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geom - READ THE HELP SHEET FIRST - do not overwrite any black figures, they contain formulae
1 refers to pinion, 2 to wheel All dims in mm 3.1415926536
Feature Cell name input / calc comments issue feb2002
angles in this
INPUT REQUIRED IN RED col in radians

pinion teeth z1 pin 25 ratio u

wheel teeth z2 whl 93 3.720
normal module mn 5
normal pressure angle (deg) npa 20
helix angle (deg) ha 15 0 for spur gears
normal pressure angle (rad) npar 0.3490658504 involute pa= 0.0149043839
helix angle (rad) har 0.2617993878 noml ctrs = 305.406473221
from the info given, the centre distance should be approx. 305 check - see note on help sheet
design centre distance a 308 Y= 0.5187053558
Facewidth b ( least of pin or wheel) b 100 see note on "design tips" sheet
inspection pin/ball dia pind 6
trans pressure angle pat 0.360356324 20.646896487 deg
involute pat ipat 0.0164533899
pinion ref dia (pcd1) rd1 129.410
wheel ref dia (pcd2) rd2 481.403
pinion working dia pwd 130.508
whl working dia wwd 485.492
base circle dia.1 bcd1 121.098
base circle dia.2 bcd2 450.483

trans working pressure angle patw 0.382078854 21.891505778 deg

involute patw ipatw 0.0197463687
normal circular pitch pn 15.708
trans circ pitch pt 16.262
trans base pitch pbt 15.218
sum of add mod coefficients (sum x) sumx 0.534

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equality of
calculated addendum modification bending speed
coefficient for pinion general strength factors increasers
0.3568 0.4787 0.1131
see note on "design tips" sheet
addendum mod coefficient (x1) admod1 0.35 input from one of three above (or own figure)
add mod coefficient (x2) admod2 Err:508
topping 1 (per side) top1 0.0735 amount removed from outside diameter 1
topping 2 (per side) top2 0.075 amount removed from outside diameter 2
nominal cutter tooth depth ratio( 2.25 Mn ) td 2.25 input as ratio of module, e.g. 2.25, 2.4 etc.
actual cutter tip radius (0.25-0.39Mn) tr 1.5
cutter depth from ref circle1 to start of r sr1 Err:508 pinion
cutter depth from ref circle2 to start of r sr2 Err:508 wheel
Backlash min 0.200 0.220 change from no. in cell B44 if required
Backlash max 0.300 0.300 change from no. in cell B45 if required
ctrs 1 to working pitch line wp 65.254237288 Err:508 Err:508 Err:508
ctrs 2 to working pitch line wp2 242.74576271 Err:508 Err:508 Err:508
Lowest point of involute 1 due to cutter
tip rad Err:508 ensure this is lower than the Lowest Point of Contact 1
Lowest point of involute 2 due to cutter
tip rad Err:508 ensure this is lower than the Lowest Point of Contact 2
Lowest point of contact 1 lpc1 Err:508
Lowest point of contact 2 lpc2 Err:508

addendum 1 add1 Err:508

addendum 2 add2 Err:508
tip dia 1 td1 Err:508 nominal o/d - topping
tip dia 2 td2 Err:508
root dia 1 rt1 Err:508 based on cutter depth ratio input in line 40
root dia 2 rt2 Err:508 based on cutter depth ratio input in line 40
thk n @ rd 1 sn1 Err:508
thk n @ rd 2 sn2 Err:508

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base helix angle bha 0.2456742109 14.076095422 deg

Lead 1 pz 1517.273
Lead 2 pz2 5644.255
Axial pitch px 60.691

Additional Geometry Details

Overlap ratio 1.648 see note on "design tips" sheet

Length of line base to base g 114.838
base circle to tip 1 g1 Err:508
base circle to tip 2 g2 Err:508
Length of line of action - trans plane ga Err:508
Length of line of approach pinion driving Err:508
Length of line of recession pinion driving Err:508
Trans contact ratio Err:508 see note on "design tips" sheet
bcd1 to tip2 Err:508
bcd2 to tip1 Err:508
bcd1 to hpstc1 Err:508
bcd2 to hpstc2 Err:508
HPSTC1 Err:508
HPSTC2 Err:508

tip PA 1 tpa1 Err:508 Err:508 inv Err:508

tip PA 2 tpa2 Err:508 Err:508 inv Err:508
approx tip thickness 1-normal Err:508
approx tip thickness 2 - normal Err:508

uap uap Err:508
uaw uaw Err:508
up up Err:508
uw uw Err:508
Specific sliding at pinion tip contact Vs/Vr Err:508
Specific sliding at wheel tip contact Vs/Vr Err:508

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calcs for n1 nt,nb 0.0252414646 1.0654870333 7.95774715

calcs for n2 nt2,nb2 0.0252414646 1.0654870333 29.6028194
no of teeth spanned 1 4 4 change no. if required
no of teeth spanned 2 13 12 change no. if required
calcs for bts 1 btt,btt1 11.406909035 Err:508
calcs for bts 2 btt2,btt3 37.658480777 Err:508
base tan span 1 nominal Err:508 take off half the backlash = Err:508 to Err:508
base tan span 2 nominal Err:508 take off half the backlash = Err:508 to Err:508

value of target cell by changing

calc for pin dim 1 Err:508 0.0353253546 0.45949659 use "solver" to
calc for pin dim 2 Err:508 0.0202258532 0.38502332 find these
pin dim 1, nomina l- max - min 141.112 140.800 140.687
pin dim 2, nomina l- max - min 492.069 491.757 491.643 note! Delete these two
sets before "solving"
FOR ODD TEETH I.e. leave blank before
pin dim 1, nomina l- max - min 140.845 140.534 140.420 calculating
pin dim 2, nomina l- max - min 491.999 491.687 491.574

Additional details

Multiply these
Tangential tooth load factor ft 15.454813221 factors by the
Seperating force factor sp 5.8235237483 torque (nm) to
obtain tooth
load in
Thrust (Axial) force factor axl 4.1411047217 newtons

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1 1 refers to pinion, 2 to wheel

2 before calculating, ensure you remove previous results from cells E111 & E112

3 the required input are those cells highlighted in red


4 after inputting teeth, mod & HA, check that the calculated centres are within 1 module of your required
centre distance, otherwise change HA or tooth combination

5 the nominal tooth depth is based on the cutter. Input this figure as a % of the module. E.g. 2.25 for as cut teeth,
2.4 for ground teeth ( leaving 0.15Mn grinding wheel clearance), etc.

6 backlash is calculated, it may be changed to suit - check blue figures before continuing

7 the number of teeth spanned for the base tangent span measurement can be changed to suit
- check blue figures before continuing

8 for spur gears, pins or balls may be used to measure tooth size. Use the excel solver tool to calculate these
click on Tools - Solver - then set target cell to D111, equal to the value of the number in cell C111
"by changing cell" E111. For the wheel use cells D112, C112 & E112 respectively

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min tooth numbers - depending on the pressure angle, 13 for helicals 15 for spurs to avoid weak teeth & cutter undercut.
Positive add mod can help increase strength - check for contact ratio and cutter interference

helix angle - select an angle to give axial overlap, but too much means an increase in axial load (8-15 deg is common)

Addendum modification coefficient x - positive x will increase the strength of a tooth. It is usual to have
+x on pinions and -x on wheels ( opposite for speed increasers ) The max on a tooth
should be around 0.4

facewidth - the pinion face should not be greater than 1.3 x PCD or you may have to take
the twist into account - make the wheel face a few mm smaller than the pinion

topping - this is the amount removed each side because of any space limitation or too thin a tooth tip etc.
Topping will decrease the contact ratio, so check the result

contact ratios -transverse CR should be over 1.2, greater will mean better load sharing and quieter operation

The axial CR (overlap ratio) should also be over 1.1 for helicals, spur gears will of course be zero