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# PROCESS INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL LAB

CCB3072

LAB REPORT

EXPERIMENT : 7

GROUP : 3

## MUHAMMAD HAFIZ BIN MOKHTAR KAMIL 15641

DATE OF
EXPERIMENT : 24th JUNE 2014

## GA: Faezah Isa

1.0 ABSTRACT

The experimental is designed for the ratio control in relation to a single loop flow control.
The tank, pump instrumentation and valves are strategically located for easy access. For
safety reason, the control panel shall be protected against water splashes. The process
piping shall be made of industrial pipes.

PID
Each of the three basic control modes and the combinations discussed so far, proportional
(P), proportional plus integral (PI) have limitations which may not be significant if the
process and controller are carefully matched. However some processes are so difficult to
control or so critical

LOOPING TUNNING
The closed loop control system attempts to achieve a balance between supply and demand
by comparing the controlled variable to the set point and regulating the supply to an
amount which will maintain the desired balance. Tuning the controller adjusts it so it can
achieve that balance as quickly as possible.

RATIO CONTROL
Ratio control provides a means a blending two or more variables in adjustable proportions
to obtain a desire mixture. The measurement of the load (wild or uncontrolled flow) is the
set point to the ratio controller which adjusts the flow of the controlled variable. A preset
ratio regulates the flow of the controlled variable for example if the ratio is 2 to 1 for every
gallon of the uncontrolled variable flowing, two galloons of the controlled variable is
allowed to flow.

2.0 OBJECTIVES

(i) Demonstrate the characteristic of Proportional Band, Integral Action and Derivative
Action on a flow process control loop.
(ii) Demonstrate the characteristic of ratio control.
3.0 PROCEDURE
PID FLOW CONTROL
For PID flow control part we took the following steps:
1. We gave PB, I, and P to the following values: PB = 200, I = 6 s and D = 1 s
2. The control loop was put into manual mode and then we adjusted the set point to 50 LPM
3. We stimulated load changes by closing HV537 for 3 seconds and then we returned it to its
original position.
4. We turned off the recorder once the measurement was stabilized after that we put the
control loop back into manual mode.
5. We tuned the output gradually so that the temperature measurement could match the
set point of 50 LPM.
6. After turning on the recorder, we put the control loop into auto mode
7. We stimulated set point changes by increasing the set point to 75 LPM
8. Once the measurement was stabilized, we turned off the recorder and then we put the
control loop back into manual mode.
9. We retained the previous PB and I values. The control system specifications for that
equipment accepted D values in the range of 1-10. Based on the engineering knowledge
that we had acquired in CCB3013, we were required to select any TWO (2) values of D
within the range of 310, and then we repeated step 2 to step 10. We justified our
selections and discussed the results that we obtained.

## PID FLOW CONTROL LOOP TUNING

1. First of all we put the control loop into manual mode and then we adjusted the output
gradually so that temperature could match the set point of 50 LPM.
2. We entered the following values: PB = 1000, I = 1000 s and D = 0 s
3. After Turning on the recorder, put the control loop into auto mode.
4. We stimulated load changes by closing HV537 for 3 seconds and then we returned it to its
original position
5. With the I and D values maintained, we selected a minimum of FIVE (5) PB values in
decreasing order in the range between 1-1000 after that we repeated step 3 and step 4 with
these reduced PB until the measurement was oscillated about the set point.
6. The natural period was determined.
7. We maintained the PB value at which the measurement oscillated about the set point and
then I was set to natural period. We repeated step 2 and 4 and then the response was
observed. There should be a 40% decrease in period. since the new period of the oscillation
was longer than that, we increased the interval time. In case that the period was shorter we
supposed to decrease integral time.

RATIO CONTROL
In order to achieve our objectives, we follow the following steps for ratio control part:
1. First of all, we put the control loop into manual mode
2. Selector switch was used in order to select ratio control mode
4. We turned on the recorder. After turning on the recorder, we put the control loop into
Auto mode.
5. We stimulated a change by adjusting FT520 to 50 LPM using HV533.
4.0 RESULTS
5.0 CALCULATION

From Experiment 11.5.2, when PB is set to 50, a response that continuously oscillates at the
set point is produced. Thus, the period of this oscillation is the natural period.

## Since the rate of the recorder is 1200mm/hr

2 mm corresponds to

PB = 50

## D = 0.15(Natural Period) = 0.15(6) = 0.9 s

This should cause the new period of oscillation to decrease by 25%. After inputting these
values, adjust PB so that the desired damping is achieved.

## Calculating parameters for PI controller

PB = 50

I = Natural Period = 6 s

D=0

The new period of oscillation should increase by 40%. After inputting these values, adjust PB
so that the desired damping is achieved.
6.0 DISCUSION

## 11.5.1 PID flow control

For PID Flow Control, at PB=200, I=6 and D=1, we use two set point that is 50 and 75 LPM.
For set point 50 LPM the first disturbance peek is higher than the second disturbance. This
may be because of the errors caused by closing the valve at different durations. Since
different people are doing that task, the actual time the valve is closed would also be slightly
different. Based on the graph result, the first disturbance at set point 50 LPM takes a longer
time to achieve back the set point compare to the second disturbance at set point 75 LPM.
The 1st disturbance took 2 time units whereas the 2nd disturbance took only 1 time unit. This
may be because the magnitude of the disturbance is not the same. The magnitude of the 1 st
disturbance is higher and thus a longer time is needed to return to the set point.

At PB=200, I=6 and D=5, we also use the two same set point that is 50 and 75 LPM. The
graph result shows that the second disturbance at set point 75 LPM produce higher peak
than the first disturbance which is the vice versa at D=1. Similar to the previous situation,
the difference in height may be caused by different people closing the valve to simulate the
disturbance.

As the graph results shows, the response is more stable in lower derivative value than
higher derivative value. This is because PID controller is design to function by derivative
action to ensure that the controller output proportionate to the rate of change or error. If
the derivative value is too high, the noise of the system is amplified, meaning that subtle
changes (errors) that does not contribute to the actual change of the responding variable is
also taken into account and magnified by the derivative variable. This noise can also be
seen by the increased oscillation of the response for D = 5.

However, the response for set point change is faster and thus better for D = 5 compared to
D = 1. For D = 1, it takes approximately 2 time units to increase from 50 LPM to 75 LPM.
However, for D = 5, the time needed is only roughly 1 unit. This is because of the higher D
value, the higher the D value, the more the controller responds to the change in the
responding variable. Since D is higher for the 2nd experiment, the error and thus response is
higher. This causes the 2nd experiment to have a faster response time.
11.5.2 PID Flow Control Loop Tuning

For this time, we maintain the value for I=1000s and D=0s.
We change the value for PB which is 1000, 500, 100, 50 and 20. From the graph that we get,
we use the values to calculate the natural period.
The only when PB is set to 50, a response that continuously oscillates at the set point is
produced. Thus, the period of this oscillation is the natural period. The period length is
measured to be 0.2 cm =2 mm Since the rate of the recorder is 1200mm/hr2 mm
corresponds to Natural Period (P) = 2/1200 hr = 1.66710-3 hr = 1.66710-33600 s = 6 s
Increasing the PB value would affect the response by increasing overshoot, the oscillation
rate will be high and decay ratio will be high as well. Too high value of BP will cause unstable
oscillations.
This means it is critically stable at the value large than 50 and any value of PB below of 50
would be unstable.

## 11.5.3 Ratio Control

In this experiment, the PID controller is set to PB = 200, I = 6s and D = 1s. Then, the flow rate
is introduced from another loop. From the graph, we can see the pattern of the green and
the red graph are almost the same with different flow rate. This is because the setting value
for one loop affects the other loop by the ratio set. Ratio control is applied to process where
the flow of one variable fluctuates but the desired blend can be maintained by adjusting the
related variable proportionally. The values are very effective because the response time is
short and no oscillation or overshoot.

11.6 Questions

1) Discuss the significance of step (1) in experiment 1 and step (2) in experiment 2 what is
PB, I and D represents? Why is this step necessary, and why does the values differ from
one experiment to the next?
PB represents Proportional Band, I is integrated action while D is derivative action
For the step (1) in experiment 1, we want to observe the difference of the graph
pattern when we varied the value of D with 3 seconds of disturbance.
For step (2) in experiment 2, it provides proportional control only when the integral
time of the controller is set at maximum while the derivative time is set to minimum.
We vary the PB value in this stage in order for us to find the natural period.

2) For each of the experiments above, discuss the results that you have obtained, and
identify the key differences in the each of the controller type and the effect of tuning
parameters in controlling the ratio of the flows to the tank. Which controller suits best
for ratio control? Why?
For the first experiment, the Derivative Action is varies which is for the first time is
D=1s, then D=5s. Then, we introduce disturbance for 3 seconds. From the
observation, the process reach stability faster at D=1s compared to D=5s. However,
for a set point change, the process reaches stability faster with D=5s.
For the second experiment, we change the value of PB. . The values selected for the
Proportional Band are 1000, 500, 100, 50 and 20. Based on the result obtained, the
graph starts to show sinusoidal waves at 50 while at 20 the process is instable.
Ratio control is applied to process where the flow of one variable fluctuates but the
desired blend can be maintained if we adjust the related variable proportionally.
Based on the result, we can conclude that the set value for one loop can affect the
other loops.
The best controller is PID if we can tune it properly since it eliminates offset and
more stable.
7.0 ERRORS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Errors

FT520 is a sensitive instrument, hence making it hard to set an accurate value. So, the
result may have deviate.
The valve was not closed exactly for 3 seconds as student only approximate the time
themselves.
Students were required to measure the period between two successful peaks using ruler
which can result in inaccurate result.

Recommendations

Use less sensitive instrument so that student can set the value correctly
Student should be provided with a stopwatch to measure the time accurately.
A more accurate way to measure the period other than using ruler.

8.0 CONCLUSION

In conclusion, all the objectives of the experiments had been successfully achieved which
were to demonstrate the characteristics of proportional band and derivative action. The
higher the proportional band, the more the system oscillates. At PB = 50, the systems
oscillates with its natural frequency. The higher the derivative action, the faster the system
responds. However, a D value that is too high cause excessive oscillations and the response
becomes unstable.

We also has observed and determined the characteristics of ratio control. Using natural
period, we can conclude the best tuning parameters are PB = 50, I = 2.4s and D = 0.9s. We
can also determine that by setting values for one loop can affect the other loop while
running simultaneously with a ratio set from the ratio control experiment.

9.0 REFERENCES

Seborg, D.E., Edgar, T.F. , Mellichamp, D.A. and Doyle F.J. (2011). Process Dynamics and
Control, 3rd Ed., John Wiley.