You are on page 1of 22

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 1

FEU Institute of Law

I. Preliminary Readings
a. Fundamental Law as Overriding Standard of Validity
o Marbury v. Madison, 5 U.S. 137
b. Supremacy of the Constitution
o Angara v. Electoral Commission, 53 Phil 139

II. The Constitution


o Manila Prince Hotel v. GSIS, 267 SCRA 408 (1997) (on constitutional
supremacy)
o Endencia v. David, 93 Phil 696 (1953)
o Francisco v. The House of Representatives, 415 SCRA 44 (2003)

a. Interpretation
o Nitafan v. Commissioner of Internal Revenue, 152 SCRA 284 (1987)
o J.M. Tuason & Co., Inc. v. Land Tenure Administration, 31 SCRA
413 (1970)
b. Adoption and Amendment
i. Proposals
1. By Congress as Constituent Assembly
o Gonzales v. Comelec, 21 SCRA 774 (1967)
2. By Constitutional Convention
3. By Peoples Initiative
o Lambino v. Comelec, 505 SCRA 160 (2006)
4. By the President during Emergency
o Sanidad v. Comelec, 73 SCRA 33
ii. Submission of Proposed Amendments
o Planas v. Comelec, 49 SCRA 105 (1973)
iii. Ratification
o Javellana v. Executive Secretary, 50 SCRA 30

III. The State

Note: 1933 Montevideo Convention, Art. 1 (definition)

1
a. Sovereignty
o The Province of North Cotabato vs. Government of the Republic
of the Philippines Peace Panel on Ancestral Domain, G.R. No.
183591, October 14, 2008.

b. Territory

1987 PHIL. CONST. Art. 1


See Treaty of Paris (1898) Art. 3
See also R.A. No. 3046 as amended by R.A. No. 5446
See also R.A. No. 9522
o Magallona v. Ermita, GR No. 187167 (2011).
o In the Matter of the South China Sea Arbitration; Philippines v.
China, July 12, 2016 (may be accessed at: https://pca-
cpa.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/175/2016/07/PH-CN-
20160712-Award.pdf)
c. People
i. Citizenship
1987 PHIL. CONST. Art. IV (Citizenship)
R.A. No. 8171
R.A. No. 9225

o Poe-Llamanzares v. Comelec , G.R. No. 221697 and G.R. No.


221698-700, March 8, 2016
o Aznar v. Comelec, 185 SCRA 703 (1990)
o Limkaichong v. COMELEC, G.R. Nos. 178831-32, April 1,
2009 (on a natural-born citizen)
o Coquilla v. COMELEC, G.R. No.151914, July 31, 2002 (on loss
of citizenship).

Reacquisition of Citizenship
o Co v. HRET, 199 SCRA 692 (1989)
o Bengzon v. HRET, 257 SCRA 545

Dual Citizenship vs. Dual Allegiance


o Mercado vs. Manzano 307 SCRA 630

2
ii. Suffrage
Article V, Sections 1-2
1987 Constitution Article V Art. XVII, Sec. 2, 3, 4
Art. VI, Sec 32,
Art. III, Sec. 16
R. A. No. 6735
R.A. No. 9189

o Akbayan v. COMELEC, 355 SCRA 318 (2001)


o Macalintal v. COMELEC, 405 SCRA 614 (2003)
o Nicolas-Lewis v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 162759, August 4,
2006
o Velasco v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 180051, December 24, 2008

d. Government

i. Government of the Philippines; Read articles on the proposed shift


to federalism and parliamentary system.
ii. Constituent and Minstrant Functions of the Government
o Bacani v. NACOCO, 100 Phil 468 (1956)

iii. De Facto and De Jure Governmnet


o Co Kim Cham v. Valdez, 75 Phil 113 (1946)

iv. Revolutionary Government


o Republic v. Sandiganbayan, GR No. 104768, 406 SCRA 190
(2003)

v. Parens Patriae
o Soriano v. Laguardia G.R. No. 164785, April 29, 2009
vi. State Immunity from Suit

1. Basis
o Republic v. Feliciano, 148 SCRA 424 (1987)
o Meritt v. Government of the Philippine Islands, 34
Phil 311 (1916)

3
o Philippine Agila Satellite v. Lichauco, G.R. No. 134887,
July 27, 2006
o Minucher v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 142396,
February 11, 2003
o GTZ v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 152318, April 16,
2009
o Vigilar v. Aquino, G.R. No. 180388, January 18, 2011
o Arigo v. Swift, 735 SCRA 102 (2014)

2. Waiver of Immunity
o China National Machinery vs. Sta Maria,
G.R.No.185572, February 7, 2012

3. Forms of consent
4. Suit against government agencies
o NHMFC vs. Abayari, G.R. No. 166508, October 2, 2009
o Republic vs. Domingo, G.R. No. 175299, September 14,
2011

5. Exemption from legal requirements


o Banahaw Broadcasting vs. Pacana, G.R. No. 171673,
May 30, 2011
o Landbank vs. Rivera, G.R. No. 182431, November 17,
2001

6. Money Claims
o Ministerio v. Court of First Instance, 40 SCRA 464
(1971)

IV. Principles and State Policies


a. Preamble: Nature, purpose and aims
b. Principles
i. Sovereignty of the People and Republicanism
1. Direct and Indirect Democracy
2. Representation and renovation
3. Accountability to the People

4
4. Rule of the Majority
5. Rule of Law
o Petitioner Organizations v. Executive Secretary, GR
Nos. 147036-37, April 10, 2012
ii. Adherence to International Law
1. Renunciation of War
2. Adoption of International Law
3. Adherence to policy of peace, freedom, amity
o Bayan Muna v. Romulo, GR No. 159618, February 1,
2011
o Pharmaceutical and Healthcare v. Health Secretary,
GR No. 173034, October 9, 2007
o Espina v. Zamora, 606 SCRA 598 (2009)

iii. Supremacy of Civilian Authoiry


o IBP v. Zamora, GR No. 141284, August 15, 2000

iv. Government as protector of People and People as defenders of the


State

c. Policies
i. Independent foreign policy and a nuclear-free Philippines

o Bayan v. Exec Sec, GR no. 138570 (2000)


o Lim v. Exec Sec, GR No. 151445 (2002)

ii. Just and Dynamic Social Order


1. Promotion of Social Justice
o Calalang v. Williams, 70 Phil 726 (1940)

a. Aspects of Social Justice


i. Labor
o Serrano v. Gallant Maritime Services, GR No.
167614, March 24, 2009
ii. Agrarian reform
o Association of Small Landowners v. Secretary
of Agrarian Reform, 175 SCRA 34

5
o Hacienda Luisita v. Luisita Industrial Park, GR
No. 171101, July 5, 2011

iii. Respect for human dignity and human rights


iv. Separation of Church and State

o Estrada v. Escritor AM No. P-0201651, August 4, 2003


o Estrada v. Escritor AM No. P-0201651, June 22, 2006
o Ang Ladlad LGBT Party v. COMELEC, 618 SCRA 32 (2010)
o Imbong v. Ochoa, GR No. 204819, April 2014

v. Education, science, technology, arts, culture and sports

o Alcuaz v. PSBA, 178 SCRA 135 (1989)


o UP v. Ayson, 176 SCRA 571

vi. Promotion of Health and Ecology

o Oposa v. Factoran, 224 SCRA 792


o MMDA et al v. Concerened Citizens of Manila Bay, GR Nos.
171947-48, December 18, 2008

vii. The Family as basic autonomous social institution

viii. A self-reliant and independent economic order;


o Tanada v. Angara, GR no. 118295 (1997)

1. National economy and Patrimony


o Manila Prince Hotel v. GSIS, 267 SCRA 408 (1997)

2. Natural Resources
o La Bugal blaan v. Ramos, GR No. 127882, December
2004
3. Private Lands
o Ramirez v. Vda de Ramirez, 111 SCRA 704

4. Regulation of economic activites

6
a. Organization and regulation of private corporations
b. Operation of Public Utilites
o Gamboa v. Teves, GR No. 176579, June 28, 2011;
Resolution dated October 9, 2012
c. On mass media and advertising industry
d. Practice of Professions
e. State operation of private enterprises
o Agan v. PIATCO, GR No. 155001, May 5, 2003
f. Monopolies, combinations and unfair competition
o PPA v. Mendoza, 138 SCRA 632

ix. Communication and information in nation-building

x. Autonomy of Local Governments


o Sema v. Comelec, GR No. 177597, July 16, 2008
o League of Cities v. Comelec, GR No. 176591, November 18,
2008
o Ambil v. Sandiganbayan, GR No. 175457, July 6, 2011
o Abas Kida v. Senate, GR No. 196271, October 8, 2011

xi. Recognition of rights of indigenous cultural communities


o Cruz v. Secretary of DENR, GR No. 135385

xii. Public Service and Full Public Disclosure


o Chavez v. PCGG, GR No. 130716, December 9, 1998
o Valmonte v. Belmonte, GR No. 74930, February 13, 1989
o Antolin v. Domondon, GR No. 165036, July 5, 2010
o Chavez v. PEA, GR No. 133250, July 9, 2002

V. Separation of Powers

o Nazareth v. Villar, GR No. 188635, January 29, 2013


o Demetria v. Alba, 148 SCRA 208 (1987)
o In Re: Laureta and Maravilla, 148 SCRA 382 (1987)
o Metrobank v. Tobias, GR No. 177730, January 25, 2012

a. Judicial Review; Theory and Justification

7
o Angara v. Electoral Commission, supra
o Marbury v. Madison, 1 Cranch (5 US) 137, 2 L.ED. 60 (1803)

b. Justiciable and Political Questions


o Tanada v. Cuenco, 13 SCRA 375 (1965)
o Miranda v. Aguirre, GR No. 133064, September 16, 1999
o Francisco v. The House of Representatives, supra
o Torrecampo v. MWSS, GR no. 188296, May 30, 2011

c. Requisites of Judicial Review

i. Actual Case or Controversy


1. Prematurity
o PACU v. Secretary of Education, 97 Phil 806 (1955)
o Mariano v. Comelec, GR No. 119694 (1995)
o Montesclaros v. Comelec, GR No. 152295 (2002)

2. Mootness
o Atlas Fertilizer v. Secretary of Education, 97 Phil 806
(1955)
o Lacson v. Perez, 357 SCRA 756 (2001)
o Sanlakas v. Executive Secretary, GR No. 159085 (2004)

a. Exceptions to mootness rule


o David v. Arroyo, GR No. 171396, May 3, 2006

ii. Proper Party

o Joya v. PCGG, GR No. 96541 (1993)


o CHR Employees Assoc. CHR, GR No.155336 (2004)
o Automotive Industry Workers Alliance v. Romulo, GR.
157509 (2005)

1. Citizen Standing
o Tanada v. Tuvera, 136 SCRA 27 (1985)
o Chavez v. PEA and Amari, GR no. 133250 (2002)

8
2. Associational Standing
o IBP v. Zamora, 338 SCRA 81 (2000)

3. Taxpayers Standing

4. Voters Standing

5. Legislative Standing
o Ople v. Torres, 293 SCRA 141 (1998)

6. Governmental Standing:
o People v. Vera, 65 Phil 56 (1937)

iii. Earliest Opportunity

iv. Necessity of Deciding Constitutional Questions (lis mota rule)

v. Effect of declaration of unconstitutionality


Sameer v. Cabiles, G.R. No. 170139, August 5, 2014
Planters Products Inc., v. Fertiphil Corp, GR No. 166006, March 14,
2008
Araullo v. Aquino, GR No. 209287, July 1, 2014

VI. The Branches of the Government

a. LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT
i. Power, Composition, Qualification and Term of Office
1. Senate
2. House of Representatives

a. Term and Tenure


o Dimaporo v. Mitra, 202 SCRA 779 (1991)
o Quinto v. Comelec, GR No. 189698 (2009)

b. Qualfications

9
o Pundadoya v. Comelec, GR No. 179313 (2009)
o Limbona v. Comelec, GR No. 186006 (2009)
o Mitra v. Comelec, GR No. 191938 (2010)

c. Reapportionment
o Bagabuyo v. Comelec, GR No. 176970 (2008)
o Aquino v. Comelec, GR No. 189793 (2010)
o Mariano v. Comelec, 240 Scra 211 (1995)
o Aquino v. Comelec, 248 SCRA 400 (1995)

d. Party-List Representatives
o Atong Paglaum v. Comelec, GR No. 203766
(2013)
o Veterans Federation Party v. Comelc, 342 SCRA
244 (2000)
o Bagong Bayani v. Comelec, GR no. 147589
(2001)
o BANAT v.Comelec, GR No. 179271 (April 21,
2009); Resolution, July 8, 2009
o Ang Ladlad LGBT Party v. Comelec, GR No.
190582 (2010)

ii. Election
1. Regular election
2. Special election
o Tolentino v. Comelec, 420 SCRA 438 (2004)

iii. Organization and Sessions


1. Election of Officers
o Santiago v. Guingona, GR No. 134577 (1998)
o Baguilat v. Alvarez, GR No. 227757, July 25, 2017

2. Quorum
o Avelino v. Cuenco, 83 Phil 17 (1949)

3. Rules of Proceedings

10
o Pacete v.Commission on Appointments, 40 SCRA 58
(1971)
o Arroyo v. De Venecia, GR No. 127255 (1997)
o Garcillano v. House of Representatives Committee, 575
SCRA 170

4. Discipline of Members
o Alejandrino v. Quezon 46 Phil 83 (1924)
o Osmena v. Pendatun, 109 Phil 863 (1960)
o De Venecia v. Sandiganbayan, GR No. 130240 (2002)
o Pimentel v. Senate Committee of the Whole, GR No.
187714 (2011)

5. Journal and Record


a. Enrolled Bill Theory
o Casco Chemical Co. v. Gimenez, 7 SCRA 347
(1963)
o Philippine Judges Association v. Prado, 27
SCRA 703 (1993)

b. Probative Value of the Journal


o US v. Pons, 34 Phil 729 (1916)

c. Matters to be entered in the Journal

d. Journal Entry v. Enrolled Bill Theory


o Astorga v. Villegas, 56 SCRA 714 (1974)
o Morales v. Subido, 27 SCRA 131 (1969)

e. Congressional Record

6. Session
a. Regular Sessions
b. Special Sessions
c. Joint Sessions

iv. Salaries and Privileges

11
1. Salaries
o PHILCONSA v. MAthay, 18 SCRA 300 (1966)
o Ligot v. Mathay, 56 SCRA 823 (1974)
o Amores v. HRET, GR No. 189600 (2010)

2. Freedom from Arrest


o People v. Jalosjos, GR No. 132875 (2000)

3. Speech and Debate Clause


o Jimenez v. Cabangbang, 17 SCRA 876 (1966)
o Pobre v. Defensor-Santiago, AC No. 7399, August 25,
2009

4. Disqualifications
o Adaza v. Pacana, 135 SCRA 431 (1985)
o Puyat v, De Guzman, 113 SCRA 31 (1982)
o Liban v. Gordon, GR No. 175332 (July 15, 2009) and
January 18, 2011

5. Duty to Disclose
Article VI, Sec. 12 and 20

v. Powers of Congress
1. General Plenary Powers
o Tan v. Comelec, 142 SCRA 727 (1986)
o Torralba v. Sibagat, 147 SCRA 390 (1987)

2. Limitations on the Legislative Power


a. Substantive limitations
o ABAKADA Guro v. Purisima, GR No. 166715
(2008)

b. Procedural limitations
Art. VI, Sec. 26-27

c. Prohibition against delegation of legislative powers

12
i. Criterion of valid delegation
o Abakada v. Executive Secretary, 469 SCRA 14
o Sema v. Comelec, GR No. 177597 (2008)

ii. Undue delegation


iii. Proper delegation
1. By express authority of the Constitution
o Garcia v. Executive Secretary, 210
SCRA 256

2. Delegation to the President


o Biraogo v. Philippine Truth
Commission, GR No. 192935
(2010)

3. Delegation to Local Governments


o Gancayco v. Government of
Quezon City, GR No. 177807
(2011)

4. Delegation of power to carry out defined


policy according to prescribed standards
o Edu v. Ericta, October 24, 1970

3. Question Hour

4. Legislative Investigation
o Arnault v. Nazareno, 87 Phil 29 (1950)
o Arnault v. Balagtas, 97 Phil 358 (1955)
o Bengzon v. Sen Blue Ribbon Committee, 203 SCRA
767 (1991)
o Senate v. Ermita, GR No. 169777 (2006)
o Neri v. Senate Committee on Accountability, GR
No. 180643 (March 2008 and September 2008)

5. Act as board of canvassers for presidential election


Art. VII, Sec. 4

13
6. Call a special election for Presidency
Art. VII, Sec. 10

7. Legislative veto or extension for suspension of writ of habeas


corpus or declaration of martial law
Art. VII, Sec. 18

8. Presidential amnesties
Art. VII, Sec. 19

9. Confirm appointments, Commission on Appointments


Art. VII, Sec. 9
o Daza v. Singson, 180 SCRA 496 (1989)
o Coseteng v. Mitra, Jr., 187 SCRA 377 (1990)
o Guingona v. Gonzales, 214 SCRA 789 (1992)
o Drilon v. De Venecia, GR No. 180055 (2009)

10. Concur in treaties


o Saguisag v. Executive Secretary, GR No. 212426,
212444, January 12, 2016
o Pimentel v. Executive Secretary,, GR No. 158088 (2005)
o Bayan Muna v. Romulo, GR No. 159618 (2011)

11. Declaration of existence of war and delegation of emergency


powers
Art. VI, Sec. 23

12. Power of Impeachment


o Gutierrez v. The House of Representatives Committee
on Justice, GR No. 193459 (2011)
o CJ Corona v. Senate, JGR No. 200242 (2012)

13. Power of Appropriation


o Demetria v. Alba, 148 SCRA 208
o Philconsa v. Enriquez, GR No. 113105, August 19,
1994

14
o Belgica v. Executive Secretary, GR No. 208566,
November 19, 2013
o Araullo v. Aquino, G.R. No. 209517 (2014)

14. Power of Taxation


o Tolentino v. Secretary of Finance, GR No. 115455,
Sugust 25, 1994
o Lung Center v. Quezon City, GR No. 144104, June 29,
2004
o Tan v. Del Rosario, 237 SCRA 324

15. Electoral Tribunals


o Pimentel v. HRET, GR No. 141489 (2002)

vi. Legislative Process


1. Requirement as to bills
a. Titles of bills
o Lidasan v. Comelec, 21 SCRA 479 (1967)
o Giron v. Comelec, GR No. 188179 (2013)

b. Requirements as to certain laws


i. Appropriation laws
o Guingona v. Carague, 196 SCRA 221 (1991)
o LAMP v. The Sec. Of Budger, GR No. 164987
(2012)

ii. Tax laws


o Tolentino v. Sec. Of Finance, GR No. 115455
(1994)

iii. Appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court


Fabian v. Desierto, GR No. 129742 (1998)

c. Procedure for the Passage of bills


o Tolentino v. Sec. Of Finance, supra

15
o Gonzales v. Macaraig, GR No. 87636 (1990)
o Bengzon v. Drilon, 208 SCRA 133 (1992)

d. Effectivity of laws
o Tanada v. Tuvera, GR No. L-63915 (1985 and
1986)

b. EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT

i. The President
1. Qualification, election, term and oath
o Pormento v. Estrada, GR No. 181988 (2010)
2. Privileges and salary
o Republic v. Sandiganbayan, GR No. 152154 (2003)
3. Succession
a. In case of vacancy at the beginning of term
b. In case of vacancy during term
c. In case of temporary disability
o Estrada v. Arroyo, GR No. 146738 (2001)
4. Removal
5. Prohibitions
6. Exceptions to prohibition from holding another office
a. Vice-President as member of the cabinet
b. Sec of Justice as member of Judicial and Bar Council
o Civil Liberties Union v. Exec Sec, 194 SCRA 317
(1991)

ii. Powers and Functions of the President


1. Executive Power
o Marcos v. Manglapus, 178 SCRA 760 (1989)
o DENR v. DENR Region 12 Employees, GR No. 149725
(2003)
o Banda v. Ermita, GR No. 166620 (2010)

2. Control of executive departments


o Balquera v. Alcala, GR No. 109406 (1998)
o Hutchison Ports v. SBMA, GR No. 131367 (2000)

16
o NEA v. COA, 377 SCRA 233 (2002)

3. General Supervision over local governments/autonomous


regions
o Pimentel v. Aguirre, GR No. 132988 (2000)

4. Power of appointment
o Sarmiento v. Mison, 156 SCRA 549 (1987)
o Calderon v. Carale, GR No. 91636 (1992)
o Manalo v. Sistoza, GR No. 107369 (1999)
o De Castro v. JBC, GR No. 191002 (2010)
o Matibag v. Benipayo, GR no. 149036 (2002)
o Funa v. Ermita, G.R. No. 184740, February 11, 2010
o Funa v. Commission on Audit, GR No. 192791 (2012)

5. Executive clemency
o Barrioquinto v. Fernandez, GR No. L-1278 (1949)
o Vera v. People, 7 SCRA 152 (1963)
o Monsanto v. Factoran, GR No. 78239 (1989)
o In re Lontok, 43 Phil 293 (1922)
o Torres v. Gonzales, 152 SCRA 273 (1987)

6. Commander-in-Chief
o IBP v. Zamora, GR No. 141284 (2000)
o Sanlakas v. Exec Sec, GR No. 159085 (2004)
o Aquino v. Enrile, 59 SCRA 183 (1974)
o Olaguer v. Military Commission No. 34, 150 SCRA 144
(1987)
o Garcia v. Exec Sec, GR No. 198554 (2012)
o Fortun v. Macapagal-Arroyo, GR No. 190293 (2012)

7. Emergency Powers
o David v. Arroyo, GR No. 171390 (2006)

8. Contracting and guaranteeing foreign loans


o Constantino v. Cuisia, GR No. 106064 (2005)

17
9. Foreign affairs
o Nicolas v.Romulo, GR No. 175888 (2009)
o Peoples Movement for Press Freedom v. Manglapus
(April 13, 1988)
o Comm of Customs v. Eastern Sea Trading, 3 SCRA 351
(1961)
o Go Tek v. Deportation Board, 79 SCRA 17 (1977)

10. Legislation
a. Address Congress
b. Preparation and submission of the budget
c. Veto-Power
d. Emergency Powers
11. Immunity from Suit
o Beltran v. Macasiar, GR No. 82585 (1988)
o Gloria v. Court of Appeals, GR No. 119903 (2000)
iii. Vice President
1. Qualifications, election, term and oath
2. Privileges and salary
3. Prohibitions
4. Succession

c. JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT

i. Judicial Power
ii. The Supreme Court
1. Composition
Art. VIII, Sec. 4
2. Mode of Sitting
o People v. Gacott, GR No. 116049 (2009)
3. Appointment and qualifications
o Kilosbayan v. Ermita, GR No. 177721 (2007)
4. No non-judicial work for judges
o Garcia v. Macaraig, 30 SCRA 106 (1971)
5. Salary
o Nitafan v. Commissioner of Internal Revenue, 152
SCRA 284 (1987)

18
6. Tenure
Art. VIII, Sec 2 and 11
7. Removal
o In re Gonzales, 160 SCRA 771 (1988)

8. Fiscal Autonomy
9. Jurisdiction
o Santiago v.Bautista, 32 SCRA 188 (1970)
o Felipe v. Leuterio, 91 Phil 482 (1952)

10. Deliberations
o Consing v. Court o f Appeals, 177 SCRA 14 (1989)
o In re Production of Court Records and Documents
and the Attendance of Court Officials under
subpoenas of Feb 10, 2012 and the various letters for
the Impeachment Prosecution Panel dated January 19
and 15, 2012 and Feb 14, 2012

11. Voting
o Cruz v. DENR, GR No. 135385 (2000)

12. Requirements as to decisions


o Miguel v.JTC Group, GR No.157752 (2005)
o Nunal v.COA, 169 SCRA 356 (1989)
o Yao v CA, GR No. 132428 (2000)

13. Periods for deciding cases; Art. VIII, Sec. 15; Art. VII, Sec. 18;
Art. XVIII, Sec. 12-14

14. Presidential Electoral Tribunal


o Macalintal v. PET, GR No. 191818 (2011)

15. Administrative powers Art. VIII, Sec. 5 and 11


a. Supervision of lower courts justice
o In re Demetria, AM No. 00-7-09 (2001)
b. Appointment of officials and employees of entire
judiciary

19
c. Temporarily assign judges to other stations in public
interest
d. Order a change of venue or place of trial to avoid
miscarriage of justice
o People v. Pilotin, 65 SCRA 635 (1975)
o People v. Sola, 103 SCRA 393 (1981)

e. Promulgate rules concerning the enforcement and


protection of constitutional rights
o In the matter of the petition for the writ of
Amparo and Habeas Data in favoe of Noriel
Rodriguez, GR No. 191805, 193160 (2011)
f. Promulgate Rules Concerning Pleading, Practice and
Procedure

g. Admission to the Practice of Law


o Zaldivar v. Gonzales, 166 SCRA 316 (1978)

h. Integration of the Bar


o In re Edillon, 84 SCRA 554 (1978)

i. Legal Assistance to the Underprivileges

16. Report on the Judiciary


iii. Lower Courts
1. Qualifications and appointment
2. Tenure
o De La Llana v. Alba, 122 SCRA 291 (1982)

iv. Judicial and Bar Council


o Jardeleza v. Sereno, G.R. No. 213181, August 19, 2014
o Chavez v. JBC, GR No. 202242, July 17, 2012

v. Automatic release of appropriation for the judiciary


o Benzon v. DRilon, 208 SCRA 133 (1992)

20
VII. The Constitutional Commissions
a. Civil Service Commission
i. Scope of the Civil Service
Art IX-B, Sec 2; Art XII, Sec.. 16
1. Terms and conditions of employment in the Civil Service
a. Merit System
i. Appointment of lameducks
ii. Ban on partisan political activities
Art IX-B, Sec 2
iii. Standardization of pay and ban on double
Art IX-B, Sec 5 & 8
iv. Removal or suspension only for cause
Art IX-B, Sec. 2
v. Right of self-organization
Art. IX-B, Sec. 2
vi. Right to strike

b. Review of decisions of the CSC


c. Fiscal Autonomy

b. Commission on Elections

i. Composition and qualifications of Commissioners


Art. IX-C, Sec. 1
o Cayetano v. Monsod
ii. Appointment and term of office of Commissioners;
o Brillantes v. Yorac, 192 SCRA 358
iii. Powers and functions of the Comelec; Art. IX-C, Sec.2
1. Enforce election laws
2. Decide administrative questions pertaining to election except
right to vote
3. Petition for inclusion and exclusion of voters
4. Prosecute election law violators
5. Recommend clemency for election law violations
6. Deputize law enforcement agents
7. Registration of political parties and under party-list system
8. Regulation of public utilities and media information

21
9. Decide election contests

c. Commission on Audit
i. Composition and qualifications Art. IX-D, Sec.1
ii. Appointment and term of office Art. IX-D, Sec. 1
iii. Powers and functions Art. IX-D, Sec.2

VIII. Accountability of Public Officers


a. Public Office as public trust
b. Disclosure of assets, liabilities and net worth
c. Ban on financial accommodations
d. Agencies for insuring public accountability
i. Congress (Impeachment)
ii. Sandiganbayan
iii. Ombudsman
iv. Office of the Special Prosecutor

22