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# KNS 3621 Civil Engineering Laboratory 6

Faculty of Engineering
University Malaysia Sarawak
___________________________________________________________________________

Contents
TITLE ....................................................................................................................... 2

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 2

OBJECTIVE ............................................................................................................. 3

## APPARATUS AND MATERIALS ........................................................................... 3

PROCEDURE ........................................................................................................... 4

RESULT ................................................................................................................... 6

DISCUSSION ........................................................................................................... 7

## PRECAUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS .................................................... 16

CONCLUSION ....................................................................................................... 17

REFERENCES ........................................................................................................ 18

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KNS 3621 Civil Engineering Laboratory 6
Faculty of Engineering
University Malaysia Sarawak
___________________________________________________________________________

TITLE:

T2 Traffic Volume

INTRODUCTION:

Traffic volume studies are conducted to determine the number of vehicles that
passing through a designated point along a traffic stream within a specified time
(Rogers, 2008). In order to measure and understand the magnitude, composition, time
and route distribution of volume for each area, the traffic engineer must acquire
general knowledge of traffic volume characteristics under his jurisdiction. According
to Garber and Hoel (2014), the traffic volume study was being conducted when
certain volume characteristics are needed, some of which follow:

1. Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT) is the average of 24-hour counts collected
every day of the year.
2. Average Daily Traffic (ADT) is the average of 24-hour counts collected over a
number of days greater than one but less than a year.
3. Peak Hour Volume (PHV) is the maximum number of vehicles that pass a point
on a highway during a period of 60 consecutive minutes.
4. Vehicle Classification (VC) records volume with respect to the type of vehicles.
5. Vehicle Miles of Travel (VMT) is a measure of travel along a section of the road.

Through these characteristics, engineers could obtain the traffic volume trends on a
particular highway. This would be useful in evaluating the economic feasibility of
highway projects so that the development of new road alternatives or improvement
and maintenance could be done. The traffic volume is also necessary for planning of
highways activities, measure of the current demand and evaluating existing traffic
flow could be conducted. Many other important characteristics could be analyzed
through obtaining the traffic volume of a highway. Among them are such as to

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KNS 3621 Civil Engineering Laboratory 6
Faculty of Engineering
University Malaysia Sarawak
___________________________________________________________________________

classify the type of function of a particular highway. Capacity analysis could also be
done through the study of the traffic volume (Garber & Hoel, 2014).

Besides, different types of traffic counts can be carried out, which depends on the
anticipated use of the data to be collected. In our study, the one that we had carried
out was intersection counts. Intersection counts are conducted to determine the
vehicle classification, through movements, and turning movements at the intersection.
These data are mainly used in determining the phase lengths and cycle times for the
signalised intersection, in the design of channelization at intersections, and in the
general design of improvements to the intersection (Rogers, 2008).

OBJECTIVE:

To carry out the traffic volume analysis at a signalised intersection by conducting the
traffic volume counts and vehicle classification based on Malaysian Traffic Condition.

## APPARATUS AND MATERIALS:

1. Safety vest
2. Clipboard
3. Pen
4. Stopwatch
5. Video camera

Group 1I - Page 3
KNS 3621 Civil Engineering Laboratory 6
Faculty of Engineering
University Malaysia Sarawak
___________________________________________________________________________

PROCEDURE:

As shown in Figure 1, the location for the traffic volume study was chosen to be at a
signalised intersection along Jalan Wan Alwi, which near to International Lodge
School at Tabuan Jaya. The data for the volume study was collected at the evening
peak hour on 2 April 2015 (Thursday). Thus, the time of the data collection was
started from 5:00pm to 6:00pm. The day was a sunny day and the sky was partly
cloudy.

## Figure 1. Location of the site based on Google Maps

Then, the group members were divided into three smaller groups and we stood by the
side of the road for collecting the data. One of the group members was selected and
she was in charge of looking for time. For our study purpose, the volume data was
collected for an hour. In between, we were commanded to collect a new set of data at
every 15 minutes interval.

In our study, the method that we used was indirect manual method because the traffic
volume was high at that time. Since we did not have enough manpower, the data was
collected by using the video camera. So, the video was captured for an hour and the
data was collected later by rewinding. By this method, the data can be cross checked

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KNS 3621 Civil Engineering Laboratory 6
Faculty of Engineering
University Malaysia Sarawak
___________________________________________________________________________

and the quality can be ensured. In brief, the flows of the traffic streams are shown in
Figure 2.

## Indicates the position to

collect the data for different
flow of traffic streams

## Figure 2. The flows of the traffic stream at the signalised intersection

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KNS 3621 Civil Engineering Laboratory 6
Faculty of Engineering
University Malaysia Sarawak
___________________________________________________________________________

RESULT:

## Date : 2nd April 2015 (Thursday)

Time : 5:00 pm 6:00 pm
Location : Jalan Wan Alwi signalised intersection (T-junction)
Weather Condition : Sunny day

The data that collected from the site were classified into five classes: passenger car,
motorcycle, trailer, lorry and buses. However, the saturation flows can be affected by
the proportion and type of vehicles in the traffic stream. Thus, passenger car
equivalents (PCE) were assigned to various categories of vehicles in order to
normalize the saturation flow to the common base of passenger car units per hour
(pcu/hr).

## Type of Vehicles PCE factor

Passenger Car 1.00
Motorcycle 0.33
Light Lorry 1.75
Heavy Lorry 2.25
Buses 2.08
Table 1. PCE factor at traffic signal (Arahan Teknik Jalan 8/86; MHCM, 2006)

Besides, as shown in Table 1, the number of lorry vehicles is classified into two
categories, which are light lorry and heavy lorry because the PCE factors for them are
different. So, the details for this vehicle classification are shown in table below:
Light Lorry Heavy Lorry Total Lorry
Route Time interval
(veh) (veh) Vehicles
5:00 5:15 3 1 4
5:15 5:30 1 2 3
2
5:30 5:45 3 0 3
5:45 6:00 2 0 2
5:00 5:15 3 4 7
5:15 5:30 6 2 8
4
5:30 5:45 2 4 6
5:45 6:00 3 3 6
Table 2. Classification of lorry vehicles in major roads
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KNS 3621 Civil Engineering Laboratory 6
Faculty of Engineering
University Malaysia Sarawak
___________________________________________________________________________

Route 2:

## Vehicles Classification Total Total

Time Vehicle Vehicle
1 (passenger car) 2 (motorcycle) 3 (trailers) 4 (lorry) 5 (buses) (veh) in PCU
Qty PCU Qty PCU Qty PCU Qty PCU Qty PCU
5:00 5:15 140 140.00 72 23.76 0 0.00 4 7.50 0 0.00 216 171
5:15 5:30 172 172.00 75 24.75 0 0.00 3 6.25 0 0.00 250 203
5:30 5:45 161 161.00 71 23.43 0 0.00 3 5.25 1 2.08 236 192
5:45 6:00 192 192.00 89 29.37 0 0.00 2 3.50 0 0.00 283 225
Total 985 791
Table 3. Traffic flow in Route 2

Route 3:

## Vehicles Classification Total Total

Time Vehicle Vehicle
1 (passenger car) 2 (motorcycle) 3 (trailers) 4 (lorry) 5 (buses) (veh) in PCU
Qty PCU Qty PCU Qty PCU Qty PCU Qty PCU
5:00 5:15 50 50.00 29 9.57 0 0.00 1 1.75 0 0.00 80 61
5:15 5:30 63 63.00 34 25.50 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 97 89
5:30 5:45 74 74.00 42 31.50 0 0.00 2 3.50 0 0.00 118 109
5:45 6:00 66 66.00 30 22.50 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 96 89
Total 391 347
Table 4. Traffic flow in Route 3

Group 1I - Page 7
KNS 3621 Civil Engineering Laboratory 6
Faculty of Engineering
University Malaysia Sarawak
___________________________________________________________________________

Route 4:

## Vehicles Classification Total Total

Time Vehicle Vehicle
1 (passenger car) 2 (motorcycle) 3 (trailers) 4 (lorry) 5 (buses) (veh) in PCU
Qty PCU Qty PCU Qty PCU Qty PCU Qty PCU
5:00 5:15 205 205.00 54 17.82 0 0.00 7 14.25 1 2.08 267 239
5:15 5:30 216 216.00 58 19.14 0 0.00 8 15.00 0 0.00 282 250
5:30 5:45 240 240.00 69 22.77 0 0.00 6 12.50 2 4.16 317 279
5:45 6:00 267 267.00 61 20.13 0 0.00 6 12.00 0 0.00 334 299
Total 1200 1068
Table 5. Traffic flow in Route 4

Route 5:

## Vehicles Classification Total Total

Time Vehicle Vehicle
1 (passenger car) 2 (motorcycle) 3 (trailers) 4 (lorry) 5 (buses)
(veh) in PCU
Qty PCU Qty PCU Qty PCU Qty PCU Qty PCU
5:00 5:15 45 45.00 33 10.89 0 0.00 3 5.25 0 0.00 81 61
5:15 5:30 52 52.00 38 28.50 0 0.00 1 2.50 0 0.00 91 83
5:30 5:45 69 69.00 40 30.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 109 99
5:45 6:00 66 66.00 32 24.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 98 90
Total 379 333
Table 6. Traffic flow in Route 5

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KNS 3621 Civil Engineering Laboratory 6
Faculty of Engineering
University Malaysia Sarawak
___________________________________________________________________________

Route 7:

## Vehicles Classification Total Total

Time Vehicle Vehicle
1 (passenger car) 2 (motorcycle) 3 (trailers) 4 (lorry) 5 (buses) (veh) in PCU
Qty PCU Qty PCU Qty PCU Qty PCU Qty PCU
5:00 5:15 19 19.00 12 3.96 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 31 23
5:15 5:30 28 28.00 2 1.50 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 30 30
5:30 5:45 43 43.00 11 8.25 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 54 51
5:45 6:00 37 37.00 16 12.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 53 49
Total 168 153
Table 7. Traffic flow in Route 7

Route 9:

## Vehicles Classification Total Total

Time Vehicle Vehicle
1 (passenger car) 2 (motorcycle) 3 (trailers) 4 (lorry) 5 (buses)
(veh) in PCU
Qty PCU Qty PCU Qty PCU Qty PCU Qty PCU
5:00 5:15 21 21.00 12 3.96 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 33 25
5:15 5:30 25 25.00 2 1.50 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 27 27
5:30 5:45 54 54.00 11 8.25 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 65 62
5:45 6:00 43 43.00 16 12.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 59 55
Total 184 169
Table 8. Traffic flow in Route 9

Group 1I - Page 9
KNS 3621 Civil Engineering Laboratory 6
Faculty of Engineering
University Malaysia Sarawak
___________________________________________________________________________

Route 2
300 283
250
250 236
216 225
203
192
200
Taffic Volume

171

150
PHV in vehicle
100 PHV in PCU

50

0
5:00 5:15 5:15 5:30 5:30 5:45 5:45 6:00
Time interval

## Figure 3. Peak Hourly Volume in Route 2

Route 3
140
118
120 109
97 96
100 89 89
Taffic Volume

80
80
61
60 PHV in vehicle
PHV in PCU
40

20

0
5:00 5:15 5:15 5:30 5:30 5:45 5:45 6:00
Time interval

## Figure 4. Peak Hourly Volume in Route 3

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KNS 3621 Civil Engineering Laboratory 6
Faculty of Engineering
University Malaysia Sarawak
___________________________________________________________________________

Route 4
400
350 334
317
299
300 282 279
267
239 250
Taffic Volume

250
200
PHV in vehicle
150
PHV in PCU
100
50
0
5:00 5:15 5:15 5:30 5:30 5:45 5:45 6:00
Time interval

## Figure 5. Peak Hourly Volume in Route 4

Route 5
120 109
99 98
100 91 90
81 83
80
Taffic Volume

61
60
PHV in vehicle
40 PHV in PCU

20

0
5:00 5:15 5:15 5:30 5:30 5:45 5:45 6:00
Time interval

## Figure 6. Peak Hourly Volume in Route 5

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KNS 3621 Civil Engineering Laboratory 6
Faculty of Engineering
University Malaysia Sarawak
___________________________________________________________________________

Route 7
60
54 53
51
49
50

40
Taffic Volume

31 30 30
30
23 PHV in vehicle
20 PHV in PCU

10

0
5:00 5:15 5:15 5:30 5:30 5:45 5:45 6:00
Time interval

## Figure 7. Peak Hourly Volume in Route 7

Route 9
70 65
62
59
60 55

50
Taffic Volume

40
33
30 25 27 27 PHV in vehicle
PHV in PCU
20

10

0
5:00 5:15 5:15 5:30 5:30 5:45 5:45 6:00
Time interval

## Figure 8. Peak Hourly Volume in Route 9

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KNS 3621 Civil Engineering Laboratory 6
Faculty of Engineering
University Malaysia Sarawak
___________________________________________________________________________

The data that recorded in Table 3 to Table 8 showed the traffic flow at every lane in
that particular signalised intersection. However, the maximum 15-minutes within the
hour (V15) and hourly volume (HV) were summarised in Table 9, in order to
determine peak hour factor (PHF) and service flow rate (SFR) for the intersection.

## Traffic Volume in Traffic Volume in

vehicle PCU SFR=HV/PHF
PHF=HV/(4xV15)
V15 HV V15 HV (pcu/hr)
Route
(veh) (veh/hr) (pcu) (pcu/hr)
2 283 985 225 791 0.88 900
3 118 391 109 347 0.80 436
4 334 1200 299 1068 0.89 1196
5 109 379 99 333 0.84 396
7 54 168 51 153 0.75 204
9 65 184 62 169 0.68 248
Table 9. Summary of the traffic volume characteristics

1.00
0.88 0.89
0.90 0.84
0.80
0.80 0.75
0.68
0.70
0.60
PHF

0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.10
0.00
2 3 4 5 7 9
Route

## Figure 9. Peak Hour Factor for the intersection

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Faculty of Engineering
University Malaysia Sarawak
___________________________________________________________________________

1400
1196
1200

1000 900
SFR (pcu/hr)

800

600
436 396
400
204 248
200

0
2 3 4 5 7 9
Route

## Furthermore, the composition of the total vehicles in various classifications was

tabulated in Table 10. In overall, most of the road users which stand of 96.6% were
using light vehicles like passenger cars and motorcycles.

* Noted that the light van was considered as passenger cars during the traffic counts.

## Total vehicle Percentage of vehicle

Vehicle Class
(pcu) composition (%)
Class 1 Passenger car 2348.00 82.1
Class 2 Motorcycle 415.00 14.5
Class 3 Trailer 0.00 0.0
Class 4 Lorry 89.25 3.1
Class 5 - Buses 8.32 0.3
Total 2861 100
Table 10. Composition of various vehicles

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Faculty of Engineering
University Malaysia Sarawak
___________________________________________________________________________

3.1% 0.3%

## 14.5% Class 1 vehicle

Class 2 vehicle

Class 3 vehicle

Class 4 vehicle

Class 5 vehicle

82.1%

Figure 11. Composition of the total vehicles accordingly to the vehicle classification

CALCULATION:

## By taking Route 2 as an example, the traffic volume characteristics were determined

as the following:

From Table 3,

## Total vehicle at 5:00pm 5:15pm (15-minutes time interval)

= (passenger car + motorcycle + lorry)
= 140 + 72 + 4
= 216 vehicles

## Total vehicle in that 15-minutes interval (in pcu)

= (number of vehicle x PCE factor)
= (140 x 1.00) + (72 x 0.33) + (3 x 1.75) + (1 x 2.25)
= 171 pcu
Peak Hour Volume in vehicle per hour = 216 + 250 + 236 + 28 = 985 veh/hr
Peak Hour Volume in pcu per hour = 171 + 203 + 192 + 225 = 791 pcu/hr

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KNS 3621 Civil Engineering Laboratory 6
Faculty of Engineering
University Malaysia Sarawak
___________________________________________________________________________

From Table 8,

## Service Flow Rate, SFR = = = 900 pcu/hr

Then, the same calculation was applied to other route for determining the traffic
volume characteristics for that particular lane.

DISCUSSION:

## The study was conducted at a signalized intersection that located in the

midway of an arterial road in Kuching Jalan Wan Alwi on 2nd April 2015 for an
hour, which started from 5:00pm to 6:00pm. As analyzed in the part of RESULT, in
overall, the passenger cars recorded as the highest road user along the roads and then
followed by motorcycle, lorry and buses. From here, we can see that the number of
passenger cars on the road was high and this might be the reason that caused the
congestion problem during the peak hours. However, heavy vehicles such as heavy
lorry and trailer were not that common to use the road because there is no
construction site around that area.

The total traffic volume that obtained from the site is 3307veh/hr or
2861pcu/hr, where passenger cars, motorcycles, lorries and buses are all inclusive.
Among the six lanes that approaching the intersection, Route 4 has the highest record
of traffic volume as compared to other routes, which is equivalent to 1200veh/hr or
1068pcu/hr. Besides, for this route, V15 which is the maximum number of vehicles
that travelled along the lane is 334veh/hr or 299pcu/hr within the 15-minutes time
interval of 5:45pm 6:00pm.This happened because the road users were travelling
back from their working places to their residential area, which might be at Pending,
Stutong or Kota Samarahan area.

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KNS 3621 Civil Engineering Laboratory 6
Faculty of Engineering
University Malaysia Sarawak
___________________________________________________________________________

Since Route 4 has the highest traffic volume, its peak hour factor and service
flow rate also were the highest one, which are 89% and 1196pcu/hr respectively. At
the same time, it means that the lane can serve 119pcu of vehicles during the peak
hour and it reflects the peaking characteristics of the traffic flow.

## PRECAUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS:

During the collection of the spot speed data, make sure that all of the group members
are wearing the safety vest and the location to collect the data is safe and away from
the moving vehicles. On the other hand, since the traffic counts were collected by
indirectly manual method, the data must be manually transcripted from recorded film.
This process is time consuming and tedious. However, the quality of the video
recorded on film is dependent on intensity of light and this method is not suitable in
overcast days. Besides, human errors may happen when counting the data based on
the video recorded. This happened because the video was captured at the roadside and
it is difficult to count the vehicles when the traffic volume is high. As the
recommendation, a suitable elevated place is required for filming operation in order
to get more accurate result.

CONCLUSION:

On the basis of analysis, the vehicle composition showed that most of the total traffic
that travelled through the signalised intersection was light vehicles such as passenger
cars, motorcycles and light van. So, the reason for high proportion of light vehicle is
the proximity of the location to the residential area. However, Route 4 was found to
have the highest traffic volume within that particular hour with peak hour factor of
89% and 1196pcu/hr of service flow rate.

Group 1I - Page 17
KNS 3621 Civil Engineering Laboratory 6
Faculty of Engineering
University Malaysia Sarawak
___________________________________________________________________________

REFERENCES:

Arahan Teknik Jalan 8/86 (1986). A guide on geometry design of roads. Kuala
Lumpur: Public Works Department Malaysia.

Garber, N. J., & Hoel, L. A. (2014). Traffic and highway engineering (5th Ed.).
Stamford, USA: Cengage Learning.

## Malaysian Highway Capacity Manual. (2006). Kuala Lumpur: Highway Planning

unit, Ministry of Works.

## Rogers, M. (2008). Highway Engineering (2nd Ed.). Oxford, UK: Blackwell

Publishing Ltd.

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Faculty of Engineering
University Malaysia Sarawak
___________________________________________________________________________

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