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Old Paradigms in History Die Hard in Political Science: US Foreign Policy and American

Exceptionalism
Author(s): Hilde Eliassen Restad
Source: American Political Thought, Vol. 1, No. 1 (May 2012), pp. 53-76
Published by: The University of Chicago Press in association with the Notre Dame
Program in Constitutional Studies and the The Jack Miller Center
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AMERICAN EXCEPTIONALISM: IS IT REAL, IS IT GOOD?

Old Paradigms in History


Die Hard in Political Science:
US Foreign Policy and
American Exceptionalism
H I L D E E L I A S S E N R E S TA D

ABSTRACT
Most writers agree that domestic ideas about what kind of country the United States
is affect its foreign policy. In the United States, this predominant idea is American ex-
ceptionalism, which in turn is used to explain US foreign policy traditions over time.
This article argues that the predominant definition of American exceptionalism, and
the way it is used to explain US foreign policy in political science, relies on outdated
scholarship within history. It betrays a largely superficial understanding of American
exceptionalism as an American identity. This article aims to clarify the definition of
American exceptionalism, arguing that it should be retained as a definition of Amer-
ican identity. Furthermore, it couples American exceptionalism and US foreign policy
differently than what is found in most political science literature. It concludes that
American exceptionalism is a useful tool in understanding US foreign policy, if prop-
erly defined.

Most writers on US foreign policy agree that domestic ideas about what kind
of country the United States is affect its foreign policy. Whether in the study
of US commitment to multilateralism (Ikenberry 2001, 2006; Nau 2002;
Legro 2005; Patrick 2009), postcold war policy (Leffler 2005; Ikenberry
et al. 2009), or the historic US foreign policy traditions (Ruggie 1997; Desch
20078), scholars write extensively about the importance of an American

Hilde Eliassen Restad is a senior research fellow at the Norwegian Institute of International Affairs,
Pb. 8159 Dep., 0033 Oslo, Norway (hilde.restad@nupi.no).
I wish to thank the anonymous reviewers of American Political Thought and its editor Michael
Zuckert. A heartfelt thank you is owed to Melvyn P. Leffler, Michael J. Smith, John M. Owen IV,
Allen Lynch, Emily J. Charnock, and Nadim Khoury for commenting on earlier versions of the final
product. Finally, I thank Walter Carlsnaes, Nina Grger, Pernille Rieker, Halvard Leira, and Kristin
M. Haugevik at the Norwegian Institute of International Affairs for comments on the manuscript.

American Political Thought: A Journal of Ideas, Institutions, and Culture, vol. 1 (Spring 2012).
2161-1580/2012/0101-0002$10.00. 2012 by The Jack Miller Center. All rights reserved.

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54 American Political Thought Spring 2012

identity for its foreign policy. In this context, American identity is usually
understood as American exceptionalism, which in turn is used to explain
US foreign policy traditions over time. Specifically, American exceptionalism
is often said to have inspired a Janus-faced identity for the United States, in-
cluding both an exemplarist identity and a missionary identity, which in turn
contributed to a Janus-faced foreign policy: an aloof foreign policy tradi-
tion (previously called isolationism) and an internationalist foreign policy
tradition. I call these the identity and foreign policy dichotomies.
In this article, I argue that not only is current scholarship marred by
sloppy definitions of American exceptionalism but that the manner in which
American exceptionalism is used to explain US foreign policy is unsatisfac-
tory. Those scholars who have argued in terms of dichotomous thinking have
ignored the complex nature of American exceptionalism, in which the two
strands have constantly interacted with each other rather than taking turns
in one-sidedly or cyclically informing American foreign policy.1 Furthermore,
the foreign policy dichotomy is outdated and incorrect. In fact, American
identity and US foreign policy have been more constant than conventional
wisdom lets on.
This article seeks to clarify contemporary scholarship by mapping out the
existingand, I argue, insufficientways of conceptualizing American ex-
ceptionalism and its connection to US foreign policy traditions. I will first
discuss how to most fruitfully relate American exceptionalism to the concept
of national identity in the context of studying US foreign policy. I then pre-
sent the dichotomies and argue that American exceptionalismproperly
understoodshould be retained as a definition of American identity but that
the current manner in which American exceptionalism and US foreign policy
are connected is outdated. I briefly elaborate on what I deem to be a more
correct way of coupling American exceptionalism with US foreign policy.
The aim is to contribute to a constructive debate on how to think about
and use as an analytical categorya concept that is much used and abused
in writings on US foreign policy.

AM E R I C A N EXCEPTION ALISM A S A NAT IONAL I DENTITY

This article defines American identity as the widespread and deep belief in
American exceptionalism. American exceptionalism itself entails the belief
in the special and unique role the United States is meant to play in world
history, its distinctiveness from the Old World, and its resistance to the laws

1. I thank Walter Carlsnaes for helping me with this formulation.

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US Foreign Policy and American Exceptionalism 55

of history (the rise to power and inevitable fall that has afflicted all previous
republics; McCrisken 2002, 6465).
National identity can be defined as the maintenance and continual re-
interpretation of the pattern of values, symbols, memories, myths, and tradi-
tions that form the distinctive heritage of the nation, and the identification of
individuals with that heritage and its pattern (Smith 2003, 2425). Thus,
national identity is not a constant but rather a concept in constant motion.
Studying the nature of the American identity has a long pedigree (Crvecoeur
1791/1904; de Tocqueville 1835/2000; Bryce 1887), which is fitting insofar
as the entire course of American history coincides with the rise of modern
nationalism (Van Alstyne 1965, v). The study of the rise of the United States
to great power status is in a sense a study in the development of a national
identity. The case for studying identity in foreign policy is that it directs our
attention to preferences and the way interests are defined (Kowert 199899).
Indeed, part of the attraction of constructivist theory in international relations
is that it challenges the traditional focus on structural limitations on states by
bringing social factors such as identity into the analysis.
American identity isas are all national identitiescomplex and, as pointed
out by Anthony Smith in the definition above, subject to continual reinterpre-
tation. What is striking about the American identity is the strong and contin-
uous presence throughout US history of its exceptionalist formulation. Thus,
while one risks simplifying too much, this article argues that when studying US
foreign policy, American identity is most usefully defined as American excep-
tionalism because the belief in American exceptionalism has been a powerful,
persistent, and popular myth throughout American history, and furthermore,
it has been used in formulating arguments for ever more internationalist and
expanding foreign policies. Significantly, exceptionalism was formulated and
identified with before the impressive increase in American power and in-
fluence in international politics exhibited in the late nineteenth and early
twentieth centuries, strongly suggesting that an exceptionalist vision was
not promoted as a rationale for gaining territory and influence at this later
time (although a complex interrelationship between rhetoric and action is
always present). Thus, it is important that scholars of US foreign policy
and of American political thoughtcontinue to grapple with this concept.
Specifically, what needs to be noted is that American exceptionalism goes
a long way toward integrating other terms commonly used to describe Amer-
ican identity, such as manifest destiny, exemplar, missionary and the
like, as we will see below. This is not to deny the subtlety and complexity of
American national identity but rather to seek conceptual clarity. By clearing
the field of its myriad of concepts meant to describe American identity, we
may gain some clarity into its impact on US foreign policy.

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56 American Political Thought Spring 2012

So the question is as follows: How has the powerful, persistent, and pop-
ular myth of American exceptionalism affected US foreign policy? I shall first
present the conventional view and then present my own argument.

AMER IC AN EXCEPTIONALISM AND U S FOREIGN POLICY:


THE ARGUMENTS

As anyone who studies US foreign policy knows well, American exceptional-


ism and US foreign policy have been intimately connected in the literature
on US foreign policy to such a degree that this connection is often simply
assumed or taken for granted. The conventional understanding of how the
American identity as exceptional has influenced American foreign policy
employs two main dichotomies: an identity dichotomy and a concomitant
foreign policy dichotomy. The identity dichotomy consists of exemplary
exceptionalism and missionary exceptionalism (Tuveson 1968; Tucker
and Hendrickson 1990; Ricard 1994; Stephanson 1995; McDougall 1997;
McCrisken 2003; Dueck 2006). This means either that the United States is
said to have viewed itself as an isolated New World, providing an exemplar
for the world without having to engage directly with this world, or that it has
viewed itself as a hands-on missionary, actively promoting its values of de-
mocracy and capitalism around the world.
The exemplary identity is then typically said to inspire an isolationist
foreign policy (more recently, aloof has become the preferred term). Isola-
tionism or aloofness was said to be exemplified by Puritan John Winthrops
City upon a Hill speech and George Washingtons warning against per-
manent alliances in his farewell address of 1796. The missionary identity,
however, is said to inspire an internationalist foreign policy. Missionary in-
ternationalism is often exemplified by Woodrow Wilsons mission to make the
world safe for democracy, for example. Basically, isolationism or aloofness
means essentially keeping the world at a distance and tending to ones own
business, whereas internationalism means being actively engaged in world
affairs (Kaplan 1987; Perkins 1993).
Some authors portray the relationship between the two descriptors as
cyclical (i.e., American foreign policy has swung like a pendulum between
isolationism and internationalism in accordance with its identity dichotomy;
Hoffmann 1968; Klingberg 1983; Schlesinger 1986), but according to the
latest edition of the Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy, the current con-
sensus in the field is that the exemplary strand of exceptionalism dominated
the early years of US foreign policy, whereas the missionary strand of excep-
tionalism conclusively won out in the foreign policy debate only after the
attacks on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 (McCrisken 2002, 2003, 14;

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US Foreign Policy and American Exceptionalism 57

Table 1. Conventional Literature

National Identity Foreign Policy


Exemplary exceptionalism Isolationist/aloof
Missionary exceptionalism Internationalist

see table 1). It is my argument that these two dichotomies should be dis-
carded. They rely on outdated assumptions and do not explain US foreign
policy traditions very well. Rather, the American national identity is better
thought of as American exceptionalism, which has contributed to a more
steady unilateral internationalism throughout US foreign policy history.
The argument of this article can thus be simplified and summarized in two
parts:

1. There is no identity dichotomy: American exceptionalism is a more


correct substitute for the exemplary/missionary dichotomy.
2. There is no foreign policy dichotomy: Unilateral internationalism is
a better description than isolationist/aloof or internationalist.

T H E I DENT ITY D ICHOTOMY

I will now critically examine the idea that the American national identity con-
sists of two opposite strains of exceptionalism. The next section will dispute
that this led to two distinct foreign policy traditions. I aim to show that the
tale of the two dichotomies is simplistic to the point of being incorrect.
The founding of the United States of America did combine two powerful
ideas of exceptionalism: the Reformation idea of America as a religious exem-
plar and the Enlightenment idea of America as a political harbinger for the rest
of the world (Zuckert 1996). But rather than remain intact as two distinct
strands of American identity, engendering two opposite foreign policy tra-
ditions, the two ideas of exceptionalism for all intents and purposes fused
with the American Revolution (Greene 1993). The early Puritan communities
contributed a Protestant strain to the nascent national identity as a chosen
people (Smith 2003, 2425), which merged with an Enlightenment ideology in
the mid- to late eighteenth century, forging a distinct American identity. The
result was a powerful sense of exceptionalism that, while consisting of two
complementary aspects, has not led to two distinct foreign policy traditions.
Rather, American exceptionalism always inspired the United States to reform
the world in its image. In other words, the exemplar part of the identity has
been taken too literally, and it has been coupled with (and said to have caused)

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58 American Political Thought Spring 2012

a foreign policy traditionisolationismwhich is now discarded by histo-


rians of US foreign relations. Its usefulness is thus highly questionable.
Both the exemplary and the missionary theses trace their origins to the
same religious and political sources. What binds them together is the concept
of American exceptionalism (McCrisken 2002, 6465).

The Exemplary Identity


Whereas America was not a promised land in the biblical sense, it was inter-
preted as such by the Puritan settlers. The religious commitments of the colo-
nists are important in order to understand the development of the dominant
images of the American national identity, as it is mainly this religious strain
that has inspired both the exemplary and the missionary theses in the foreign
policy literature. Essentially, Puritan settlers, having experienced a perilous
exodus across the seas, set out to create an ideal American Israel and a
New English Jerusalem (Smith 2003, 13738). They viewed their own
exodus to the North American wilderness as part of the Christian millennial
story. The Reformation had revealed the true Christiansthe Puritansand
had at the same time opened up a New World. Surely this could not be a co-
incidence (Bercovitch 1978, 140). Far from being just a simple outpost of
European civilization, writes historian Anders Stephanson, the New World
was a sacred testing ground of nothing less than world-historical impor-
tance (1995, 10).
The various settlements within the French, Dutch, and English colonies
exhibited a powerful urge on the part of their authors to reorder some as-
pects of the existing European world, to reverse some social, political, or eco-
nomic trends they found worrisome, or to restore some imagined lost and less
threatening world (Greene 1993, 58). As Puritan leader John Winthrop
warned his fellow travelers in the now famous sermon A Modell of Christian
Charity (Merrill and Paterson 2005, 31), For we must consider that we
shall be as a City upon a Hill, the eyes of all people are upon us; so that if
we shall deal falsely with our God in this work we have undertaken, and so
cause Him to withdraw His present help from us, we shall be made a story and
a by-word through the world.2 Winthrop was issuing a warning to these
early colonists. America, the site for the pursuit of their idealized versions
of the Old World, provided an appropriate venue in which to seek Europes
new beginnings (Greene 1993, 58).
While the vast literature on early US foreign policy assumes the Puritans
wanted to isolate themselves from Europe, the Puritan errand was in fact

2. It is somewhat historically unclear where Winthrop made his speechaboard the


Arbella on the way to America, back in England, or somewhere unknown. Italics are mine.

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US Foreign Policy and American Exceptionalism 59

multifaceted (Bozeman 1986). Whereas the earlier Pilgrims were reluctant


to leave Englandand did so only because life there had become impossi-
ble for Separatists (Madsen 1998, 16; Kagan 2006, 8)3the Puritans were
on an errand in the wilderness to create a working model of reformed
Christendom so that ultimately all Europe would imitate New England
(Bozeman 1986, 232; Miller 1953). Indeed, Madsen argues that Winthrops
Puritans were seeking to escape persecution and establish a new Jerusalem
but also expecting to be able to return to a reformed Egyptto launch a
counteroffensive across the Atlantic (Madsen 1998, 16). In this interpreta-
tion, the Puritans were on a mission of world historic importance, namely, to
reform Europe. In effect, they were global revolutionaries (Kagan 2006, 8).
Further evidence against the isolationism of early colonists is found among
the Anglicans in Virginia, who viewed that land as an extension of Gods
chosen England rather than a separate place to be isolated from the mother
country (Stephanson 1995, 4).4 In fact, the Massachusetts Bay Colony was
not a battered remnant of suffering Separatists thrown up on a rocky shore,
as scholar of Puritans Perry Miller has pointed out. Rather, it was an orga-
nized task force of Christians, executing a flank attack on the corruptions of
Christendom found in the Old World (Miller 1953, 14).
Certainly, the geographical distance between the New and the Old World
that Alexis de Tocqueville remarked on in the 1830s served to underline the
feeling of isolation on the part of the colonists. But the simple fact of geo-
graphic distance did not cause isolationism. The Anglo-American settlers
saw themselves as the vanguard of an English civilization that was leading
humanity into the future, competing against attempts by the Spaniards and
the French to secure their own civilizing missions in North America (Kagan
2006, 12; Miller 1953). New England and the Old World were the same
world in this line of thinking, spiritually if not geographically.
And so we arrive at an interpretation rather different from the conven-
tional one: the Puritan mission was not isolated from the rest of the world.
They saw themselves as spreading and reforming European (English) civi-
lization, not escaping it. Millers emphasis on the nonseparating and non-
isolationist Puritans is significant. The Puritans were missionaries, seeking
to spread the revolution. Exemplary exceptionalism thus fuses with mis-
sionary exceptionalism.

3. According to Deborah Madsen (1998, 16), John Winthrops fleet was made up of
non-Separating Congregationalists.
4. Nevertheless, Stephanson affirms the conventional view of the Pilgrims and the
Puritans as exemplary isolationists or separatists. See also Miller (1953).

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60 American Political Thought Spring 2012

The Missionary Identity


The Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy argues that Americas sense
of mission is represented in the ideas of manifest destiny, imperialism,
internationalism, leader of the free world, modernization theory, and
the new world order (McCrisken 2002, 63). Interestingly, manifest destiny
is claimed to be a later version of American exceptionalism. Indeed, the era of
manifest destiny was proof that the missionary strand of exceptionalism
was becoming the dominant one (68).
But tracing the origins of an American sense of mission has led us back
to the Puritans and the religious founding of America. Ernest Lee Tuveson,
sounding a familiar theme by now, grounded Americas sense of mission in
millennialism, arguing that the manner in which the early American colonists
understood the Reformation and its significance for world history deeply
influenced their views of the emerging nation. As we saw, the millennial nar-
rative viewed the Reformation as ushering in a sequence of victories for the
forces of good over evilincluding the discovery of America and culminating
in the American Revolution.
This becomes even clearer when we look at the political exceptionalism
that developed with the American Revolution. The political founding of
America acquired its missionary aspect by viewing events as divinely in-
spired. The success of the Revolution (177683) and the subsequent Consti-
tutional Convention in 1787 were seen as so improbable by many founding
fathers that they could only explain it in terms of divine intervention. As John
Jay said in 1777, Americans were the first people favored by providence with
the opportunity of rationally choosing their forms of government, and thus,
as Benjamin Franklin asserted, providence itself had called America to a post
of honor in the struggle for the dignity and happiness of human nature
(Weinberg 1935, 17). Indeed, the founding only built up its mythical signif-
icance with the passing of time. Abraham Lincolns prolific secretary of state,
William H. Seward, characterized the entrance of the United States onto the
world scene as the most important secular event in the history of the human
race (Burns 1957, 14, 90). And Woodrow WilsonAmerican exceptional-
ism personifiedargued that the United States was a country that would em-
ploy its force for the elevation of the spirit of the human race (McCrisken
2002, 71).
The focus on the founding is important because it provided the new repub-
lic with ready symbols, myths, and statesmen for the building of a common
national identity out of 13 republics. Its Enlightenment principles, expressed
through its famous documents, forged a nation out of ideas. But the founding
was also about cutting bloodlines. It laid the premises for the development
of an American identity as opposed to a British one. Because the United States

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US Foreign Policy and American Exceptionalism 61

decided to break free from England, it was prevented from using its English
past as the focus of the usual national project of glorifying ones heritage,
especially since their departure from one another was less than amicable.5
Since, nevertheless, Americas past was British and the Americans themselves
were largely Britons (or Anglo-Scotch), the new United States had to look to
the future, where nothing but ideas existed. American nationality became
connected to an instant ideology, forged in revolution as opposed to a secular
development of a community through history. The Declaration of Inde-
pendence and the Constitution therefore created the American nation
and its central myths (Krakau 1997, 10).
The development of an American identity was therefore already well on its
way to being established when the floods of European immigrants arrived at its
shores later in the nineteenth century.6 The influx of German and Irish Catholic
immigrantseventually supplying more cultural and religious diversityhad
yet to arrive at its shores when the United States was in its infancy.7 By creating
a nation based on Enlightenment principles, American nationalism became
universalistic. Its nationalism was civic, not ethnic, freed from the shackles
of history. In Daniel Bells words, America was an exempt nation that had
been freed from the laws of decadence or the laws of history (1991, 51). The
reason for this is that America was born modernit was freed from the
burden of having to shake off old socioeconomic and political structures
and did not have to undergo a wrenching transition to modernity (51).
As Louis Hartz has pointed out, the United States does not have a feudal past
(1955), and while it was without past or precedent, America was surely
endowed with a great future (Kohn 1957, 41).
Thus, the defining characteristic of an American national identity was not
really that it was a nation of immigrants but rather that it was believed to
be exceptional in its blessings of liberty and republicanism. To become an
American, it is not enough simply to have immigrated to the United States;
one must also accept this idea of American exceptionalism. Abraham Lincoln
stated that no matter the origins of immigrants, by accepting the moral sen-
timent of the Declaration of Independence, they were as much Americans
as though they were the blood of the blood and flesh of the flesh of the

5. In Thomas Jeffersons words, the Revolutionary War started as a family quarrel


between us and the English, who were then our brothers (Onuf 2000, 21).
6. For immigration statistics, see EH.net (http://eh.net /encyclopedia /article/cohn
.immigration.us). The years from 1630 to 1700 averaged 2,200 immigrants per annum;
from 1730 to 1780, 4,325; from 1780 to 1819, 9,900. After 1832, the immigration rates
increased dramatically.
7. When they did, in the 1830s and onward, New England historians, mostly clergymen,
began emphasizing the Protestant origins of the United States (Stephanson 1995, 29).

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62 American Political Thought Spring 2012

men who wrote that Declaration (Lincoln 1858). In essence, then, the motto
e pluribus unumout of many, onefits better than perhaps initially thought.
Originally suggesting the unity of a country made up of different colonies or
states, it has come to mean today the unity created among a diverse pop-
ulation. As Gunnar Myrdal pointed out, America is diverse but still one
through its strong and unifying identity as exceptional (Myrdal 1944; Beasley
2004, 25).
In short, authors have identified the idea of American exceptionalism as
the force behind the missionary part of American identity, which results in
U.S. expansion or intervention in the affairs of other nations, as political
scientist Trevor McCrisken writes. The United States would project its power
abroad in order to help other nations become more like itself since inside
every foreigner there is the potential, even the desire, to be an American.
Thus, writes McCrisken, the missionary strand of American exceptionalism
postulates that all the people of the world want to be like Americans, whether
they realize it or not (2003, 11).
Together the Puritans, the settlers, the explorers, the revolutionaries, and
the founding fathers contributed pieces to the developing American national
identity (Weeks 1996, 10). The religious and political founding combined to
create an exceptionalist image, leading to the idea that the United States was
a model for the rest of the world. What is not clear, however, is that this
entailed the United States remaining aloof from the worlds troubles and
leading only by example, as the Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy
posits (McCrisken 2002). In fact, it seems to have meant the opposite.

THE FO R EI GN P O LI CY D IC H OTOMY

Those scholars of US foreign policy who argue that there was an exemplarist
identity in American history that inspired an isolationist foreign policy have a
problem: contemporary historians do not think early US foreign policy was
isolationist at all, and the term itself only appeared in the early twentieth
century as an accusation used by adherents of a vigorous US foreign policy
to hurl against the opposition.8 In fact, the idea of an exemplar identity in-
spiring an isolationistor aloofforeign policy constitutes the old paradigm
among historians of US foreign relations. The idea used to be that the United
States was founded as a country aiming to isolate itself from the world, cut-
ting off any ties to potentially corrupting influences emanating from the Old
World. Many historians and political scientists have quoted Thomas Paines

8. I thank Allen Lynch for bringing this to my attention.

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US Foreign Policy and American Exceptionalism 63

dictum from Common Sense, wherein he stated that the American colonies
ought form no partial connection with any part of [Europe]. It is the true
interest of America to steer clear of European contentions (1791/1918).
Then they would usually conclude that Paines view would come to dominate
U.S. foreign policy over much of the next two hundred years, as diplomatic
historian Walter LaFeber has written (1989, 19), and the isolationist para-
digm came to dominate diplomatic history. No more, however.

The Old Paradigm


Briefly, the old paradigm of early US foreign policy held that the United States
only emerged onto the international scene in the late nineteenth century, when
it suddenly and forcefully expelled the Spanish empire from the US sphere of
influence in the Spanish-American War of 1898. (Along the way, the United
States also somehow acquired colonies in Asia.) This imperial aberration
as Samuel Flagg Bemis called it (Perkins 1962, 20)marked the transi-
tion from isolationism to internationalism in US foreign policy, a tradition
cemented with Woodrow Wilsons quest to make the world safe for democ-
racy (see also Field 1978; LaFeber and Beisner 1978). The reason for this
early aloofness on the part of the United States was the commitment to being
an exemplar to the worldan idea supposedly inherited from the Puritans
and followed through by the founders. And as we saw, the international-
ist foreign policy tradition would also be traced back to exceptionalism
this time a missionary kind of exceptionalism. Some historians would argue
that the United States in fact cycled between internationalism and isola-
tionism throughout its history, whereas others argued the United States was
first isolationist, then internationalist. This was, in short, the old isolationist/
internationalist dichotomous paradigm of diplomatic history, one that was
also used by political scientists writing about US foreign policy (Wolfers
1962; Klingberg 1983; Kaplan 1987; Ruggie 1997; Hoffmann 2003; McCrisken
2003).9
The old paradigm argued that notwithstanding the initial alliance with
France to gain independence, isolationism was the strategy of choice of
a new and idealistic republic, rejecting traditional diplomacy and power
politics, as Felix Gilbert wrote (1961, 89). In this classic paradigm of iso-
lationism, George Washingtons farewell address (which counseled against
permanent alliances) and Thomas Jeffersons first inaugural address (which
counseled against entangling alliances) embedded isolationism in the pub-
lic mind (Adler 1957/1974, 11). These statements were seen as the definitive

9. For textbooks that still use this dichotomous paradigm, see Perkins (2005) or Deudney
and Meiser (2008).

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64 American Political Thought Spring 2012

formulation of early American thinking on foreign policy, updated to a


nineteenth-century context by the Monroe Doctrine (Adler 1957/1974, 12).
Importantly, the United States could be isolationist because, as C. Vann
Woodward wrote, it enjoyed free security and free land, enabling the
national myth of America as an innocent nation in a wicked world able to
obtain freely and innocently that which other nations sought by the sword
(1960, 4, 7). The idea of free security naturally went along with an as-
sumption of the United States as an isolated and isolating, as opposed to an
expanding and expansionist, nation.
But this meant the isolationist paradigm contained an inherent contra-
diction. The classic paradigm argued that the United States had expanded
dramatically during the nineteenth century yet hadat the same timebeen
isolationist. The Spanish-American War seemed like uncharacteristic behav-
ior for a republic that adhered to isolationism. Only by assuming nineteenth-
century continental expansion was somehow part of domestic history, as
opposed to acts of foreign policy, could US foreign policy be characterized
as isolationist until the 1890s, when the United States suddenly experienced
a brief period of imperial aberration contrary to its assumed nature as
exceptionally peaceful and good. Essentially, the old thesis of expansionism
as isolationism rested on a Eurocentric view of American foreign policy, a
perspective that viewed US international relations as primarily faced toward
the Atlantic Ocean. This is connected to the fact that some historians of for-
eign relations assume manifest destinys inherent legitimacy, rather than
question westward expansion within a colonial or imperial framework, which
again is connected to their assumption of a normative exceptionalism on the
part of the United States (Rosenberg 1998, 6667).
As historian Emily Rosenberg argues, these processes of conquest are still
often masked by the disciplinary structures that place frontier history as a
subdivision of domestic rather than of international history (1998, 6667;
Brauer 1989). Indeed, not only classic literature but also current scholarship
straddles the expansionism-isolationism issue rather uncomfortably. Despite
less frequent use of the term isolationism, the idea of isolation and aloofness
is often used. For example, one often reads that the United States was an
aloof country in its early years, taking care to keep away from the con-
tinuous jostling of European power politics (Ruggie 1997, 89), but that
it later became an internationalist country (Legro 2000). For instance, po-
litical scientist Stewart Patrick argues that nineteenth-century US security
policy consisted of isolationism with a unilateral thrust. As a rule, he ar-
gues, the United States kept political engagement with other nations to a min-
imum, but, closer to home, the United States moved first toward continental
dominationcreating Jeffersons empire of libertyand then regional

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US Foreign Policy and American Exceptionalism 65

hegemony (Patrick 2009, 5). Here, Patrick is arguing that hegemony in the
western hemisphere is compatible with isolationism, an argument that seems
more than a little Eurocentric. The argument of exemplary expansion only
holds, however, if we assume that the acquisition of new territory, previously
not belonging to ones country, somehow falls within the realm of domestic,
as opposed to foreign, policy. Manifest destiny, indeed.
To sum up, the string of territorial acquisitions before the Spanish-American
War was characterized as a domestic matter (thus validating an isolationist
or aloof thesis), by believing that large swaths of territory in North America
and the Caribbean were naturally future parts of America. One has to buy the
logic of manifest destiny and American exceptionalism to support this argu-
ment. Granted, one could argue that any isolationism was purely directed
at the European great powers. In other words, only Atlantic foreign policy
counted as foreign policy (Kaplan 1987). But this logic contains two tensions:
First, it does not take into account the fact that these very same great powers
had colonial possessions in the Americas and the Caribbean, and thus cov-
eting these territories was, in fact, a way of meddling in European affairs.10
Second, such an argument would then have to incorporate expansion and ex-
pansionism into a narrative about an exemplary or isolated country/people
not seeking imperial possessions in the manner of the European powers. Never
mind the awkward fit this makes for cases such as the ethnic cleansing of
Native Americans, the Mexican-American War, and the continued obsession
with Cuba.
In fact, nineteenth-century continental expansion and expansionism was
intimately related to the building of great power statusas current litera-
ture in history points outand should thus not be seen in isolation from
the United States later imperial adventures. When seen in the context of
the steady expansion and strong expansionist ideology espoused by Ameri-
cans and their leaders since the founding fathers, one is loath to view the War
of 1898 as merely an imperial aberration.

The New Paradigm


The idea of isolationism as the classic US foreign policy strategy is a the-
sis that was very influential in the field of diplomatic history between 1960

10. France controlled the St. Lawrence River region through eastern Canada and down
the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River. After the Seven Years War, France ceded most of
the Louisiana Territory east of the Mississippi River to Great Britain and that west of the
river to Spain. France retained the area around New Orleans. Spain also controlled Florida
and the Caribbean, as well as the southwest and California (until Mexican independence)
and the Louisiana Territory (until the 1800 Treaty of San Ildefonso with France).

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66 American Political Thought Spring 2012

and 1990. Today, however, historians of US foreign relations reject the term
isolationism as a valid description for early American foreign policy
(McDougall 1997; Herring 2008).
The so-called revisionist historians of the Wisconsin School, led by William
Appleman Williams, challenged the classic story of isolationism. Turning the
paradigm on its head, the revisionist historians argued that the United States
was actively participating in international affairs from its inception and that
it never aimed to isolate itself from the world. Rather, the United States had
always been expansionist and much less innocent than previously assumed
by proponents of a normative exceptionalism on the part of the United States
(1959). The continental expansion during the nineteenth century and the ide-
ology behind itformerly falling under western or settler/frontier history
was in fact the United States building an empire, and today this history is
incorporated into the new paradigm as acts of foreign, not domestic, policy
(Painter 1993; Williams 2005). In fact, it is now commonplace for historians
of US foreign relations to connect the issue of expansion and expansionism in
the nineteenth century to an overall US foreign policy tradition, linking early
US foreign policy to its twentieth-century foreign policy (Hietala 1985/2003;
Hunt 2007a; Nugent 2008).11 One does not need to endorse the Wisconsin
School thesis championed by Williams in order to argue that early US foreign
policy was not isolationist, however (McDougall 1997; Mead 2002). Regard-
less of ones theoretical attachments, the historiographical consensus that has
emerged is that US foreign policy was internationalist since the very founding
of the country. Historians of early US foreign policy agree that, rather than
being a nation growing up in isolation and enjoying free security, this was
a nation defined by its enemies, at home and abroad (DeConde 1958, 11).
Revolutionary Americans did not aspire to isolation, Peter Onuf and
Nicholas Onuf write, but rather to closer integration in the European world
(1993, 98; Onuf 2000, 60). This, in essence, is the new paradigm (Stagg 1983,
2009; Onuf and Onuf 1993).
The United States acquired a transcontinental territorial empire (if that is
the word one wishes to use) in less than half a century, achieved supremacy
in the Western Hemisphere, and laid the foundations for a twentieth-century
superpower status in remarkably short time (Weeks 1996).12 This expan-
sion was aided by the idea of American exceptionalism since it was fueled
by the conviction that US foreign policy is not tainted with evil or self-serving

11. Early works that made this connection, in addition to Williamss, include Weinberg
(1935), Graebner (1955), Van Alstyne (1965), and Paolino (1973).
12. For a discussion of what empire entails, see Maier (2006). On hegemony, see Cronin
(2001). See also Hunt (2007b).

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US Foreign Policy and American Exceptionalism 67

motives (Nugent 2008, xiv). Americans, rather, are exceptions to the moral
infirmities that plague the rest of humankind, because our ideals are pure.
The expansion was thus fueled by a faith in Americas moral exceptional-
ism (xiv). Indeed, the spectacular appropriation of half of Mexico (as a result
of the US-initiated Mexican-American War; 184648) was treated by many
Americans as moral vindication of their values. In President Andrew Jacksons
famous words, the United States was extend[ing] the area of freedom
(Weinberg 1935, 109). Woodrow Wilson could not have said it better himself.
Thus, the Mexican-American War confirmed the belief that American wars
were wars for civilization, not subjugationa moral exceptionalism. This
perspective of continuity challenges the perspective of an aloof US foreign
policy before the Spanish-American War of 1898, where the war is seen as
the start of an American empire rather than its culmination. The empire
literature argues there is little reason to categorize 1898 as a break in the
history of US foreign policy at all.13 Senator Henry Cabot Lodge might agree.
As he noted in the debate over what to do about the Philippines during the
Spanish-American War, empire was nothing new to the United Statesit
had been practicing it for over 100 years.
What current history of the early republic tells us is that the founding fathers
expressed lofty visions for a future empire for liberty of the Americas. Ex-
pansionism was an integral part of the building of this empire and, as previ-
ously mentioned, is intimately connected to the rejection of an isolationist/
internationalist dichotomy. The fact that the Americans did not see themselves
as invaders, aggressors, or occupiers is testament to the powerful exception-
alist identity that was expressed through its manifest destiny version during
the nineteenth century.
This is not to deny internal debate among historians. Historian of US for-
eign relations Walter Russell Mead states that there are today two basic views
among students of US foreign policy: One school sees a distinct break between
an early American tradition of reticence and modesty on the international
stage and a later and more problematic era of assertiveness and expan-
sionism (with 1898 seen as dividing the two ages). The other school connects
important features of twentieth-century US foreign policy (expansionism,
assertiveness, imperial ambition) in American history dating back to the
colonial era (Mead 2008). Thus, whereas the concept of isolationism has
been discarded, the foreign policy dichotomy separating an early tradition

13. For literature that argues US foreign policy has been constantly expansionist rather
than cycled between internationalism and aloofness or isolationism, see, e.g., Onuf (2000),
Kagan (2006), and Nugent (2008).

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68 American Political Thought Spring 2012

of reticence or modesty from a later tradition of assertive international-


ism is still employed by some historians.

O L D PA R A D IG M S I N H I S TORY D I E H A R D
IN POLITICAL SCIENCE

Why discuss a matter already considered pass by historians of US foreign


relations? Because their colleagues in political science are slow to catch up.
Notwithstanding the rejection of the concept of isolationism, many schol-
ars still reproduce the dichotomy by substituting aloofness for isolationism
or, in other cases, authors still validate the thesis of isolationism.14 Fareed
Zakaria based his well-received book on US foreign policy on the assumption
and to him, the puzzlethat the United States hewed to a relatively isolation-
ist line after the Civil War, arguing that the United States underperformed
as a great power (1998, 5). John G. Ruggie writes that ever since George
Washington expressed aversion to entangling alliances in his farewell ad-
dress (which, in fact, he did not do; rather, it was Thomas Jefferson who used
that phrase much later), the United States has enjoyed its position as far re-
moved from the power politics of the European great powers (1997, 89).
Charles Kupchan writes of the United States self-imposed isolation in its
early years (which he contrasts with the radical internationalist departure
since 1941; 2003, 162). Stewart Patrick argues that for most of the nine-
teenth century, the dominant strain in US security policy remained isola-
tionism with a unilateral thrust (2009, 5). John J. Mearsheimer writes that
the United States had strong isolationist tendencies until World War II
(2011, 18). Indeed, most accounts of US foreign policy since 1941 rely on
the spoken or unspoken assumption that the United States was isolationist
or aloof up until the attack on Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941.15
A different, but related, manner of using American exceptionalism to
explain US foreign policy is found in the works on multilateralism by John
G. Ruggie and G. John Ikenberry (Ruggie 1993, 1996; Ikenberry 2001,
2003). A multilateral vision of world order is in fact singularly compatible
with Americas collective self-conception as a nation, argues Ruggie; indeed
this vision taps into the very idea of America (1996, 25). Both Ruggies

14. Contemporary political scientists who explicitly reject the term isolationism are,
e.g., Legro (2005), who rejects the term isolationism but still uses the term separateness,
which serves much the same function in terms of breaking up US foreign policy history into a
dichotomy, and Menon (2007).
15. Whether the United States was isolationist during the 1930s is a different debate, one
that most recently has been critically examined by Braumoeller (2010).

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US Foreign Policy and American Exceptionalism 69

and Ikenberrys arguments link the liberal founding with support for a liberal
international order. Ruggies way of solving the problem of aloofness in
US foreign policy history was to argue that only political efforts employing
the rhetoric of American exceptionalism could inspire lasting US interna-
tionalism. Similarly, Ikenberry uses American identity to solve the puzzle of
why the United States transformed into a multilateral state during the Sec-
ond World War andsignificantly for a liberal theorist challenging realist
theoriesstayed committed to multilateralism after the cold war ended.
Ruggie and Ikenberry both build their understanding of American exception-
alism on Seymour Martin Lipsets (1996), meaning that their understanding
of the concept is objective (i.e., exceptional means different, not better;
Ruggie 1996, 111; see also Shafer 1991; Carter 2001; Lockhart 2003). Thus,
they argue, American exceptionalism understood as being a distinct model of
different ethnicities coming together to form a liberal polity helped the United
States understand and commit to multilateralism later.
I would argue, however, that Ruggie and Ikenberry commit a fundamental
mistake when they define American exceptionalism as a set of descriptive
qualities (a nation of immigrants defined by civic, as opposed to ethnic, na-
tionalism) rather than as a national identity. The fact of different nationalities
coming together to form the United States was less important to the develop-
ment of the national identity than was the belief in American exceptional-
ism (in addition to the fact that the United States was quite homogenous in
its early period). The very idea of a qualitative or objectiveas opposed to
normativeconcept of exceptionalism is nonsensical. As historian Joyce
Appleby argues, exceptionalism cannot simply mean different because all
nations are different (1992, 420). Indeed, Lipsets investigations did not con-
vincingly argue that the United States political or economic institutions are
more different from others (especially not when compared to England; Lind
1996).16 Trying to design studies based on the assumption that the United
States is somehow more different (and therefore exceptional) than other
countries is in itself an exceptionalist undertaking because the academic en-
deavor of investigating exceptionalism inevitably entails normative judg-
ment.17 Furthermore, as intimated earlier, not only is it problematic for all
the arguments mentioned above that they assume there was an earlier tradi-
tion of isolationism, but it is even more problematic that they assume an ex-
emplary strand of American exceptionalism to be behind this illusory foreign
policy tradition.

16. For a more thorough discussion, see Kammen (1993) and Rauchway (2002).
17. See, e.g., the manner in which Gaddis (2005) uses a normative concept of American
exceptionalism in explaining why the United States won the cold war.

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70 American Political Thought Spring 2012

A C A D E M I C U P D AT I N G

I thus argue that it is more fruitful to stop talking about exemplary and mis-
sionary identities and instead use the concept of American exceptionalism. Its
function as a unifying American identity is important in itself, of course, but
also important is its ability to highlight the continuities in American foreign
policysuch as the early and persistent expansionism of the nineteenth cen-
tury justified by manifest destiny, a later iteration of American exceptional-
ism. Conceptualizing American exceptionalism as an identity also allows us
to avoid a meaningless discussion about a normative hierarchy of nations.
American exceptionalism cannot be a truth claim. The United States is not
freer or more democratic than any other nation on earth (Greene 2010).
Rather, American exceptionalism is an ideology, and, as such, it actually does
not matter whether the United States is still exceptional (Parker 2011). The
United States is exceptional as long as Americans believe it to be exceptional.
American exceptionalismand US foreign policy with ithas a teleological
aspect to it: what is America today will be the world tomorrow (Westad
2006, 9). Americans have always assumed that people everywhere share
American political and moral ideasthat the people left to themselves would
abandon their wicked statesmen and espouse the cause of peace and reason-
ableness as understood in the liberal world, and above all, in the United
States (Kohn 1957, 205). This underlies the idea that in every foreigner there
is an American waiting to get out. It is an assumption that links the otherwise
unlikely grouping of Woodrow Wilson, Ronald Reagan, William Jefferson
Clinton, and George W. Bush and their mission to reform the world in the
American image.
I have also argued for the constant internationalism of US foreign pol-
icy. The old thesis that America was an isolationist nation before being
drawn into the dirty world of international politics after 1898 was itself
a product of the implicit exceptionalism on the part of American historians.
That certainly serves to explain why the Spanish-American War of 1898 and
its accompanying colonial acquisitions were for a long time treated as an
aberration in American history rather than connected with previous Amer-
ican imperialism in the Western Hemisphere and later American imperialism
in Asia and ultimately in Europe (Paolino 1973; Hietala 1985/2003; Hunt
2007a; Hixson 2008). Rather, if one accepts continental expansion, eco-
nomic intercourse, and waging wars against great and small powers (such
as the War of 1812 and the Mexican-American War) as evidence of inter-
nationalism, there can be no doubt that the United States was an active
and eager participant in international politics from the first days of the re-
public. Indeed, the unilateral character of this internationalism is naturally

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US Foreign Policy and American Exceptionalism 71

a consequence of exceptionalism. Thomas Jefferson thought that there was,


in effect, a different code of natural law governing the two worlds, Old and
New: I strongly suspect that our geographical peculiarities may call for a
different code of natural law to govern relations with other nations from that
which the conditions of Europe have given rise to there (Weinberg 1935, 29).
The ideology permitting Americans to see their own nations rights as out-
weighing those of another was exceptionalism: that special mission of cham-
pioning freedom and liberty on behalf of all mankind, transmitted from the
patriotic clergy who first propagated the idea of an American Israel to
the founding fathers. America was, in Thomas Jeffersons phrase of 1805,
the worlds best hope (Weinberg 1935, 3940).

C ON CL U SI O N

Historians of US foreign relations have concluded that isolationism in the


early republic never was a real phenomenon. I have concluded that the iden-
tity said to be behind itexemplary exceptionalismis also illusory in the
way that it has been portrayed as an independent strain of the American iden-
tity. In essence, the dichotomous view of American exceptionalism and US for-
eign policy does not comport with reality. Rather, the United States has always
sought to expand, model, lead the way, and meddleviewing itself as the one
country chosen by God to lead the others to the end of history (Fukuyama
1989). One should thus reject the traditional identity dichotomy and its rela-
tionship to a foreign policy dichotomy.
Finally, American exceptionalism has been accused of explaining every-
thing and nothing (Legro 2005, 8183; Stephanson 2008, 372). Its function
right now in the literature comes close to validating this criticism. This article
does not provide enough space for the complete elaboration on my theory of
how American exceptionalism can be more fruitfully used to explain US foreign
policy, other than to point to American exceptionalism as a formulation of an
American national identity and to indicate its connection to the discarding of
the old saw of the US foreign policy tradition of isolationism or aloofness.18
Rather, this article has sought to map the existing ways of conceptualizing
American exceptionalism in the contemporary literature on US foreign policy,
as well as retrace its historical origins, in order to clarify its development as a
belief in American uniqueness and thus point to its important function as an
American identity. Its aim has been to contribute to a constructive debate on
how to think aboutand use as an analytical categorythat concept which
the Puritans imagined and about which de Tocqueville wrote.

18. But see Restad (2010) for such an attempt.

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72 American Political Thought Spring 2012

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