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IJCMS

ISSN 2347 8527

Volume 6, Issue 1

January 2017

(GPSCP) using Taguchi Method and Utility Concept

1,2,3

PEC University of Technology, Chandigarh, India

Abstract: In this paper optimization of the process parameters is carried out with the help of Taguchi method and Utility

concept. Al2024/red mud composite is prepared with the help of indigenously developed gas protected stir casting setup.

Reinforcement percentage, grain size and blade angle are chosen as the process parameters and their effects are studied

on the response variables such as tensile strength and microhardness. Taguchis L 9 orthogonal array is used to design

the experiment. Utility concept is used to develop a single response which was evaluated using Taguchi method using

higher the better criterion. ANOVA is applied to study the effect of individual factor on the Utility function and it was

found that reinforcement percentage was the most significant factor followed by grain size and blade angle. The applied

methodology resulted in improving the quality of the developed composite.

Keywords: Utility concept, Taguchi method, Al2024, Red Mud, MMC

1. Introduction

MMCs are the materials made of an elemental matrix in which a second phase reinforcement is placed and

uniformly distributed to achieve certain property enhancement [1]. At present, particles reinforced MMCs are

largely used for industrial application for their isotropic properties and ease of processing [2]. For the

fabrication of MMC materials that are commonly used are aluminium, titanium and magnesium, out of which

aluminium is of greater interest because of its light weight and low cost and find application in the field of

aerospace, medical, electronic and automobile [3]. There are several fabrication techniques available for

fabrication of composites out of which stir casting is widely employed by researchers all around the world

because of its simplicity and flexibility [4].

Red mud is emerging as reinforcement because of its low cost (almost free) as compared to the available

reinforcements and availability in huge quantity [5]. Red mud particulate contains oxides of silica, ferric, and

alumina. So it may be used as reinforcement to fabricate the MMCs. The advantages of red mud have

attracted many researchers to study the functional features, such as high strength, wear resistance, and

increased mechanical properties that are specifically required for aerospace and automobile applications [6].

Several authors have used the Taguchi based utility concept in optimizing process parameters effectively.

Yang and Hung used this methodology to optimize the thermoforming process of polymeric foams [7]. Author

concluded that the used methodology can provide an appropriate solution to yield a satisfactory product

quality for the multi response optimization problem. Surinder et al. used the methodology for optimization of

turning machining using uni-directional glass fiber reinforced plastic composite and carbide cutting tool [8].

Author concluded that the methodology was able to find the optimal solution to the multi response

optimization problem effectively. Pattnaik et al. used Utility-Fuzzy-Taguchi in investment casting process for

optimizing the multiple quality characteristics of wax patterns [9]. Author concluded that the proposed results

by the hybrid methodology compiled well with the experimental results. Gaitonde et al. used Taguchi based

Utility concept in optimizing the machining parameters in turning of free machining steel using a cemented

carbide tool [10]. Author concluded that the methodology was very helpful in optimizing several performance

characteristics simultaneously.

In the context of above discussion Taguchi method and Utility concept are used for simultaneously optimizing

the performance characteristics of Al2024/red mud metal matrix composite which is fabricated using

indigenously developed gas protected stir casting process (GPSCP). Reinforcement, grain size and blade angle

International Journal of Computer & Mathematical Sciences

IJCMS

ISSN 2347 8527

Volume 6, Issue 1

January 2017

are chosen as the input process parameters whereas tensile strength and microhardness are chosen as the

response variables. Taguchis orthogonal array (OA) is used to design the experiment and ANOVA is used to

analyze the results. Confirmatory experiments are performed and the results are in agreement with the

proposed results.

2. Experimental work

2.1 Material

In this paper Al2024 is used as the matrix material as it exhibits remarkable properties for use in aircraft

structural components, aircraft fittings, hardware, truck wheels and parts for the transportation industry. Red

Mud (an industrial waste) is used as the reinforcement and it is available free of cost. The elemental

composition of Al2024 and red mud are given in Table 1 and Table 2 respectively.

Table 1 Aluminium Alloy 2024 composition

Conc. Cu Mg Si Fe Mn Zn Ti Cr Al

The factors and their levels considered in this study are shown in Table 3. Experiments are conducted with

three factors each at three levels, degrees of freedom (DOF) required for the design are six. The OA, which

satisfies the required DOF is L9. The experiments are conducted using L9 OA (Table 4) and the response

values obtained are given in Table 5.

Table 3 Process parameters and levels used in the experimentation

Process

Unit Levels

Parameters

1 2 3

Reinforcement % 5 10 15

Grain Size Microns 90 150 250

Blade Angle Degree 90 120 180

The MMC was manufactured using indigenously developed gas protected stir casting process (GPSCP). The

aluminium alloy was fed into the muffle furnace and was melted at 700oC. Temperature of the furnace was

lowered to 650oC, red mud of required wt% and with grain size of 90 was first preheated to 700 oC for 4 hrs

and then fed into the melt. Stirring was done at 700 rpm constantly with a stirrer under the influence of Argon

gas. Small amount of magnesium was added to increase the wettability. The developed slurry was then poured

into the prepared cylindrical mould. After pouring is over the melt was allowed to cool and solidify in the

mould. The same procedure was followed to prepare other samples of different wt % of red mud ranging from

5% to 15% with grain size of 90 and 250 respectively.

International Journal of Computer & Mathematical Sciences

IJCMS

ISSN 2347 8527

Volume 6, Issue 1

January 2017

3. Methodology

3.1 Taguchi method

Taguchis parametric design is an important tool for robust design. It offers a simple and systematic approach

to optimize design for performance, quality and cost. Taguchi method uses a special design of orthogonal

arrays to study the entire design space with a small number of experiments [11].

Taguchi method uses a statistical measure of performance called the signal to noise ratio (S/N ratio) to

evaluate the optimal parameter settings. S/N ratio is the ratio of mean to standard deviation. There are three

types of S/N ratio which are nominal the best, lower the best and higher the better [12]. In the present research

higher the better criterion is used for optimization process which is given below.

1 1

= 10 =1 2 (Eq. 1)

: Number of tests in a trial

Table 4 Orthogonal Array (L9)

Trial Factors

No. Reinforcement Grain Size Blade Angle

1 2 2 3

2 1 2 2

3 3 2 1

4 1 3 3

5 3 3 2

6 3 1 3

7 2 1 2

8 2 3 1

9 1 1 1

A process or a product is normally evaluated on the basis of certain number of response characteristics,

sometimes conflicting in nature. The evaluation of process/product can be combined in a composite concept.

This composite concept has been termed as utility concept. The utility can be defined as the usefulness of a

process/product as per the expectations of the user [13]. The methodological basis for utility approach is to

transform the estimated response of each quality characteristics into a common index. Thus, the overall

usefulness of a process/product can be termed as utility [14]. It is the sum of the individual utilities of

various response characteristics of the process/product. The joint utility function can be expressed as:

1 , 2 , , = (1 1 , 2 2 , . , ) (Eq. 2)

Where is the measure of effectiveness of an attribute (response characteristics) i, n is the number of

attributes evaluating the outcome space. The overall utility function is the sum of individual utilities and is

given as follows:

1 , 2 , , = =1 (Eq. 3)

The attributes may be assigned weights depending upon the relative importance or priorities of the

characteristics. The overall utility function, after assigning the weights to the attributes can be expressed as:

1 , 2 , , = =1 ( ) (Eq. 4)

Where is the weight assigned to the attribute i. The sum of weights for all the attributes must be equal to

1.

International Journal of Computer & Mathematical Sciences

IJCMS

ISSN 2347 8527

Volume 6, Issue 1

January 2017

A preference scale for each quality characteristics is constructed for determining its utility value [15]. Two

arbitrary numerical values 0 and 9 are assigned to the just acceptable and the best value of the quality

characteristics respectively. The preference number ( ) can be expressed on a logarithmic scale as follows:

= ( ) (Eq. 5)

Where is the value of any response characteristics or attribute i, is the just acceptable value of any

response characteristics or attribute i and A is a constant. The value of A can be found by the condition that

if = (where is the optimal or best value), then =9

9

= (Eq. 6)

log

The overall utility can be calculated as follows:

= =1 (Eq. 7)

Subject to the condition =1 = 1 (Eq. 8)

3.3 Optimization algorithm

1. Find optimal values of the quality characteristics using Taguchi method

2. Construct preference scale and derive values for each quality characteristics

3. Assign weights to the individual quality characteristics

4. Calculate utility values

5. Analyze the utility values using Taguchi method and find the optimal settings of process parameters

6. Calculate the mean and confidence interval based on the optimum settings

7. Conduct confirmatory experiments based on the optimal settings

In this paper Taguchi method and Utility concept is used for optimizing the tensile strength and microhardness

of the Al2024/red mud composite developed using gas protected stir casting process. The optimization is

carried out as per the steps provided in the optimization algorithm.

Step 1: The response values of the individual quality characteristics are represented in Table 5. These results

are analyzed using Taguchi method and the predicted values of the quality characteristics at the optimal

settings are mentioned in Table 6.

Tensile Strength Microhardness

Exp. S/N ratio S/N ratio

R1 R2 R3 R1 R2 R3

No. (dB) (dB)

1 142.14 155.83 159.9 43.67 74 71.2 72.8 37.23

2 141.88 149.66 156.63 43.48 72.1 74.8 75.3 37.4

3 176.53 187.59 184.65 45.24 79.4 78.3 78.2 37.91

4 115.43 130.56 128.21 41.91 68.4 67.5 64.7 36.51

5 160.86 166.23 171.18 44.08 76.2 74.8 75.2 37.55

6 162.25 175.2 179.72 44.73 79.5 78.4 77.8 37.91

7 155.32 165.31 166.37 44.2 75.1 74.4 75.8 37.51

8 141.47 151.86 152.12 43.43 72.2 69.4 69.8 36.96

9 151.52 160.35 154.66 43.83 73 74.1 73.1 37.31

International Journal of Computer & Mathematical Sciences

IJCMS

ISSN 2347 8527

Volume 6, Issue 1

January 2017

1 Tensile Strength 188.74

2 Microhardness 81.07

Step 2: Using the optimum values of the quality characteristics the preference scale are constructed for each

quality characteristics which are shown below.

= 41.82 log (Eq. 9)

115

= 87.65 log 64 (Eq. 10)

With the help of the preference scale the values of individual quality characteristics are evaluated which are

shown in Table 7.

Tensile Strength Microhardness

Exp. No. R1 R2 R3 R1 R2 R3

1 3.85 5.52 5.99 5.53 4.06 4.90

2 3.81 4.78 5.61 4.54 5.94 6.19

3 7.78 8.89 8.60 8.21 7.68 7.63

4 0.07 2.30 1.97 2.53 2.03 0.41

5 6.10 6.69 7.22 6.64 5.94 6.14

6 6.25 7.65 8.11 8.26 7.73 7.43

7 5.46 6.59 6.71 6.09 5.73 6.44

8 3.76 5.05 5.08 4.59 3.08 3.30

9 5.01 6.04 5.38 5.01 5.58 5.06

Step 3: Next step is to assign weights to the individual quality characteristics. Values of the weights are based

on the experience and the end use of the product subject to the condition given in eq. 8 which must be

satisfied. In this paper equal weights are assigned to both the quality characteristics (Table 8) assuming both

the quality characteristics are equally important.

Table 8 Assigned values of weights

Serial No Response Variable Weight Value

1 Tensile Strength 0.5

2 Microhardness 0.5

Step 4: After the weights are assigned to individual quality characteristics, next step is to derive the utility

values using the preference scale as mentions in eq. 9 and 10. The derived utility values as shown in Table 9.

International Journal of Computer & Mathematical Sciences

IJCMS

ISSN 2347 8527

Volume 6, Issue 1

January 2017

Utility Values

Exp.

No. S/N ratio

R1 R2 R3

(dB)

1 4.69 4.79 5.45 13.93

2 4.18 5.36 5.90 14.23

3 8.00 8.28 8.11 18.20

4 1.30 2.17 1.19 3.82

5 6.37 6.31 6.68 16.20

6 7.25 7.69 7.77 17.58

7 5.77 6.16 6.57 15.81

8 4.18 4.07 4.19 12.35

9 5.01 5.81 5.22 14.56

Step 5: The derived utility values are analyzed with the help of Taguchi method using the higher the better

criterion as given in eq.1. The response table for means and S/N ratio based on the utility function are given in

Table 10 and Table 11. Figure 1 shows the effect of individual process parameter on the utility values. From

the figure it is observed that the optimal settings of process parameters are found to be A3, B1 and C2 which

results in the maximization of the utility values. Results of ANOVA are provided in Table 12 which reveals

that reinforcement (58.44%) was found to be the most significant process parameter followed by grain size

(31.41) and blade angle (9.48%). The average values of the individual quality characteristics at the optimal

settings are given in Table 13.

Table 10 Average values of Utility function

Response Table for Means

Level Reinforcement Grain Size Blade Angle

1 4.015 6.362 5.874

2 5.096 6.083 5.923

3 7.385 4.051 4.699

Delta 3.37 2.311 1.224

Rank 1 2 3

Response Table for Signal to Noise Ratios

Larger is better

Level Reinforcement Grain Size Blade Angle

1 10.87 15.98 15.04

2 14.03 15.45 15.41

3 17.33 10.79 11.78

Delta 6.46 5.19 3.63

Rank 1 2 3

International Journal of Computer & Mathematical Sciences

IJCMS

ISSN 2347 8527

Volume 6, Issue 1

January 2017

Figure 1 Main effect plot of the S/N ratios based on Utility function

Table 12 ANOVA table for Utility function

Analysis of Variance for Means

Source DOF Seq. SS Adj. SS V F-ratio % Contribution

Reinforcement 2 17.77 17.77 8.88 85.59 58.44

Grain Size 2 9.55 9.55 4.77 46.00 31.41

Blade Angle 2 2.88 2.88 1.44 13.88 9.48

Residual Error 2 0.21 0.21 0.10 0.68

Total 8 30.41

Tensile Strength Microhardness

Levels

(MPa) (HV)

A3 172.8 77.46

B1 165.6 75.58

C2 155.4 74.84

Step 6: Next step is to calculate the mean and the confidence interval of individual quality characteristics

using the optimal settings found in the previous step. The expected mean at the optimal settings () is

calculated by using the following model,

= 3 + 1 + 2 2 (Eq. 11)

= 3 + 1 + 2 2 (Eq. 12)

International Journal of Computer & Mathematical Sciences

IJCMS

ISSN 2347 8527

Volume 6, Issue 1

January 2017

Where 3 , 1 2 are the mean values of the tensile strength and microhardness at their respective levels.

and is the overall mean of average of tensile strength and microhardness.

Confidence interval (CI) is calculated with the help of the equation given below:

1 1

= 1,

+ (Eq. 13)

Where 1, is the F-ratio at a significance level of %, is the risk, fe is the error degrees of freedom, Ve

is the variance of error, neff is the effective number of replications and R is the number of confirmation tests.

=N/[1+total DOF in the estimation of mean] (Eq. 14)

Where N is the total number of results

Step 7: This is the final step of the optimization process. In this step experiments are conducted using the

optimal settings. The results of the confirmatory experiments at the optimal settings of process parameters for

tensile strength and microhardness are presented in Table 14. It can be seen that the average values of the

response characteristics falls well within the 95% CICE of the optimal range of the respective response

characteristics.

Table 14 Results of confirmation experiment

Response Variable Average Values

condition Interval

A3B1C2

Microhardness 82.1 HV 79.59< <82.54

5. Conclusion

The important conclusions drawn from the research work are mentioned below:

1. The quality of the casting can be improved with the help of Taguchi method and Utility concept.

2. From the ANOVA analysis it is observed that reinforcement percentage has the major effect on the utility

function followed by grain size and blade angle.

3. The optimum condition of the process parameters which were evaluated with the help of utility concept

were found to be A3, B1 and C2 where A represent reinforcement percentage, B represent grain size and

C represent blade angle.

4. The contribution of process parameters that resulted in higher value of utility function was found out to be

reinforcement (58.44%), grain size (31.41%) and blade angle (9.48%) with an error of 0.68%.

References

[1] Baradeswaran A, ElayaPerumal A (2014), Study on mechanical and wear properties of Al 7075/Al2O3 Graphite

hybrid composites, Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol.56, pp. 464-471, 2014.

[2] Ceschini L, Minak G, Morri A (2006), Tensile and fatigue properties of the AA6061/20 vol% Al2O3p and

AA7075/10 vol.% Al2Op composites, Composites Science and Technology, Volume 66, Issue 2, Pages 333342.

[3] Gui M.C, Han J.M, Li P.Y (2004), Microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg Al9Zn/SiCp composite

produced by vacuum stir casting process, Materials Science And Technology, Vol. 20 , Iss. 6, Pages 765-771.

[4] Chaudhury S. K, Singh A. K, Sivaramakrishnan C. S. S, Panigrahi S. C (2004), Preparation and thermomechanical

properties of stir cast Al-2Mg-11TiO2 (rutile) composite, Bulletin of Materials Science, Volume 27, Issue 6, pp

517521.

[5] Thakur R.S, Das S.N (1994), Red mud Analysis & Utilization, NISCOM and Wiley Eastern Ltd., New Delhi.

[6] Satapathy A, Mishra S.C (2002), Plasma Spray Coating of Red Mud on Metal, Proceeding of DAE-BRNS,

International Symposium on Applications of Power Beams in Advanced Material Processing, BARC, pp.709-712.

International Journal of Computer & Mathematical Sciences

IJCMS

ISSN 2347 8527

Volume 6, Issue 1

January 2017

[7] Yang C, Hung S.W (2004), Optimising the thermoforming process of polymeric foams: an approach by using the

Taguchi method and the utility concept, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 24, pp. 353-

360.

[8] Kumar S, Meenu, Satsangi P.S (2013), Multiple-response optimization of turning machining by the Taguchi

method and the utility concept using uni-directional glass fiber-reinforced plastic composite and carbide (k10)

cutting tool, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 27 (9), pp. 2829-2837.

[9] Pattnaik S, Karunakar D.B, Jha P.K (2014), Utility-Fuzzy-Taguchi based hybrid approach in investment casting

process, Int. J. Interact. Des. Manuf., 8, 77-89.

[10] Gaitonde V.N, Karnik S.R, Davim J.P (2009), Multiperformance optimization in Turning of free-machining steel

using Taguchi method and Utility concept, JMEPEG, 18, pp. 231-236.

[11] Kumar P.A, Nail B.J, Rao C.V, Rao S.R (2013), Optimization of casting parameters for casting of Al/RHA/RM

hybrid composites using Taguchi method, International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, vol. 4 (8).

[12] Ross P.J (1995), Taguchi techniques for quality engineering, McGraw Hill, New York.

[13] Kumar P, Barua P.B, Gaindhar J.L (2000), Quality optimization (multi-characteristics) through Taguchis technique

and Utility concept, J. Qual. Reliab. Engg. Int., 16, pp. 475-485.

[14] Kumar Y, Singh H (2014), Multi-response optimization in dry turning process using Taguchis approach and utility

concept, Procedia Materials Science, 5, pp. 2142-2151.

[15] Hansda S, Banerjee S (2014), Optimizing multi characteristics in drilling of GFRP composite using Utility concept

with Taguchis approach, Procedia Materials Science, 6, pp. 1476-1488.

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