fi"l) ~mi:r-.~urn<Yi'1l~wi,,.uTioi1Hnf(111~
ti111"H1'.:i iE1'1f!1~~-.11'-l1161ht~1m'lf11rn'Yltr1m-N'vim1
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Peter Shamir '1.~~.:im!iln~3.J~n~1~L"111't3-i~n L~mnu~mu~~~~'l~~1V17u~nf)1~'0J~tl"lliu.Ji1.:1
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Whirlpool Coporation
lJ~ Whirlpool ~~'ilntl.l.fiLfl~il.:i'tiiLv-J.W1 '1.~a7'1.:if1113-1J1n~!iie:ii;m~h~~1a.nV1ft1E.J'Y1'11Tit'fiL~1
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m":i1ujilqi'V11 m":if;uvt1-n'e:i~ri mdtl1'tL51ur...:~'Y11-:J L~Eln m,.qf~~u1-.:i~ei ~L~:::"tiq~nTI3-lfl1t1V1~-:im~'1


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3.1 n7'ilHBnNn'1nwcr1 (Product choice) 4f1aii1,:i : m'lL~tlnLLlJ1JU1U Lli-urifu


3.2 n7'ilHfJfl'1'i1tttfJ (Brand Choice) lfi'1aii1,:i~11~1n'1'".JtL~anm1s:lu1u~5:iflU1J11V'I m:it
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3.3 n?'ilHfJtHJ1111iw (Dealer Choice) lfi''lt1ii1,:i : ~u~Lifl'".ltL~an~au1u"ll1mLV1~-l'ii1,:i'1
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"Students" (ibm~E.JU) "Business Executives" (~1.J~lll71rln'OJ) "Russian Souls" (1qJtl)1tWl~L;_aW)
~1l~l\IL'liu Cossacks ~\!fl~n~n~rn:::~'Yl:::Ll~.m'Yl:::mu Ei~1"t LL~:::clfti.:im~6imUfll'W 1wnrn:::~ Russian
.A, ILi I ... - .... a '1t.l1 ..' 4ll. ILi
Souls 3-Jfl113.l l~'Y1U 'Vl11~n~1'11lf11'i'Lmm bL~ t3-J fl1ld-JVl1\I ~tL'VIUL~Tl"llllit'Y1 Cossacks 'OJ:::LG'ieln"l!l.J

.
, 1tl1~ti""i)UAflilfl1'UI
4 4
'
.....
'
Cl ,, .._....
'Hll.:!11lflf1fl1flllHl'tt11111::l18.:i'fl 2.2.3 mn
Q.I
2.2.3
... ' ... t
... I
... ...
I I

'l-Ul'U'Jfll1ftfl11111'U1ll'fl 2 A8'Utl 2.2 118'1tl 2.2.3


'
""' 2.3
fl tl'l.Afl
'
UilcUfJ'1l~~fllflfJliiij8'1i'VUIAtl'nt]flfl11JJ~tfilflA

cu ...'
't'i111tH
...' ...'
L'Hl\l'Yl 2.3.1 fl113Jliltl\ln11
.,
.J .J
ml\l'Yl 2.3.2 LL1\l~\I h
.ol .J -
L"Hl\l'Yl
...' ..
'
2.3.3 !i~Wmm'V-l
.,
L1tl\l'Yl 2.3.4 n11L"IE.JU4
...
.ol ..I ., .,
L'7tl\l'YI 2.3.5 n1nl.Ji
o t I

L~e:J\IVl 2.3.6 fl113JL~mLrl~Yl~Ufl~

""' *"' m111n


n11L'7E..1'1,1,1 " .., LLfl:::'Y1'1Ufllil
.., -
., 'IJ

2. m1aJ~e:i.:im1 V13J1t1rn ~.:i~maJ11nvhL~3J111!t~ tJfiil~m,-l~mh.:ifijtJ1~5YJfim'V-lLL~t


tht~'Ylfi~~
61 .. ~.,.J-X 'I .,.,~., .. X
3. LL1\l~\I L-o:I 'Vl3J1tlt1\I '1\IL1l'YlLfl~'lJU"OJ1nmE.J LU~flfl~LL~t~~n?\UL'VILn?\n11mt'Y11'lJ'V.

cu _1 J
19'QIJ1~i.T-3fl

~ei~n1!t1111eu~ 2.3 -..imL"'1 ~n~n1!t1a13.111ri


1. ueirn:i.:i~tl1tnm.J'llei\ltl~~E.Jm.:i~lll1'Yl rn~ ~~'YlnV'l~.ieiV'l'J~ m1:1J ~lJ~111fll~
2. lJtlflf1113JVl3J1 E..l'lltl\I LL'1iflttl\1~1.h:::neiuL~
_,.. I A .J 2' _, I 'ti '1.,
3. E.Jn111 1eim.:in-o:im":i:i.J'Yl1\lnT'j'i!m?IYlau?\flr!t>\lnrnL'il~~tl\lfl 1~miu L~
fl 1 UJU1
Lde:i'Yldlufi..:1q;i11~51~qJ'lle:i..:irn1"~\9l~uh'lm..:i~u~tm1 m'Oj1LiJu4ffl-:i~n'lt1ii-:imL'Vl<l!~'Yi11~~u~1n'il
L~e:in~e:ia"ll1LV1ri1~u m,-qr\9l~uh11'0J~.am11~flUJLiiuL4e:i-:i'lle:i..:i LL~"1~1iTl'il"1 im.i"1~nn~-:1LL1\9l~e:ia..1mwe:in
11'<ilLi1~15Ji'YlnV'l"1lile:im1"ril\9l~Uh11'<il~eJ'Vl~fl'W Wil~1J~Lrw1ej'-:Jq;i-]qf\9l~UhJ\'1t1qf1Le:i-l11'n1"L~~l3.!"1~"
'Vl7ei13-1 'Vl~tioi~1~4re:i3.1~~umJ1-:ih

@\'-:iiXu Unfl17<11~1\9l~..:lffJ1~UL'OJU'<i1~~~-l'<il1nm~LU1ilfl'il~bL~~"l1n~..:ibb1!li~ela.Jill~'U.elfl~b-if1.1-11

!i~'Ylivrnlile:irn1qf\9l~u1'<il~fl'llei..:ir.ru~Tuiri L'll1~-:im'<ilLL~nr1'<il1,-m1n..:1~1LL1.h~5JfilY1n~~!ilm~u~Tu'il1~
~ ~
2
'-' 'l I ,di,
~n1!1tU~ mqJ61 'ile:t

1. cif1LLthm~LU (Basic determinant)


2. ~-lLb1\9l~fl.1-lfl1tlUem (Environment determinant or influences)
~.:i~ij5'Yluv'J~c;leim"i"@1~ftuh'llei.:i~tl'M~ '<il::Jjif<J~t1 2 qf1 ~u U"GJ~wnti'lu bL~~ll'<il~~mtiutin
U'<il~mnt1LuL1t1n-J1 Basic Determinants Lllwibn1V1\.\\9l~\.\~Ujl\.\ ~e:i rn1"~'il\.l,b'rl'<il~'Yi1e:i~h
.... ::) ..: .!"t x 'I .J ,!=; ., ..
.1-JG'l.:l'YlLuU~US1Wl1tl LU'YlbuUGJ1n1'VIU\9l 'ilfl

Motive

Personality

Attitude Leaming

Perception

111ft~ 2.31fo1i't1111fJ1'M (Basic Determinants)


0 0 Q.I ,,

tll~ 1tl~tl 'JlJJ-UtHtl 'Jl llP18~ fll'l


II 4 ~ J o 1 ti
tt11iJFt8"n11 (Needs) 'HiJlUfl-' vn1cr1ii11um 1'tnnfMr.1 {)Ufln111Meu1u1
'tlci. ~ )t If I t.11::&n111uma::

t.h::u11iND
~..:!~ fl11Yl'711JLL~::Yi1m1:i.J L~1l1111UL~tl..:lfl11:i.J4i't1..:in1'~nflt1
1. n11u,;'n.:1m11i/u1mg 1U'fJB.:1m1m~ ri111tJ:JJJ'l/'llrf m13-Jtlfo..:inn dJun'7t1u~m..:iil'i.J~E.J5w1
~\l'Vl:i.J~~LUUl-lfi1h::nm.J'iJ~Nf'lf:)qJnTI:i.J~t17Ln'1 ~-:nXum~-l~1LUU<1i't1..:it1nt11E.Jf'lf:)qjm73-J'iJEl\l~tl~lfl'1
1~E.J~~Lmm1aJ<lfEJ-lm7'llt1-l3-J\l'l!t~LiJu,-,n~1ua14fqi LL~::L'Vi71::m1a.J'11t1..:im,-dLe:i..:1 ~vh'\.Vi'flm7i.i'e:i.:J
m::Yi1V1mE.J~ ~\I L"11u clft1.:J-!ul.J~mumm,- '11t1..:i;tivnt1~Lnfl{u~1 <1i'EJ..:iYi1..:i1u '1~'1
2. f11ml11.:1n117u7if11mvnnis~ LL~11 m1a.J1mwfo-l111::dJuL'VI~'\.VfLn~m13-Jclft1..:im'J"n cm 3-.1
m1a.Jun"v'liie:i..:1LiJuL~t1-l'lJei..:inTn11~~\11~~..:iwd.-:i ~..:in1't~~um,-'iltit1fluei..:i LL~1 m1a.Junf'l'lt1..:in111::'V11E.J1u
LL.! m1a.Jclfl..:ln17"ll tJ\la.J'i'lfUiiuLiJU~\I~ 3-J'i'l!tU5l l ~fl'l..J ~1'il~tl~L1m't3-J11 L"ll1"il::'t~w n1'7q) tl'l..Jfl'Ue:l..:I LL~1
'Vl:;aUJncm:i.J L"11u 71-:imE.J.i'EJ..:1m7mmf!'Vl1t1'\.111 .ia..:im7mV11-n!1 11i't1-:im7m1:i.Ja::~1nflrnt1 L~11'i.J::Lill
,u~..:1L'V1~1dm.i1.:JL~ t1..:if'le:i ~1'\.ui1111~trun'i11a.J L"D1ri if..:iiifl113-Jclfa..:im''\.u~..:iL'Vl~1dt1~q1a'tu ~..:im~n~11
" I I ' ') l..t " A l..t '*'t
I
144'~
I SI
G -='
't~11 m1 a.J'l...l nf'l'7Wll l.J:i.Ji.t'l!l'E.J'Yl1 L'VIL,-, 'il'J"::'Vlunm m13-J<tl a..:inTl'YI a.J :i.J'YI nu'!~ LL!il::Li-1ny.i m m3-J 'Yl"il::
I

'i1l'l..J~UtJ\lfl113-J<li't1\lm'l'iJtl'l<il'\.l.L~El1~~7'1.J~'I LV1~1iiu
3.
JI ""
.,
"" 7 ...
Jlcv r
f111JJ'18'3f111Anfl'fJU A'f1'3t11'311.Jf11lJllO~f1'11fJ
"" 'f ' .. "'
I
~ I
I
..
1"1\ln1E.Ja.Jfl'J1a.J'i1tJ-lf11'ru1..:ln-ltl1..:ltlm\l'YI "il1LUU
~

~1'VIWf117~11"..:1~1'11 L"llu mmf! tl1'Vl17,!1 '1~'1 "l!tu::L~E.J'lflil.3-J't'l!l'Unir..:ifl'151m1a.J4i'El..:in1'lb~t11n'l...l~'ilh


~1E.J Liu .i't1..:im1m1a.Jfl::~'mflmE.J fl11a.Jtlmi~Ji'E.J '111a.J-!n m1aJv'l...l~\.\ Lllu<lf\.\
4.
J I UJI!:# j/ U7 ~I 4V .J ' 1 "'
U1J'llllll'1IO::nu111::11UtJ1~fl111J111tJ.JfJ11 'U1::'1V'f1'11N? tJ'U n11"'Yl3-J"*'l!l'E.J LL'il~::flu'OJ::~m~'VIUn

f1..:1m1a.J4ft1..:ln1T'lltl..:IL'iJ1iiu nLii.eJ\l"il1nm~L'iJ1'l.11~'l..J1..:l~..:ltl1'1eJEJ1.:Jltli{,_ml..:I
i;l\l,XU";i::~'l..J'iJeJ-lfl113-JctleJ..:lf117
~\l~'V.EJ tjnt1~-l~ ~u~Lnflif.:J'll1~El ~ L'ilu 'lumtii.~ Lri~ti..:itlw mm '1~Yi1.:J1uLn~-n~.;;t1.J'1\.\~Yi1..:i1ut1 ~n-.i::
'ii'tl\ln1'7fl113J L~\.l.-XuYi 'Vl7am,.yt L~n~'Vl~..:15! L~fl ~1tl tjLL~1mna.J1 E.J LL.Jn ifoiifl113-Jctlelln17L~El~1LV13J5n
nLi'i.eJ..:i"il1n'fo1m~::.i'ei..:i'l.'4L~El~1!il'1E.J'l LJl.\.\'11m~rn~.:in1~oi11w1LL~1"iltL~U11 m13J.i'B.:Jm'7~.:Jn~11LUU
m13-.1c;)EJ..:1m1"~1\.\~<ilL"ila.J1nm1~1wn..:im ti ~-:iiiw~::~u fl11a.Jclft1-:im'7'1l El.:J LL'li~::flu~-:i31m13-J LLqirnh..:inu
5. n11U'1t>~m1 JI !'/"'
tJ1fJlu'lll1fJ-3'18'3'1111J011 u "".JI~
u 111tJ,
1JJlntJll (necessities & luxuries) b7i:1m L~
vii"'

~UEJ ~L~3Jeiii-:i~hn~11L'V.Yi1uEJ.:i11 riu1~\.\1i:h rn~:i.JLYlti ti '1ud'l-H~1 rn~vn::~-.l1 d]u VJ7t1riuiXwll'e:iuYi1~1


'Vl~71 m7Li'~1t1't'V.flnn,-t\l~-:in~11Ln~~uLYiTI::~u~l.n '171E.JiiU'l '117::V1Unfii.:im13-J11i't1..:im1Luftuf11
iiu~ LL~~1fl1'1'11tl'l..J!il'Ut:l\lfl11a.J<li'ti..:! n11"'11El..:1'1\.\t~ tlf117'li'~1 ti L~ULL~nnumw11nfl~U~l~"
au~1~..:l!il'eJ..:l~n~~..:in~11 m111anrnt1~.Jm13-J<1i'EJ..:1m7L~ n~11f1t1 LU'llW...~flU~ V1ii..:ifi~d1
ftU~1iiuLUUL~tl..:l'iJEl-lfl11a.J-.l1LUU '1u5u~ moi~~11LUU"1Jfl..:l'YIVl71 ~a.JLYlm.1 mL'Vl~Ltlt1..:13J1'0J1n~'l...l7Ln'1
LL.i~::'1U~a.J1<917~1Un17'1'7El\l;Yibb<iln.!1..:inu 'l..J1'1'1Utl1'0J:i.JEl'1113-J1'111"]1Un17'fl7tl\l;'Vi'llel..:1<91ULU7::~tl
i1111,truLtlu'f1113-.1~1LU\.\LL!il::l3-Jut1a.J~'l...l11~..:i~'iluu7Lnfla~ Lfj\.\'1113J'Vl'l'Y171 L"llu flu'tun1..:i LY1~'1 OJ~cift1..:i
.il~L~U Ut:lU'l...JU~UtlU t~a~~~'d'l.ltu::m'l..JJ1 '1~'1 LL.JflULW~U'l..JYltn"il~~11~\IL'Vl~1iiuLUUm13-J'Yl'l'V!71
.. .. .J ~ ...
~-:lbfl1"tlVI b11V. -G'i'l-!.fll
tl ,.:m",.i,"lf'l'il
"' .....u'7mUElf>lflfltl
1 "' ., .. "' ... r
bb~::;mi-nlf1b'jfl
.., ...
Lt!WT!'U.
..J ... ...
'11'U.fl113-J~tl-:lnTTI11\IVl1 '\..\.'l.J'ln
~ IJ d ' I 'l "' - A 't A IJ~ '
. . .... I 9.1
(positive needs) bt.;Wf'n13-:'ilfil-:ln1'7'Ylml 'VILn'ilm1:J.J'Y'i-:l"tm 'OJ 'W!'1113-11'1n'Y1111 L'Yl'U Cllfl-:im1mvi1rn,-filt1'l
J

lli'B.:1m1~~'lUTI:J.JL0Ml'U.~\lf1:J.J mmM1\lfl'm.Jlil1a.J11"tl

..... _1 " .... "" ,, ,, "'~


1flQ111:'1'~fl'Ufl~fl11'rt~l'lflll0'3fl1UJftO.:Jfll1'Ufl~.IPJU1 l.flfl (The Purpose of Needs in
Consumers)
1. 1~H'v,,tNm1flBVi1'UB~fl-:1mlt1.w11'11tJ~,,ju1Tnn -.;i::; btlv.if11'111fl11:J.J Llluei ~zm..:i ~u~'Infl
mh1~ El ~'l.J7Lnfl1J1\lflV.rll:J.J1'7t1 Gl'U.fl\1'1113-J cifo..:imTIJ EJ-:i~uL~a.nn'll~~u1-:iflu'Yi1L~uti ~u1-:i f!Uij m1:J.J
~\l'V'IEJhiv.~-:i~'1~'7rnb'iim'l flv.nl.3-Jvr~ih fl ~i-:i'1ni~'t3-Jfi1 ~u7lnfl'l111~-o;i ::;~13-J1,.ri-~ufil-:i m13-Jl1i't:i-:im1-zm.:1
c;iuL~Vlamrim~ei..:i ~-:ii.ti.t m11-ii'1~~m111b~EJnTiUiL1w1ftuq.l1-oJ::;1n111~v.e:i ~1aa.Je:i11~::;mi"~~uilnflcilti.:i\j'qJ
L~ tlL~ UL~ El~!lftit~1'VJnfl~di bUUL~[h'l~~lflqJ ~1Ji1nfl'OJ::;~'OJ1"ffil.1ii.:1~~<1)[)1J LLVlit'tii.~1um1~Yi.:i'V'l elhfi~~
"ill-o;i1nm1aufil.:1m1a.J~e:i.:1m,,lu ~u7LnfllJ1\lfl'l-l.<111"::;"r'l~n~11 ~ii.'t3-Ja1:J.J1~lm1:J.J'l"'luhvi~EJc;iEJuaue:i..:i
~ A '1 ., JI. a,.i.. '1 ..,,. ~ IJ A:i _ ..J ~'1 .., -
fl11:J.J'i1El\ln1'ji111W-i\ll!ttlft3..!V'IU1r (m1"3-JLYrnU) bVI ue:imnnUt:.i3.J'71tl bl11Vlm'OJLlJU~'l.J'jUlflYlbLtl bl11 L'V'l d1::;L\IU
"' "' ,

~'lit'hiaj'11EJ\IL'll1\)n..t11tl~..:i"rl'lta.nnn11nTm71nfl~u~11.U'llru::;~f!uSidlti1~~1m-.;i Lllii.~uilnfl~~vnnfi1
,-::;~um1<11u1J a'U.tl~fl11a..icJIei.:1m'7'J.:I LL~::;1~~1 t1 L~'U.d1 t1't~~-:!Vla.J~"ll u..:i L'll1L-J L~ umw71nfl~v.~1
2. '171J.17UiIU1J'1fJl1UR71UfftJ.Jtnnh1n,,jv1Tnnlli1A~'t'tr/~f>111J L~fl~Vlfl'l1:J.J~..:JLfl~tlVlfl'l1:J.J
UJft:J.J\j7n1.'t,.~'1113-JcJIu..:im'!dm-;,i Liie:i.:1-;,i1n m7~1.J~ t1ULb1.J~.:1ftmW'11'1"J'Y11..:i L~~n-o;i m1:J.Jf11111V11'.:1 m7~1.:1
-:11u 'il'U.1~'llu-:1'17u1Jf1~1~1.V1qJ~v.vi1m~m~-:i m~ m1fta..11a "1~'1 :A.:1t11~u~tnf'ILV1~1d~e)1v.1-o;i~l L'll1n'"l::;
1J~Ln flft'U.~1LV.<11~1 V!Yi'v.Yi L-fl tlG'tUtl\lfl'll:J.JcJleN m~\I Ln ~'"l1f1fl11:J.J'l.Jn'Y'dEJ..:i~ll""IBau El~ Wiltl1 L'll1'Wa::if11'U.1'0J
'IJ

~EJ3.J1n'l"JEJ L"tl1n-.i1 ~u-:i E..i!l3.J-!'u~m'l"l~'OJ~'ilti1Ja~u.:im1a.J !fi'EJ.:1m1'lu1::;~u~ ~1n'J1iXv.'11 "lf11"lf:J.J'lf'U.LLfileJ



VI~
ih1t1~~~1'0,JU't3-Jma.J17f;)ftV.tl-:1'111:J.J<1i'eNn1'7'lJ[)-:1~1 Ltl\ll~~:J.J\j"ID!LUV.~'lu ~1~~~1V.L~eJ\ld L'V'l1"1~~d11J1111
~ L"111 LV1~1iXttLnV1il L~V.~'U.:J.JltdJ-)1~1 m VI~L~fiqi1:J.J L'll1'0J~!ilUEJ.Jfl11:J.J~El-:lr.1'7~5jtl~'t1v.fi LLfltl1L3-JL~L'll1n
-;,i::;Ln111m1~Gi..: Lfl7EJV1m-:1Lui'm13-J ~-:i Lfl~t1111'ilEJ..:i'V'l1rn"111f11:V1t1m1~~uV11u1cil~uV11u~1'YlEJnv. Ltlu<li\.L ~..:i
iXum-;,i::;y.iu11!iau~1"/.mEJ'lfii.111"W~1:J.Ji'7ma'l-l.u"ll1t11~nuflULV1~1iXv.'1~ LYm::;e11u1-o;i~EJ'1JJ L~ti\l'V'luvi7ei
m-;,in~1111aii.~1~1 LUU1J1~~ ~1\l~"rl fl1~\I LnitLU~1W~'l.Jb'll1

2-32

" """1llfl (Structure of Consumer Needs)


1fl1-l.tii11HfllU.IPltl-l.tfll1"lltNPJU1
ti

'lln~~1'YlmL~~~lm..:iaT1.:im13.1clft1..m1~t1\l~mlnfl l~t1uti..:1LiJ~1~uii.uit1.:i'<il1nf1113.1clft1.:im'l
~u~u31u'ttJifom1d.J1i1t1\ln1'7hi~U'ij..:l~U m~~~1~1Jfl11d.Jcllt1\lm,.d un~<i11'Yle.mbuL'VlqjUU\l~1~'l.Jm13.l
ciffl.mT~m:imliu 2 ~1UL'Vlqjci ~tl
,, JI =-i ti :; J' ~ .., '1 l.llL.o
1. f111UfltNn11~11Un1tJl11fl (Physiological needs) bIJUm1d.J<iltl..:ln1T'll'U~'UJlWM<iltl\l b~'ru

m'l<ilt1'l.JffUt1..:i'luLTmeYwm'l iio;i.~iXufluiXum'<il<i11E.JLl?i' b'ltu m13.lvi1m~'Vl1t1 mm.Jeiuut1u'Vl~1J m1~


l'l.J~u m-:Mrrni1t1"llt1:ll~rn:mnOJ1n~1\lmt1 Luu'fi'u
2. ,, ""'7
R11U'1B~f111Fl1UfJfl fJllD::811UOI ~
' (Psychological or emotional needs) LlJUfl11~!;ltl'lnl'l'Yl
., '""'
"il~L@i3.ILL'ii~1c;i'l\1:0d.J1111131um'lmt1~~~\1..:i~u LUUfl11~n~~u~..:i'Y11\lmmLfl~fl1J LLfl~EJ\lLU~qi~n~
'l\1i1m'l.iluaut1..:im1d.Ji5~..:1Ln~'<il1n~a~ll"llt1..:i~..:1Ln~"'t13.lmt1ut1n tl7taum'm1LLa~amW11~m..:i
~<ilh

m1.U~ii1R'ufl1n.1fi'o-1.tm1"Uo-1.t~u1l11fl
'YlrJ~~m'l~~~1~t1f111~clfo.:im'l'llt1..:i~u71flfl~..:JLUU~t1t1~~t1LLa~-nrn.ie11..:1~\ll~E.Jrf1'ttl L~LLri
Tiqll~m':iU~OlAUfl'JUltlfl.:I011'll1!h'I Maslow (Hierarchy of needs) ~iala1'tiJ\'t1fu.J1E.J11 'Yi1Ld.Jfl'l.\L'l1~\l
rim.J 6"n~u1~ E.Jm1d.J'fi'ti..:i m7ti E.J1..:1'l~ ti E.J1..:i'VI rt..:i rn n fl1 'l~ nfl1'Vlii..:i 'Yi1't~ flUb'rl~ . :i'l~L1fl1 LLfl tY-l 6"..:i..:11u
'tJlu
L~t1.:im1~tlflt1~i1E.J'lu:a1'11'Vl7e:im1L~flu5'Ud.J1Lfl1'lwuuiit1 d.J1alfl{t~c;it11.1~1m~LV1rhd-:hm1~cllt1..:im'l
'llt1'1~'11~m111~um~(;) bUU~1~uiu ~..:i LL~~..:i~:Om1d.Jrn-Wi'Ud.J1n~ 'l~'<iluttfl u~~~ 1~ rn7rn'<il1n~1~uf111~
a1~qi Llli'LLrl m16.Jrifo..:imw1..:ifl..:imt1 m1~c;ft1\lrn'lm1d.JUfltl~nE.l fl11d.J4i'tl..:!nld'Yl1\la..Jfld.J m1~'fi't1..:inn
'l~illnmTmmJt1..:i LLfltfl11~clltNm7tl7~ff1Jfl11~a1L7o;i~.:i~~'lu~i<il 1.Jflfl~'<il~!ilt111auei.:im13.1cJli.:1m-ITI
$jT111d.Jri1~qi~Gf~ritiu ul fll.J Tiflfl,Xu't~c;it1uaufl-:wm~cllfl\l m-ITI ri1~qi,XuLL~1n~~:Om13.J4i'fl..:im11u-iu
'iiti'l 'ttl5n'Vlie:im1d.J~e:i.:im~ri1~qi1t1..:ifl.:id.J1 L,fu a~'liluvhl~t1ii~t1.:im1m~u~ 1 ~ti T1113.!4i't1.:im'l
'Yl1.:1~1ufi..:imt1 L"ll1'0.l~'tJ.Jauhfl11d.JLUultl'lul~n"llt1\l~flu~~\JLUum13Jlii't1..:im"'i~u~ 5 'Vlit1'ta.lauhi1
L'lll'"lt\jn3.Jt1\l'Vl~tl1~~t1m'lt1n~tl\l"il1nTiu5ut1E.l1..:ih (m1~i;le:i\lm"'i~U~ 3 viifl~U~ 4) viim~w1lmmfl
~m t1h 'ta.J~1 LUU~'<il~~t1..:i Ltlummflu7'1'Yl~'Vlitl'tJJ (mi~i;i't1.:im'l~U~ 2) w1i L~ m"ll1L~TLimmmfltJ1~
L~rn~mL"''"l mi3Jcllt1.:im1LU~1~'l.J~tlLU'l n"il~L~~LLa~..:Jtltln:1.n
'YlrJlf~"llt1.:1~1~1~1i1E.J'l\1unm'l!ilfll~~~11.:1 ~~c;inrn-riLL~~trif1'll1Luu'tum~LL~u Lll1vi~1mLm:
m'l~n.:if-i<il"tltl\l~'l.Jil.nfl 1~E.Jd.J1atfl1'l~LLU\lf1113J'ifo.:im'l"lltl\l3J'i~~ltlnLUU 5 ~'U<iltl1-~~.:1d
,, , .!"! ., ~-'f" .<l~l'
1. tt1111'1B~m1rnn1'1mtl (Physiological needs) LIJUm1d.JCiltl\lnl7L'Uu'O,l'<iltl 4 'lf\JLlJU'rm.JlU
"tltl'1~'\1lfE1L~e:i1\1il;Jiil'lti~ L~LLri mV111 J, Lfl~tl.:i~vid.J ~ti ~mffmL~~m~n1"1hTl ft'U~1'V1~1E.J~it111
r,1t1'U6'!Ut1\lm13J'flt1.:irn'l~1Wn\l m E.l't1 tl'1d.J\ilim'Ul.~tl\l~\ln~11 mvbn:Omvi1dfiu mrn~1 tJL'rl5J LTl~tl\l~3J
nULLnmtV11 tiL~ L'n5l~UtlU't1a1'Vl~'U.Xm.Jt1u 5litl\l LYl1L~tl1-l~i1t1.:inueJU!il'rltl~ tll'<i!Ln(;)~'l.\ L'rl5lm1~
~tlfou~mf1~1.ht114f Luucllu
2. f111JJ'1tJW 11VOtJflntJ (Safety needs) LU'\..t~11aJ~E\lrnTil'DJ~ij~1<11fl ~111w.1tldl ~'"llnf!Tla.Jn~1
a .1 11. '
m13.lL'"l1J1J1<il m:3-! ;..;..ir1~<n1n~rnti
;.11*'.lffi'\;J't~iiL~Vll~mlaJqlfl..:ml~U.JlULUil'"l~tl 4 LYi1-&u~\1~~~1<11fl~'ll~ LLqJ3.J1*'1!tU~\l!jm1aJ
~e:i.:irn1~;.11n'ttln11~u 'lum1~'1~il~1<111e:i<ile:i ~~1~fl1 ... ;.ium:i111/fr.1LL~~iim1~~~'1\I1.ii.~1111 m1<11~1<n
J ''t 9" ~a CL.I ~ 2' .J. II I -J I d t.I
'Y1 fl~ <ilVJfl'lUUn bY'ldl~fil~'lJ1H'1U~11'Y1 <i1l1Jr!Ul-:lml;J<i1l'1f11':i'il"W'] 'Ylfl ~ii.mi bVl\l,[l-;.)!flm1~ <i1 fl.:Jfll'j

~us1u'lJe:i.:i3.l1*1f~~PJ\;1 mr11aJ11rinwil11n"...le.i~'t'jn'1.ili'~"lifl'OJ~t!1~Yf\!~1111e:i~'t;. LL~,fa.i111.f61~'1.~<1lei.:im1


L~rnLL~iiu m'1.~~um1"".::rie:iUa.J111qfe:i-:inumV111'l~mi.: 5 v:~ ~e:i.:iA~~m1-:iL~t1<111'0J~'t~vmu illei.:inu
.., '" .:!ii ..._ - a ~ \( s.r...s., "' u a 11 a "" u 1 .. _:- .t I
r!3.Jn~~11'l!'-:13.l1111; a-Jwlf3-lln'l L'Ylu'1~ L<nue:i.:inuV11<n 'OJ~n'\.l.ff:V11'luflr.rnun<11ei-:11~1-:111mmqi tn'Ylm m
II " 1.ci
"'
A t LI G II .....
I
__, A
'
" II :') I ~ SI tJ I
'Yll'"l~<ilfl-l LaJ3.J ~~':ir! 'OJ~~mJ~l LL'Vl-:lfl<i1l-:l~'l'la-lbb;.l~\11Ul11[!.l-JL~el L'Vl bLU .'OJ11n'U.fr'.'OJ~ dl~'"l1m.J1~1LL;.1~'1
fl II u A l.r C"..J
3. f11UJ'1B~f111~1Uf111J/1f1 (Belonging and love needs) flfl ~:11;.J<ile:J.:lm':i'lll'13.1'!1~~.l'Y1mnn
'"l~Ltlu.~eia-J~1J '1.i11~ufl11;,i~n m1~Yl-:i~flhnn~~u flld1J~l.nfl~u~1vm1ti'l "lf'ii.111 L~fl~1~r!1ll'l VIJ'l
~r!l;JT':ifl'litel'm<nLfl':i'l 't~ Lfl~ei.:ia1m\I m1w1l\IU1U'Vl1'l ~1 ml'lei.ffa'OJfl~flUl\I~ LV1~1d~1ub~flnr!n
Lvie:i'l~qiuLe:i\I Lilu~ titi3-JW'l!e:i.:i5\lfl~ "ilti.:inu"ile:i\l'lirW\e:i-a.1~t.~~w113.l~m111.::n~a.iel'1.:i'1~e:i ~~13.1nu'lii.
n~;J"'\lfl:l.J L~ mnu ~.:idnLYiei'l~n~:1.J"'\lfl3.ltltl;.!~1JL'n1 LUUaaJ1~rnti.:in~3.J ti tl1.:iri~tlfll1 Lllu1uiun~fl'1
J "" :'fil A A (;I IV A 'l"" ""'
L'Y1..111111;.l~r!bnLtl"fl 'Yl':itlU'l::Lfl'Y1'1Jfl'1n~1n11m-iL~un VIL'l/la.Jl:::r!.tm.Jn'l3.Jrl.l-11~n'Y!L'f1Lntn"11tl'1<il'ltl 'OJ~LaU
I ..J .J ., SI I

LLu1113ju~un@lt1-:iL~e:in Yonex '1.1rfou ~.:im'"ln~11l.~115u;.1V1m mit<n.i':i"111ueiFJ1ii.111m111l.~nLY-l11~maJ1m


<ilfll.Jr!ue:i..:i m1aJ4le:i\I m1~1um1aJ~m fl..:13-1\11"~ LUU~I ~tlJ
4. mmltJ~m1,;B1atJ.JJ001At1tf (Esteem needs) Lilum13.1@le:i-irn11.~~.m1':iumJe:i\I a-Ji.t~n
~ .. A ~ ~ f'i ~.J ~...i t a .. A't I .. ' ..0 A ., ~ ~ ~
flU'iltl\ln11Lnm<il E.Jq;f"!) m'1 tl\ILL~~m':iLlJU~'l'l ~t!U":i~ant'l\I ~ E.J~Ln E..l':i<i1 ;.ILY-ltl'1LL<ilm1E.Jfl:l.J'j1J LVI L"111~'1fl3.J
(~u~ 3) LYi1~u LLlil~ei.:im1Ltlu~it11u"'..:i'13.J~U'l ~'lu L'lfu m":im..nrnuw~j:i.JW111ueimV1itfl'"l1nm1Lllu
ri.a. eimmuuVl1V1it1~uweimV1ii.ei"OJ1nm'lLUuum7m,;, Li:u~u
ii Sf 4.' d
U ~ ~- '1 .:ti
5. f111J/'1tNn111 UPl1'11B~fl11B~ (Self actualization) aJ1fl-l'<il'VIU'1;.J'11'ltll'OJ~ La.J LLfl111 '1Uf:JU'OJ~
A !

3.Jfl\lqJ'l Lfl-le:J~l\I h LL<iJ L"i11'0JtL~3.J~n4f'l Le.J..:I LLa~a.ltl'1'V\1~'1~'"l~rl-fl.:iTl11a.11J~'t'OJl~ll1J~1bB.:J mh.:iL'ln~a-J\11ffi


~..:i s:im1;.ia1itn~<n~~111~1ue:i~"luh.iJ'l~'Yl~me:i'Yl~mu~L~:::.;.iti~qf1m.:i;.11mnu'ttJ m 1.;.iiana1itntl<nihe:i.:i
~Yh'l~m13.Jf~nmfl1:J.iJh1u411Le:i-:1Ln111~u'tili'mn i1q;V11e::i~i~1Yhe:i~1\lhL':i1'"l~~<nm1:J.J~1itntl111'l~nu
~u11.nfl1~ ll1L11maJ1'lri~~m1:1.Ja1ii.n~111"1JEi\lm~/~"1 b'll1n'OJ~Ln111m13.Jmfl1J~h'lu~1m\lbb~:::~~e:i~u
\f _]I ~ I> I V. I.I ._,... a .r " l.J .l R.I ~ ~ li. .J ~
La.J11"'1Ufl1'"l~LLY-l\ltiL1-:1 L1"~1m.J1flnm3.111fl'lfe:J L~ L'V'le:Jfl113.J<11ei\lm1 Lu"nuu L"trnm1a.ia~ 'OJ ~a.i L'OJ"lle:J\I
'l
<ii ULfl\!

;.i'\1'1!tE1YJnfl~ m i aJ'Yl:::bu ei'l'l~mu'Lidl':it:'l'l.41 e:i~'t-:rrn\I ~\ll.Jl-ltl t!l~ ti ~"luqf1 Lmrn LLi'l:::tle:iufl~.:i~


m13.1tJ117riu1"!lti'13.l'\11f~<ilt11JtlUeN1"1~1m<11~ ~\lm'"lri~11L~11 m13Ja1~i'OJ1.u~1<11a.i~lfUL~3.J1~1iim':i
... .,
d-J1!1l~'ilt:i1JtlUtl\I
IJA SI .... '-' .J .. ~ A I.I J..! - .-l
rnaJm13.J'ile:i..:im1cm 2 ani.ff!A:::'YlL1J7tJULr!3.JeJ"A~~'ll11Lb'lfaJ'VIW1 'YlL~;JL'il;J-oJln'YlfjlfL'J'Y.le:l'l Maslow
1. A'J1"8t11nfBt11nn'lu (need to know) 3.J'11ffitJnfli.Uifl113.Ja\.bh lfl'lJufJi\.b4l'lLLfl~LYfTI~m13.1
ti m njBmm~\.briLcFJ~Yh'l~3.J"11ffirli'B\I Lftrn~\.b'Lu LL"'1i.nn'llm..nn m'l1.JwtJ1\lfl\.btl1l lV13Jt1 ~Laa.Ju~\! Lll\.b

~\l~iXnm1'ilm(j)"il~3Ju\14l13-1$jLcJl
2. A'JUJAtNm1qun; (Esthetlc needs) d~h.1im1a.Jrlfo..:imi"lii.~\1~~1u'1 \113-1'1 m1a-1LtluifC1li;t1u
a:j,~LiJuLJ ~\I 'l(j)L3.hm~r~rnin~\l,,1\.b~ua.JYi1'l-XLn(P)m1a.J~\l~uh (;)\!,Xu Lfl~u\J~Cj)~u Lfl~o\l~n~1 ~-.:i
I I
.., I "" A '1 "" " ~ "' "' ,..,-- ~ "" "' .. '1 .,..,
"lfnnon Liri1e:i-.:i"'1m\I "OJ~'ll1U LV'lfl1L\.bUL'Vl~U'llllflLV1Umm13.Ja1m1a.1 m13-1~~m(j)~~mu'Yl"OJ~L(P)'UJ"ll1n

nTTIJilniri
{i'1iCnm1'il~l(P)513Jl7flb4hl'OJi1..:Jfl'l13Jcilu-.:im1~-.:i 7 'llu\I ~ui1nflbb~1
.. n513-J11fl~Cj) LLU~\lfl'l13J
4fo..:im~" 1 d'l-Xe:i~~"lu'llo..:i1qiQ L71na13-J11rn1u~u~1"llt1\IL11L~V'lu'l.Wfluf11n1~1LLt11n..:im1a.Jrli'ei\lmi
~ u ~ L~t1\IV1~..:innu~'tim L71~Lcll'!n rn~tj Dove LL.IL'll"ill Ufl'lla.J~'tl u..:i ~'l L71b.i'tcll'l11 ua~'L~YJrnrnii LL'li
L71'111 Ufl113J"~mC1l rimJ\.1.1~
.. U'll a..:i fl1fl1Jfl1'l 'Vl~fl L,,b.ilcll"lllll m~~\.l.LLql L71'!! 1Ufl'l13J~\.bh~'OJ~l~n~C1l
f11a mn"il~~uh~"il:::l~n"'~V'ln\.bncila..:i'l~m~~"'ln~C1l dJurlfu
m1LLU\1~1(;)u m13-Jcila..:imi'llu\I Maslow ifo nrl11 cll1 u11 b!it11..Jflfl~1cll'lun1'l91fltJ"'\.Lu'lfl'l13J
rli'e:i\lm1iu~uj1ULL~1 m13-14fe:i\lm1~u~U.Jl\.bn"ll~~C1lfl'l1a.J~14i'qJfi\ILL~~*fl11a-1~14\'qi'l-Xnufl113-J
41u\lm11u~1(;)u~\.b~ ~-.:i~uttJ LLlil~..:i~tcllV13-J1 um13-111m13,1rlfe:i-.:im1~\.b~U.J1U'"'1~V13-JV'llu m~'.l!tiiciie:i-.:im1
:auL~m Lnm~uffLL(i]fi5jlcJlvia.J1um1a.J11a.J'11'.l!t~"ll:::LaJ4fe:i._:im1mvi11V17m~e:i~1L~m..JntJC1lfi-.:im u5n!iluttJ
LL"''d V11n'Y'lri~mw~t111ni:)ucln3-!1 ~u ~u~1nfl~\lfl\lrli't1\11.Jilnflm'Vl17 ~m~a~1e:i~vnmL!ilmV111V1i'a
L~l ~1~~u'OJ:::1cll1um1flfi~t1\.1.3-11mllufo~'.l!t ~\ldL.;J e:i'l~un~m13.Jvmh 'l\.bL~u-.:i~m~u-.:i Lnm~ ut1cll1 tJ
m"il LLaC1l..:i m'Y'ln1'~~V'l~1 ~tJfl113.J~a-.:im"I"ll t1..:if111 a-1~ti\lmitell~..:id

Self-Actualization
[Self-fulfillment]

Esteem needs
[Prestige, status, self-respect]

Social needs or Belonging & Love Needs


[Affection,friendship,belonging]
Safety and Security needs
IProtectionk,order, stabilily]

Physiological needs
[Food,water,air,shelter,sex}

illft~ 2.4 Hierarchy of needs Maslow's Theory


If I.I I I I
._, ll.I I.I A II I ..... 41111. Ill' I I U ~ I~ ... ... I

'il1~-nl(;)l.:~'WillU"li1\ILV..'U i;{~'Ylel'l.4'J1~1'Yiell:J'J;1\lrll\I bas:'.c n11q]'JY1lF.l'll1\llJU 'r,L1"tlm1 Hierarchy


... .., " ~ ""' .,., _ !\4 i.I ' t.I " Ill.I I ' II A
Vl3-rn..Jri.:! n1"N(;)mCl'lU"liUq]P}Ufl'"l13.lalflqj LL'il ~ L(;)V13.Jl~fl1l:J..: 3-J't1'1!1tJ'OJ:::'ilhl i.Cll"lil\1~1\1 '13-l\J7rl.LLL~1 '0J.:J'OJ:::
't~i\:ilJU L~tlflll Holistic D}'!lamiC Coneept 'V13-11tlfl113.:~1 fl113-lcilei.:inT'li~ 5 ~l~U ~V.'ilEU -il1\IUU
iXua1a..iT~mn(;)L~'V'l-!eJ~'l nu ~L~~6'13-J11"fl1~n~1t1m13..ra1~qJL~~1.:J11i:::~h:irnrni'u 1~f1(;)LLqlL~ti\111
II I I II' t,l..r - 111 It.I \tll ffi 9.1 .. A ..J
'lll~m.:i basic fl11 '111.\!UU LL'il'V!13-1'1(;)11'lJ1\l'ffWileJ\I L(;)~3-l\J1"llif!U 61i1.:JtJU'OJ\ILn(;) LY'fr1:::U1\1111\IU1..:I L'J~l
oif1.:iuufl14i'qJn-il i1..:ifi~..:i LLqjrn.:i<rl1\lui..:1 rnn i1~~1.:i~1;,qJn-i1oif:.:iuu
61 .!'i ... "" .., ., \4 1'1 "'.!'i '1, I .. "I. I "" "'
L'l.l.fl113-JLU'-l.'i.J1"\I r11"L7rnmCl'lu'1113-.Jq)u..:in1TOJ::: ~3-J b~~lJ'I,,\ L'!.J'il";3-.JY.f]~iJL'1~eJ Lu Ul'i.J~ff~7'1~'1Jfn1
1.-X'1113-1~1~qJL~ ~.:id~ueJ~nu~Ujli.t.5i.t.'l Li u amu:::Gia..iw. L:iucilu
I I
Al.r " '' A o "
!LI ~ .al J.11 I V 4 I 'U
m1V1'il PJ.:J'OJ(;)rn (;11Jfl1'"?a.J'il PJ'1m'lL~11 LLGl ~:::flv..o.l:::a.Jm"i'i.J (;)~1(;)1..1 m13-l'il PJ'1m1'YI LL'ilnqi1..:inurnna..1

o'1 0111..f .ii ~ .II .dlJ I

1. rl1(;)1..l'1Ju..:1~11a..1m'1ty'lJeJ\1'111;.J'ileJ m11'llu\la.Jil'lttl'OJ:::~rn1t1'1~\lnw1113.1am'rl'lJu m~ a..i'l!'u LL~:::


... I:: ... ;; ... .J X\jo
m13-.J'il u\lm'lLL'il~:::"ilurn L1Ji.t."iln.riwnu.:im13--.1c;i u\lm'lYJ \1-:l'liU LU
2.
I.I
ffll3-.J'ilu..:ir.17"lle:i.:ia..iuttt1-o;i:::a..i~~~mm"i'il~1(;)n'ilei~ei . ff A I <:i I ... I.I t '1 A I.I
f!113-J'ilE\lm1uv.rin'il"i:::'Vlunri..:1LLm ~

~-:iiXuV1u1~"1Ju-:im"i9'1~1C11L~mn1..1m13-.1o/feJ\lnnn~u rn7~mf1m'l~(;)~1~1..1m1a..i4IE1..:1m7'1Je:i..:1
w1i~:::n~3-.111lutl1V13-J1t1~~1"fi"ll<ifo\lm"i 'i.J1n~uil\l~~~uf\1ui-m-ni.1LaimL~fl<ilPJu~uE1.:im13-14fe:i\lm1"lle:i.:i
~1..1;-'111'1 LL~:::L'B-Jmu11V.~u;-Tufl~jn\lai.1.~1111i-m7fl'l-i.1 La,,rniXuu ~i.:i~1.b:::~h-:nm'V1
'l ... ...
i\nm1"C11~1~cile:i.:i L~'111a..1ai.1.hn1..1fl'il3.J<ii't1\lnl"';i'!lel..:l~1..1;-1.n'1 (Consumer needs) Yf.:i\:i.Lw11~
LL'l\l~\Ih~\l'Vl3-J (;)1um~eJau~1'llei.:i ~1Ji-L11'1~uu ~uu~u31wrn\1'111a..icile:i..:: m'l 'OJ:::'t.ils:im,.~t1-'lJ1 ti Ln l'l
~ A'.'f _ I.Id ii " I.I ~ It.I A
'lJU"lli.t.m1i:.J1..l'JIJ1'1"1l~Cll7:::'VIUmrnm1a..i'i1u\lfll"jL\l.~U'11UU'I. Lb~'J\'111\.i.U m'OJLLa(;)..:lfl\J~~m~'lllJ'lJCl\lmla.J
I .... IV I ::;

~ ..
4lei\lm"i'lJe:i\l~u~1ii'1~ilq]rnpfi"llL~LiJu 3 .freiL'VltY'l ~ci
1. nni'~a1fl'v111'1f1'11u (Hierarchy ofmotive) 'OJ:::aa..i~unt~ t1'ild".:inum-N'~~1~1..1m13-1cifu..:i md"
(Hie rarchy of needs) ~..:i~u ~nm'J<ilm(;)~\19le:i-:i~<NJU1'1113.!1fl113-JLi'1hL~mnum-N'~~1~ud1~~ 'OJ~ ~

&# 9' V J..r


I ., A"'i
...,- A 't \I I.I ~ A e. x I &t
'ilu.:ll11"lJCl"il~'llel\l'll'il\l~U'7Ulflflelu~ L'l 'OJ~ll ~(;)Eltll\I bd Lm~ffJ13.J'V1..:l'Vttl "ll'V1Uj1U'1Jel\lfl'J13-J<ileNff!"i"llCl..:I
.... ...r _ ... \4 ...t ,., ~ ... .flt .., 'l .. 'l ., ....,_ "I ...:t ... ...
~'IJ1"Lll~W1ClB~ L'J L'V'l'il'OJ::: b~ L'll"LuUU"ll'OJtl 'l.l.n1'7~.:l<?J(;I '<\) ~'J...111.llfl b'Vl'n"B~Um ~
't . .
2. 171'11W1118~f111UflPNn111 iiUv1~1t171'Ul'Un11UV-1l:r1'UPliJm
!11 ./ f' 4'tlll.J r lll I 1
L'll"U nl"iLL1..J\19lrl1(;)<il13-J
1

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'Yll\lm-:r'ilm~<ilt:i'ttl
Tiq'tl~'Uewinuu~ Yher.i~ (Freud's Theory) 'V.J'l"e:it1~<i1'~.:ia3J:i.J~.fl'\.ti.1'11 LLi.:J~~n~U'Yll\1~'11BU
Luu4f1nTv1u~~t"l~n7d'3J3J'111f~iXu'41uL"'1qjLll'\.t~'ili.~~1i'tn ~.:i'Yi1'l-X3J~M~~~13J1-:rm-il1'lo:i LL7-.:i~-:ih'lle:i.:i
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L~~ei-:1Slei.at1hj'Y11-:imm5nV1~1t1'l '1'11.:i ~1n1ndYh'liunm7'il~1~L~t:in4fvia"h~"OJ:::ri.:i im~~lu'l-Xnu
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~.:ih" (Motivational Positioning) (~n'!!tl'Titia:::L5 tllillit'VIU1 ti~ 3)


Tiq'i!l~'Htl~U'.l!licvliHn (Herzberg's Theory) L"r'ld"Llilin Ll'.:l~'lfLfHn L~'1-r,\J'Ylt'j'lf,fiLL1".:l~\JL'OJLL'U'!J
-.,, .d JJO& .J., \t I 'l U .J1 '1 1 6l I J 1,1'
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1. based on needs 'Vla.Jltlf\113-!11 L1"l"ll:::iiLL"j\J~\Jh L~'Vl~e:i''t~h~a.Ji/fu-o;i1nm1a.ivie:i.:im"lneiu rJl.:i

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... "" ., .... , a :'I X
= 'Vl~r;J'Vl.:Jr;J i;.JCil'V11.\I 'Vla.Jlilma.:i 'OJ n"ll:::Lu'U motive 'll'Ud-11

2. frustration (n1B Tension) LU'Ufl'Jld-JL'1~E..1Cil 'Vl~~~lil n1"WL~'!J~Cil LVl'Vl~YlLU"il:::'Yl~Cil'Vl~r;) <ifa.:i


~ O A O 'l" o :t -
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goal-directed~! m~m'Ylm~la.JLLnl'llUQ,l'Vl1'111~'1 "lll.:IL'n~~Wil:::iili~'lll.:!~LLUi'r;i Yi~'Y11.:I
3.
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el~l\JL~'\,.;~Cil
&./ I ~ ail
4. muster up aH the efforts Yltl'"'.E.f;~'OJ:::i1~'V-ln~ 713-J'11:~~t.m.na.J<il 1.:1'1 'r1\l'Yl'11m"tilti'TI~

LUl'Vld-Jltl ~~el\Jnli"ll:::LLnl'll'l~~ 1":::Cila.iti1"'.-imt1 n1~-:ih tJ";7~l"r1~Ylmm~~l~L~mLnl'lli1rJ'Vl:LiJ~


.. J ...
L1.J1'\lla..n t1"r1 '11 e:i.:im,-
Leaming

Tension Drive Behavior Goal or Need Fulfillment

Unfulfilled
Needs,Want Cognitive Processes
and Desire

Tension reduction

ill\'t~ 2.5 Model of the Motivatin Process

m1~n'lf1L4EJ.:i n1:::m'\.bm?ll EJ'1LL1.:r~.:ihV1~EJm1m~~'\.bfl',na..iiilmm1'1IEJ\l:i.J~'lf~,Xuii~ ~ L~:i.Jiif'\.b~


Unfulfilled Needs, Wants and Desires
Lfi ~~'\.b'0.11 n ff.n :1.1 iiiEJ'1m1fi if-:ii.:i.Jl~-l1m11<11ltJ ~'\.bl\l Lfi~'0.11 n ~nm1 m13Jm.n nl~ m 1a..i1fl~:n~-:i
Vlrm.J Lth.i.~~L~a.J@i''\.b tl1'0J~ma..i11 itnm1'i1~1~'V'ltm.na..i~~" LL1'1~'1hiiu ~h:m:::i.1 n~El ~LVi'lfl'\.bL{;'\.bi'i-:i
i1 qJ 'V11'11l'1~1c;i~ if'1i.:i.Ji.~'!um1LLfl1'll 1.m n<J1n m1 a..i@i'fl.:im1~'\.bj1'\.bLL~1 if.:i 31 wants ~.:i LU um1a..i@i'fl'1 mi
rt1uLnu (<iliwvnrt1'\.bLfiu) ~El m1EJmn1'utp)V1u.:i "' nTrnrnni.u'Yie:i.:iL~m m.nnnum'Vln~fl" L@i' LL~~1ULL1.:i ,
n11 Wants ~El Desires L'V'l11~'Vla.J1t1i'i.:im1:J..Jm.11mw16'1 , I
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'
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m1<ill1.J~'\.bl.:l 'OJ'\.bLfi ~ Tension (m 1:I.I Llfl1 t1 tp)) ti'11fl11.;,i@i'e:J'1 m1i.tp)~ if.:ii.:i.Jl;J-!u f111'il EJ1.J'i{UEJ'1 LL~ :::mi.a.J
L'11tJtp)fi'1.J~U"il~if.:iLa.JdJ'\.bLL1.:l"il\lh tl1 mL~:l.JLfl7tJ~fl1.J~U"iltLUUbb1.:J"l'1L"J
"' "'
b51ti5'.lm1a-1Lq;i1-iu~n'OJ~r\e:i1-Yi'Lfi~ drive ~El LL1-:im~~u LL1.:ie-J"'n~\.i.V1~mL1.:ionu ~'Yi11Vi'L11'1i'EJ.:i'Yi1
m~l 1~m) ~1.:i'Vlrt.:i LL~~1~ ti~ m"l~'fi'~~uh'Yi1EJ~i.1~nEJ~1.:iV1rt.:i,Xuifo~t1~"l~:i.J1V1~EJ'VIG'le:Ja-J Yffl~ nTI:J..J'11EJ\l
m ~.:i5'.1e:i~ 2 rt1u ~e:i 1 m1L7t1ui (Learning) ('OJ:::L1-t1u11t1ri~L5t1tp)LUL~ti.:t~ 2.3.4) LLG'I~ 2 ~\l~61:::61a-iEJ ~
L'\.b'i{:i.Je:J\l (Cognitive)
~'r""e:i.:irt1utt<J:::L.n11u5'.lu'Vlm'VlriflLVi'Lntp)'V'lfl~m1:J..J LLG'l:::ri.:ie-Jri1-Yi'Lnc;wma-i'V'lflh (Goal or Needs
"' '
fulfillment) m1:i.JLfl7t11P1 (Tension) n'OJ:::G'ltp)rl'l:J..J1f1e:i-ifu'ilEJUfiL7t1n11 Tension Reduction LLG'l:::V11n5'.1
~A t.1\1 A ' A X51 I~~ A ~ !:.!'1 I I
i1-..i-..i~.mU61 L'll1 L'i.Jm~'Yl'l.J m1a..1Lmt11P1n'OJ~Ln1P1'11UL'Vla.J L7a.J'VI Tension e:in 'OJ~1UL'ltlUEJ~Eltl1'1U 11 LU
'OJ1fl.fl1'V'l~ 2.5 lUbb1J1.J"lll.:ln7:::1.J1Uf117LfilP1 LL1'1~\lhiiu'i{1a.J11(1tlnrfl1lU1'11-Yi'L~U~tp)L'<iJUL~~"

"'
V . , - I ...ol I.I '
...... IJ I R UA
'11U'illULL1n Unfulfill Needs, Want and D1sue 61a-la.J'i111 L11a.Jfl113-Jlfll'lf117'Yl'OJ~'l11 a.Ja.J'Vll~a..11.J'il

l'\.bJ1~L~tl n1qJ'OJU1.J7 'il1a-l~LUU"ll11'Vl~e:JL~ LriflL~-lu~.:i"ll11m"l"OJ1n~fl'ii1.:i61 'Vl1e:J~tp)fltltl1.Jfl~~U61 nif.:i


'i{,.Ula.Ji.;Jfl ~~ -..i~'Yi1l Vi'm Ln~ Tension ~1 t1m1a..1EJ rnnjEJ rnm~u LL'ii ~"1:i.J LLfltp).:l'V'lfl~nTimrnna.J111"l~
\1 A '1 _!
LU~'Vl"dEl La.J L'Y-11 L'Vl'tLL'OJ\lL'VIU'iJ"i\I 'iJ\lm~LL":i\l"illJ'Vl'lEl Drive "!:\t ~E.J3.Jfrl"ii.'1E.J\.Ll (Leaming) LL~:::ft\l'Yl~:::~:J.J
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1
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ElEJ~u~~ El\! (Cognitive) br!'l,Le:-:ifi'lld::nmJ'!/1 EJ ~~n~u v.~1 t1m1~1'1 ~'r:'OJ:::bi.J~ E.J'!-l.LLU~\l~t]'1in-n3.Jt~ E.J
mff~m'lL~E.Ji;.j~ ei Lrif11 m~~~'\.l,'Yl1-:l'lurl1~L~ E.J~::;~1n~rn E.J 1~~1tnnei ~'hJ'tn~'OJ1n n'Yla.J .3.J1n~nV17ei
A '1 .. 1 .. Al'l .d. .... A ~ A v..IQ' ... I iv\.11 A
Lf!E.JL~\.b'Yll\I Luf'l1qj'iJ\.b~"d3.JlLL~1 LUnld'Ylbdllil::::J.J'V-ltj111f'ITI3.J .umiL~'h'Y11\: Lu~n:J.J~.:I LLl1llil:::m b:J.JCl.J"tlf)CJlf'l'n:J.J
-o;iun':ho.i:::mfft Cognitive L4i'1C1.J1u1:::L'Yl'fl fiei m13Jj '1113.JL~El ~1il.E.J3.J ~~::;'1':;.J'iJ~LU~3JEl\l "OJ::;t'i1LVfL"il
lll'Vl\.b~'V'it]~r.TI3J"ll El\ICfl1L'nLeJ..:! L"lfu
m1C1.Jj~ 31eitjueinL11'"J1 f1Uql~\.l,3,!1vi1~\I m1C1.J'<il:::11 ~.m::;'t"i1.J1\.b~\.Ii
m1:1.J ~*eiueinm11 ~~u:Wiho.i::;t~~ ti~-.i:::~-:::J.JV11~C1.Ju~ Lm11~1~u
LL~:::t11ilE.JC1.J1rnnm11 ti1a.JV11~C1.Ju~ile:i~'<il~.:inii1'0J::;C11mtlw1m-:im.iu~u L71UJibo.i::;Li1'tu~\IL~m
fl1W"1e:iE.JLVfilvi1ei ~fiih'l~l~ ~1Lititrn1'tu
L31ei~-:i 3 51wn:J.Jffu~uu Cognitive L-ir1'tuu1:::neiunlJm'lL~E.Juj m~-:i'la.l'tu!iJL"lll"J!~'Ylei\l~J1
fo~ E.J n'OJ:::~~f1113.JL~7E.J~'OJlf'lf!113.JElE.Jlnjei mmi1\.b"lle:l\IL"dll~LUil. Tension Reduction LL~m~ L1~1 ~lU
...,tl ~..:!I. .... ~'){ "" "'"" ){ ' l ' ., "' .......
L VtmE.Ju L,.u\l\.bn~rnuw1J11'!JUC1.J1e:in mrnn~ Tension '!JU:J.Jl b'VICl.J e:imnie:imrnVtu LL~::;LmE.J~mmL~1
.. '1 .., ' ., '1.1..l .. .. ~ .ol .ol ' ."1 ., ~ ov
'OJ:::L'VlitLm1 ~n'fli'OJ:::n~u bu'Y1'11l:J.JLmE.J~tin1>11.JV1it.:i "ll'\l'Vl3JlE.Jm1:1.J11 'V!1nu11~~ulV1C1.J1rnL~1 Lu1::;~u
J. .. ' - ){ 'l ;o.i ...... "' ' '
'Vl'U.:I ml:J.JLfl1"ll~~~Y~\l Lb'llbn~'llUb'VICl.J b~em <mt!E.Jl..:IL"lfU
J "''1 ... '., '1 ., '~ .... ... ..I '1 ., ., "' _"1 'I .,
Clltiit'YlL"ilm b3J3.J"it1llUl11"1ll.J meimn L~'lflE.JU111'1nflWil\.b\l LCl.Ju b~:J.Jl LL~r,inuTimu1Vt3J1m~ Goal
or Needs fulft~lment LL'1i'llrn::;dm~(;d1 7r1W~'1uilt~ L'VI 3.J1l::tllJL,., LL~1 LWTI:::dl E.J't~~lf'l~\.b ~l LL'Vli.i\l~\l
~ '1 ., '.J ,. :iX '1. 1.. c; .. o .. t .J
'lit.\ L11eimn L~1flE.J\.bCll'YlL'VIUfln11'U'llULuunn"il:::Ln~ Tension Elf'lfl"d\l'Vl\.b\I
~ll.JL~11 m1u'l~~C1.J'!11*iif.Jf1\lil Needs, Want LLflt Desire LL~1 Tension 'VllE.JLl.JLL~1tl\1'1\I
Ln~~uLVt~'t~L'13Jti iLnm1C11m~~.:i"ll1 LI~~C11ilrn'Yl6i.~n~~u'1c;i
'Vlihriunm"i'ilm~vilEth fll.J~W#leJW1h\1'1 L'Vl~TdUl\l
1. VIU1~'llmHUt'J'VllLVl,-ULL1\ILytflLVfdi~LUU Tension
2.
A
I
flt - &I.. .. 9" .al 'l"' J"i
I

La.Jmn~LtiU Drive LLm 3.J'Vl'IJ..l'Yl 'Yl'OJ::;Lmffn:J.J~ Lnmnu Cognitive Processes 'VILuU


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t.I A
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1.Jidll'lf~ iir~:::dLu1u~ffil~"4"tlLrie:ieim.J~<11ii'rn'Yl'1v.~ Lllu LLu1uc;;t:ti'il"{ULfl~~L~~'VleUJ LYm:::'Yh


L"liu
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3. ~~1.:i~\lueirn'VI~ LvJeiLVfLnc;irn1L~E.Jui' Liu m1mrn~'Ut~~rn1~u~1J~t.ieill'1 Luu~.:i1rnm'VI~
11 u1'0J:::Li1ufu~1~n~ru.n1~ u~"l il<f11<11u"il~..::i1~1 'lim1V1~ein"lJ1 rnL~1V11E.J<if1Ltl V1u1~iLnm1lfl~1~<ifei.J
~i'1..:i~..:iueirnw1iHLYlei1YIL'll1LaJm-n
4. 4i'ti-::V11'..:1LllumJ1.:i~-:111 au~1'l!e:i..:i m"il:::LLntl~mLVfL'lllL~ ~ti 'V11~1<iluu1.Vf~u1Lnf1'l~'<il\lL~

u 4 4
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'Hi.'1.:J1llflfffl'Mll'U8'Hl'i111Zl16.:JTI 2.3.2 1101 m1~1J{)UAfl1lft1UI 2.3.2
4
. SI ,-_I .. 1 4 " 4 4
t I t I
, .. '"' 4 ......
'UUU1011fffi'Ml11'1.nfJn 2 9l6UTI 2.3 11e~n 2.3.2
... ... ..' u u
~flt'lflill'WUt1~fl1UJtl~UflrJ1fltJ9l1ltl..:i (Personality and Self-Concept)
I d ... ...l A d.a.
I A ..., I - x ' a,..
flULL<il ~:::flm.i l.! fl~ nmvfYl LL'1ln'll 1-mwir.:i-.;i :::ml'Yl'!l'Vi~<il tl'VlfJIJl nnJ.Jm'?lft1'1l t:i.:i LL<il ~:::f1um t.1
!ARDnmrt 111J.J1E.Jti.:1 ~rnt~'Y11.:immn'Vl~flum mwi.:ieit:in ~.:i-;,i:::ii.1ltJ~m1J.Jaeic;ifl"'ti.:i L=R.:1fl113.1
~3.J~\.b~LL~:::tli)n~m~<il'11.J1qifi'tJ~.:ILL1'1l~'13J"llfl.:lfl\.b
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n-)1 f111J.JLtiuih:r~ nTltlmJE.:1~1Lt1.:1 nT7Li1il"flJ.J m1:::m1J.Ja1J.J11ri1.umnlwrif1 1.Jfl~flfl1ViifodJu
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.. ..::I, .., ~ I ..., - ~ t ,Q - I ,..( ..., A A "' ' .. !::) .,, I
LL~:::3.Jfl113J'1J.J'ViU.Ii713.Jmunc;i11u,-tvt11.:itJfl~nmTilJ"5:::Ul'YIVIU'lnum,-L~t:in~~<il11m"YlV1i-t1<1111'1Ufl11m..:i

L'1lti~.h.:ivirt.:i ~11l11.:ib"llu u~m-tfl1J.JYl1L.it17m-.;i'VitJ11n~J.J'jn~1~m'1l'Vl1.:1V1~1E.Jn~J.J11t1't~bb'f'f'1l.:J1t1nri.:i


mia..iil'uh 1u~1Lt1.:1~.:i f111a..i!ia1\l.1'0JLvtii.t1n11bb~:::m1J.Js:iia~ ~.:i-.;i:::utin'l~f11m1;,i:::eemLuu1~~1
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1J flanm'Vl U'"$jm13.J~3J~\.bnnt1 bb'l-l.1ti '1lL~rnnt1rii'1beJ\l5n~1 ti LCfl EJ'!Xnm'7<il~1 CflL~'Y'l m tnJ.J~'O,lt
aTi.:im'Vi~rn~'1l tl\l<il'71 ~\.b~1L~~m1J.J~3.J~\.bnn1J111"tl~mtcl'111\ln~J.J bU1V13.J1 tJ iim1J.J LUU'tut~~ bbii.1 ~Cfl
~ LLGWl\ltl t1m.ns:im1J.J W11nvl1'1ntl bLU.1~'1l~ m,nUa:!.Jtl'I LL~tbb'llnl1i1.:i-.;i1mL\.b1~'1l'lJJ..:1 ~5u bL~'J Lb\.b1~ Cflell-1.
'tviu~ii~~~Jm~rilc;iauh~e"llJ\lflU ~..:1Ltiu~1ma..i~mn~;,i:::V11fiwmu't~ 'YlfJ1ffiL~mntJLLu1~c;i"ll1..:i
~1m"iiuLn<1r'il1nm1~aJ.J~a1u"llt1"m1flW1LC111L~mnu~u1&1flnum'Vi~m1cl"llt1..:iCT111~u~1
1.Jflanm"tl bnc;i~u't~c;it1m-m~.ri.nm1 ~$1ei~mh.:iuum1'llt1\lflUL11~..:iLLc;iL~n1>JuL~ 'l..jflanm'Vl
51aJ.Ju~~..:iflieilud
1. Luu-n~EJ1'1l m1J.J'tlei..:ii1"ilL1>Jn'l!U (fluLc;ifluV1ii-:1L~'Vl1:::~1 LL'li~:::fl\l.1>Jtii'l..jfl~n'1a.JLvijjeiunu)
2. bUu~.:i~~(ijJu1i-:::~~rn1
3. bUu~.:i~ ~..:i'Y1 Utl ~\.b1U
4. Lllwihn1V1Wnll1LL1.J1.J reaction 'l!El.:13.1'11f~~~lli ei~"LL1'11~Ja..i (Lrlmn'llL~~..:il vi~ufli~:::flu'OJ:::.Yh
eil11.:i't7 LSlmme:jvi~t1mLc;i~:::flwil:::'Yi1t1~1.:ih ~"LLU'l-Lt1'U11 LL~~tflU'OJ~ reaction eit1n3.J1LaJL1113lvii.n"U)
"
5. LU"U~..:i~Ltl~~u't~ LLq;~t1u.fi\rn1n "iltLtl~~u't~n<iim!lmn'll "1ntiq;" LLi.:i'l L.fh3.11'lu~1.i
vtt)lfDL~mnu'l..jfl~nm~~'Vlm~'YlfJ'.IYD 1.u~d-.;i:::n~11n-:1L~'Vl1:::'Ylti1ffi~Luii.~i~nnuLL~'lvlmtJ
LL~:::~m1a.Ja1~qJqieim,-fln1f1'Vlti~nna.J~1.J7&1fl L'liu 'Yltl'.IYD'lleJ..:IW"'iflEJ~LL~:::'YltllfD Traditional L'Y11~u
1. m111ift1tH "W18tl'" ''W1titl~" i1ei11 LU'Ufl'\.l.L~J.Jqiw,1qtt~ 'l..jflanm~ ~-:til"il1uunifoiiflu
~'llnei LL~~ii.1int1nmt1ei~ 'Y1fJ1fD"llt1..:i "w1t1t1~" ilun~11rnfl11J.Ji'llL~..:i (Conflict) i-~11111..:i~1u~aa.J
tnl't~ 2.6 A Representation of the Interrelationships among the ID , Ego , and Superego

Id. = Instinct Drive= ifiwnii.~u


Ego= f111:i.JLUWil1 b11 = U'OJL'OJflitti:i.J
Super Ego = ~(l.U:iTI3J fl!j'Vl3-Jltl n~m
u\l'11h~m:iu"llu\l~fl~nrn'Vlal 3 ~1'1-t~fl Id, Ego LL~~ ~uper Ego ~\l<i!Ellud
1. Id. 'Yl:i.J1t1n\l ~u~1ii.~rn1Ju'Vol1nflub~e:iu 'Y'i1u~h<111:i.J~t1J'jf1~qi1ru. R'ii.~1ii.~u 1h~di
m.JLVl'U a<fl1\l~u ~1.Jue:ium-JLVlii. ueiu<f!1\l~u i\lri1LY1'Uftu1t1n'1.3-l~1113Ji\le:i~1\l~'\.I. ~e:ivnn Id. n"u~
LL<ilflu'V-l1nd!iuei t11'\.l,t~rn El\lfl113JLllwi11\l
A ..... Gd "" .. .... 4 0 I A I
2. Ego V1mt1rn "QU n flu \:\W' wrn<111Q "llu\lfJ L'Vl:i.Ju'\.bfll~u'U'1lu\l'r'l1UYp111m~nn~ 11
bUUfl'\.b~ tj~~ ~nucif1 LU\l'OJULnultJt.i~\lflU5'\.b LL<libiii\lnrnilu#um'\.b~U ~nLUUTlUri'W ~\Jiu tiL~nu
1m Liu flWlfuULL~.Jcif1~1rn13J 1udL'lll'OJ~'ttJ'Yi1~qJn'U~fJue111:i.J~1h'f1~e:iw11t1 flufluL'l11nueinnw"l1
Lufl~u\l L<flll't:iJm11~L~rni1um1:i.J L'Vl~ua.J~1~1'j'\l'lJu\l L'71 'lJe:J1~LLl1i.Jcif1LtJ"llmJ1~a.J1ru. LLlfitJ11n{)11 flu
Yl1nd\Jtie:i :i.J "'iltbL~\lG11:i.J~ 01'1 Lu\l Lfl rnL<il\lflu 'Yl~b~ftfiUYl1nd~ ~~1 ll'l n~v bUUcif1'1Je:l\l cif1 Lu\lfl EJ1\lL
:i.Ji
m~L'Y1'1~ Vl3J1tlfl113J11
' ~
'OJ~LUUb1m L~
'l 61
tlld-J b~
., "' _!"i ., .:CJ...
I ..,_,,, :r
Q.Ufl'OJ~LUU'lJu\l~Uutll\lU 'Jf\ld-JflU'OJ1'\.b1ULJ.JUutl!il1\lU Ego
'OJ:11f~ LYll1~~~11'1'i113J~u\lL1.Jt1u:i.JTiu5u~1t1
3. Super Ego ~u tflfl.l.1i113-J L'71L3Jvi1cjf1 <flld-J~'\.b~lU~tJ L11tlud-JG11:i.J~\lf1:i.J LLiflL~uii\l
L1'6'n'Vlrt\lL11"'il~111 3-Jl1tll'Yl~\lfla.JLUU~\l~1~qJn'OJttlud-Jr11G11:i.J m1LVILnm~~mu~ LVlLntl'7~flULU'U~\l
~l~tlJ
'luil"il~uu ft-lf1~1l7n"il Super Ego ~1~tlJ~'l@l Sjm-n:i~n\d1 "L11LiJu~mm1u~T1LLvi-l
Tl'Jl~L~E.J'U~W' $\mi~'h "L~E.J'U" TlfleJ 4f1<11tJ.~LLYl"ili\l'lJtJ\ILdl~i.h'I "L~E.J'U~U" L,/U fltu.l'ii-l1Utl~U11ffi'Vl~n
'Yl-w.iu ri1"'-lltJ"lr1uT1~1t!~u 40 "'1u liJ~-ll7-l\11'1.\Li'J~m~Lll1iiei"llei.:itiru. T111-..i:~vmit<ilE.J~11 "~~@lm1"
"' "' ~ .1 '1. I .., !! ..... ., ., .! .,... ., .,
'Vl"ltJ ''JlULT't"n~t,n-..i" Ln@lLu@ln7tLu1 LuL'OJtl'VIU-l'1eJ "191" '"'111'il'ileJ-l\1" TIU'Yl'OJ~fJL-:lU'l 40 rllWiltJ\li:.J\I~

LLU'l ~.Jiluii-lL~~ru.OJ~"lreiu'\llu-l~eiL'Vl~1ilueie.i1.JLLYl'"li-l fhi.:iLnutiJ~1u~u1u't3-J'l.xlq;m~u


4. Traditional Theory'V11tJ'Ylfl'l!l'~~1itE.J:i.JLllimri1~.a~mJ.:iflueieimtJu 61.!Tl~nrn'V'l ~uei~
fl1J~1UE.J3.I ~-l"ili-l'l LL~113-J'l'll11 LdJ'O;ltLUUEJtL"l mh.:i'l~mhrnrt-l LL~L"rl~EJe.i1.:i~uiJtl.JuEJ~Ul\I LL~ml:i.J
liuJL5E.J.:1'lJEJ-lL11Lilu1.Jfl~ntJ1:::1.11'YliXu 'Ylfl'l!l'~~1itE.J:i.JLLU.J1.Jfl~nm'V'l'1lEJ-l:i.Jttl:t~m1mtJu 6 tJ1:::1.11'Y1 ~-ld
1. TheoreticalMan.
2. EconomicMan.
3. AestheticMan.
4. SocialMan.
5. PoliticalMan.
6. ReligiousMan.
il1:::1fl1'1~ 1 Theoritical man LUUTIU~LUULUL~tl-:l'Ylfl'l!t~LLr!~L'Vl'iJ~rl ~El fl1'0J~ei5u"11
L'il1"il:::m:i.J'Yi1la..1 L'V'l":i1:::ei~'1.1 i.i'1fltu.'Uein11Li4~'Vl~u~ei'7n'l!f'1hfll~ L'zn-;;i:::m3,111 ~~1":ititL"l'Vl1eim1d:i.J1ri1
ei:::L7Vl~EJflutl1~1J1wiOJ:::13-l~uei:::h~1E.J'l -..i:::m:i.Jei~<11~tJ@lL1m tJ1:::L.rl'Yldll1l~dju~T1rn.:inihn~1 ii1Lfl ti
"'"~5jm1~nm~.:i"il:::LUitT1uiJ"l:::L1l'Yld:i.J1n
il1:::u1V1~ 2 Economic Man. fiei .:in#n~ .:inm 1.JTl~mUU'1U~Luum1~1.h:::viir~ vn
~eiau~111m\)n -..i~eiau~1~ei-l~11~:i.J'Vl7ti't3J~3,1 \Jfl~'!~'Vl1eiE1.:i "lrei1Ja1u~~'llti.:1LL"ln 'lleMuci:i.J 13-lu1
dl1ei 'Vl~UlV11<ilEJ71Tl1 ~\l<il":i\ld'UJL~~Utl ~fl'U'1113'111E.Jm13.l'OJU 1J1\ITIUTI E.J:i.J1n'l w1i5l6"nl!tnL:me.i1.:id
_1 .d ., ,.. ,,.. .. ~ ..I ., .!..,., I X '1 .,
lJl:::U1'YIYI 3 Aesthetic Man. uni.1U'Y11E.J\.LE.J3J Tltl LlJ'\.tflU'YlLUU'Vlt!.JLL'U'U 'lftliJ~ L"j LUU

m1:i.J~1miiu~~.:i '1.tl~ei1riE.Ju~ 't3-l~ti.:i:i.J1tinu1mT1~ei.:i'll1YJ-J L'V'ldlt"l:::L3Jf{uh LLqJOJt'ttl~V1u1ll~mmLq;i


LV1u l VJ'Vlii1m rnLTIL'VI'" 1vJYr1 u~1 E.J LL'1L'Vlu n'V'lti LL~1rinhnriei11~1ii. ~1ULfl~eJ-l E.Jwli~<1n{'Y19i~ri'l.rl~
&1.J'I x \1J ...... " Jt.r ~~II .J ::.
LLrl1'\111il :Su":ieJ.JL'Vll'YI b~'YlU flU'V'l1fli!,'O;)t b3Jtimn L'$1 LY'l71t<1m.:im1 L~ LVl'!l1'$in!JU'Y1ltlLL'U'U"l:::L'lfE.JVl1nu'OJ:::
II ,r:il II I

vi1-J 'luL~ti.:i ~'1."lfit \1uvi ti 1tJ LL'U'U 11m Lrl1l VI~ ~ 0011'V'l LL'U'ULvii1, 13-l f{ULLIPlli'1 ~1 E.J "il :::~ti
1h:::1.n'YI~ 4 Social Man. 'V'l1fl~'Yi1ti:::L'1L~iJflU5u -;;i:::s:i3J1n~~~

LUft\ITl:i.J LL<l'k14f1L~iJ
L~TIU~U~ ~~Ul'W.~tlL~Tl~U~ LLU7-lftYJ~ 2 el'" il~U1ULiL~Wzf1 LL'iiL1~1'0JtLUtl1\l'il1\l~.:IVl1~L~tJU
'OJ:::L~uriLmtei-7~u liJt'lf1 (n"'ua.nfiuiul1 L~marn71) ti~u1u1-if~1L~~4i'1~n~ liJnrn~tiu'liLLfluutiu
n~11t~~~111nfiti -..i:::tJ11nfl~u~1L~till1fl'"~u~ti3JTI.l.i'"Lti.:i ffuhm13Ji~nflu5~1nn11111um.:i
th:::lfl'YI~ 5 Political Man. Y'l1fl~'lftl'ULUU~ii.1 VIJ.J1E.Jfl11~rJ1 UJ'il'ti'U'Yi1titL.J1LL'U'U
LT11 LiiuT1u~L~itT1u~'Yi1t1:::hLV1ijtiu4f1Lei-l't3-ll~ LiiuT1'"~Li1uT1u1iau~1~~1m.:i'l-Hmti:::'l LLfi1eimnOJ:::
~.:i LLfi1Ll.JV11~.:il Vl~ri nnfl'"fl~:i.JdLti.:i ~ti~T1~ei.:inum1~n'l!f'1 ~u~l.rifl L~il-l m~LLU.:in~J.J ~u1lnflC1113'1
I
.... I.I ... .al,
rin~nnL"tl1!ilm'$1'$J-:J.fl1'V'l'VI 2.7
Early Adopter
Late Adopter
Average
Innovater Adopter Laggart
3% 17 % 60% 17 % 3%

...
I
..
I
A~ '1 6l I A ti"' ... ., ... A
.,
..
2. 7 L:hltl:hl '1Ufl1l::: L~lllfH'Vla.J "il:::mmn:"IL"ll E..IU1 L~ ~'l'lJ!\l'!JUU "il :::amu
U
~.n fl.fl1'Vfr.
I
n~:hlVl'U'l
A ?1 ::... .J J: )!;I. '"" .. ... .1
LJJ".,1,"l'nn Innovater -w1m.1,q;ie:i -w1n'Y!Lflt1"lfe:i 'Y1'd'f'1YfYl:hle:im:i11m 90,000 tn'Yl:hl1U~1 1.m~L.fl'Yl
1
ti:::L'de:iln:hl1'lvi.;.Jn~m~u
n~3,1ttim.nLtlw1i1n Early adopter vnnd'UJii-:1'!1u1~~ilun~:hliuLL'dn w;]f\e:iui1-:i"il:::
I :J. J' r
SI ~A. d .J I 'I~ .. I.I
tlFJLLV.1'VIU1 'W1n'',,l,'"l:::"lfm'Y1'7~Y'l'Yl:hlilrll tl1:::a..11ru 60,000 lJl'Yl L:hlelflUn~~LL":in L"l! Ltl"l":::m:VIU\ILL~1 dlfll
.,
.d. al a,.. A A
~~~\l:hl1L'\ll~f!u1":::3-11ru. 60,000 1J1'Y1Lm1'"l\l"lfti
c:;: .?f I I .:t .!"!
mp.J<iiCJa..nm1:::L1JU'W1n Average adopter 'W1flU'OJ:::L1JU'W1flflm-l'l Lu'V.Vn nw1m
.?! ..:x
~ IJ o V A A I AA
., 'J '-!f ~ '"" A ... I <0
'
a I
"1umm~\1Utl:hl~~"l1~ L'll'U "llru.:::u:i.Jm"l" L"lf L'Yl";i'1'1'W'Y13-JlflClflULL'W"l"Vlmt111'11fl~~Wllli'l\l:hl1u'd::::hl1nl. 10,000
I
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1
JI .d. 61 II 6l I 511 Gd J.
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2. i@c;,m (Procurement Manager) Vl~l E.Juim.i~L~:i.JLU~E.J'IA'OJlnm1LUU~;El (Buyer) LU'U~~


.. "' ..161 ~ JI. .al 1~ I "'
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11'1LL~'U'i'111:i.Jrii'el..:imTI'il~~l.J (Material Requirement Planning: MRP) L~el1~uh111''il~~l.J"\lttJfl
~\la.Jl<i'l'l\lb'J~l
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Pioneer HiBred
~L~el..:I Des Moines~~ Iowa ~~..:iuilffi Pioneer Hibred ~..:ILU'\.b~'lllEJ'll!U'Vl~n'tumT~l'VIUl!U
"
L:i.J~@l-if111'1"1v-1LL6'lt~ufl1m1Lrn~t~":i5uvi lv-11U~~<11nruori"lJel..:iu~L~t:-J6'l~~<11:i.J1nn11u1m.iir'ILL'll..:i el~ 10%
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~Y!1i1-l.11l"1",.3-J~-;;\~ Wfj~nnJ.JrJ'v1fnfl n1-lL'YIY'l3.!'\'11Uf'l7 m~qj~\Jlal'l1m,-7~.m1TW:1-J~ 2530
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L'17 1-l~:!JtJ.l.<Yl1 WfJ~nnJ.J~In"1fl n1-lL'Yl'W:J.JV11Um fiTn~UILL"~L'J!WJn~ 2542
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Assael, H. Consumer Behavior and Marketing Action. 5th ed. Cincinnati, OH:, South-Western Col-
lege Publishing, Co, 1998.
Engel, F.J. & Blackwell, D.R. Consumer Behavior. 4th ed. NY.: CBS College Publishing.1983.
Kotler, P. Marketing Management. The mi!lenium ed., NJ.: Prentice Hall. 2000.
Loudon, D.L., & Bitta Della, J.A. Consumer Behavior: Concepts and application. 4th ed. Singapore:
McGraw-Hill. Inc., 1993.
Schiffman, L.G., & Kanuk, L.L. Consumer Behavior. 5th ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Inc., 1994.
Sheth, J.N., Mitt al, B. & Newman, B. I. Customer Behavior Consumer Behavior and Beyond. New
York: Dryden. 1999.
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