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AquaMist

Introduction

November 2015
Agenda
Water Mist Fire Suppression
Definition
Droplet Size
Suppression Mechanism
Types of Mater Mist System

Applications
Design Standards
Overview
DD8489 2015
Fire Test Protocols

Data Centre Case Study


Achieve Case Study
Industrial Fryer Case Study

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About Me
Steven Burton
UK Water Mist Sales Manager
11 Years at Tyco
Fire Detection
Gas Suppression
Sprinkler
Water Mist
Certified Fire Engineer

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Water Mist Fire
Suppression

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Definition

Water mist is defined as a


water spray for which the 90%
of the flow-weighted cumulative
volumetric distribution of water A water spray with 99% of the
droplets, Dv0.90, is less than droplets less than 1mm
1000 microns. This Value is
found at the minimum design (NFPA 750)
operating pressure and is
measured in a plane 1M from
the nozzle

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How to Measure Droplet Size
Spray drop size measurement
Count the number of drops for each size
(usually at 1m from nozzle)

% Volume
40
30
20
10
0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
Droplet Diameter (microns)

Calculate Dv for each drop size group

1m 120

100

80

60

40

20

0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
Droplet Diameter

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Thermal Properties of Water

Thermal Properties of H2O

Heat from
335kJ to heat 1 liter of water from 20 C to
100 C
20-100oC 13%

2257 kJ to convert water to steam

Vaporization displaces air equivalent to 1650


times its original volume. Locally inerting the
flame front. Completely
vaporize at
100 C
87%

Heat from 20 C to 100 C


Completely vaporize at 100 C

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Importance of Droplet Size

Diameter Number Surface


(mm) of Drops Area (m2)

10 1 0.000314

1 1,000 0.314

.01 1,000,000 314

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Water Mist Fire Fighting

Evaporation (Heat Water converts to Fire extinguishment is Small droplets tend to


extraction) is a function vapour, expanding by a improved with direct remain suspended
of the surface area of factor of 1650 contact of water The expanding mist will
the droplets Oxygen is displaced droplets expand and cool the
Reducing droplet size and diluted thereby This type of gasses and other fuel in
increases the surface blocking it from the fuel extinguishment is the area
area source normally associated Blocks the transfer of
Increasing the surface Higher heat levels with standard sprinklers radiant heat to the
area allows for larger cause faster adjacent combustibles
cooling effect for a given vaporisation and pre-wets them
flow

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Demonstrative Cooling Effect

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Demonstrative Oxygen Displacement

22

21

20
O2 [%]

19

18

17

16
0 120 240 360 480 600
time [s] ACTIVATION

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Types of Water Mist Systems
High Pressure Water Mist System
A water mist system where the distribution system piping is exposed to
pressures of 34.5bar or greater (500psi).

Intermediate Pressure System


A water mist system where the distribution system piping is exposed to
pressures of greater than 12.1 bar (175psi) but less than 34.5 bar
(500psi).

Low Pressure Water Mist System


A water mist system where the distribution system piping is exposed to
pressures of 12.1bar or less (175psi).

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Does Pressure Matter?
NFPA 750 introduced pressure definitions high, intermediate & low
But, identical applications proven by technologies based on all
pressure third party approval critical
New CEN and BS draft standards remove pressure definition
Sprinklers

HPWM
LPWM

IPWM

0 25 50 75 100

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Does Pressure Matter?

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Does Pressure Matter?

IMO 913 Local Application IMO 913 Local Application


6MW Spray Fire 6MW Spray Fire
~8L/min ~16L/min
3m x 3m 4m x 4m
0.88mm/m2 1mm/m2
100 Bar 12 Bar

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Types of Water Mist Systems
Extinguishing Control

Class B & K Class A


Hydro-Carbon, high heat release Ordinary combustibles, low heat release
Global/local oxygen displacement Flame / smoke cooling
Flame cooling Radiant heat blocking
Radiant heat blocking Pre-wetting combustibles
Alternative to traditional sprinklers and gaseous 2.5 Dimensional wetting
suppression/CO2 Alternative to traditional sprinklers
.

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Types of Water Mist Systems
Deluge Automatic

Class B & Class K Class A


Hydrocarbon, high heat release Ordinary combustibles, low heat release
Deluge (Open) Nozzles Frangible bulb actuation
All nozzles discharge simultaneously Hydraulically most remote / favorable design
Total Flooding: area
Enclosure design area Ventilation key variable dependent on
Enclosure volume and ventilation key application
design variables

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Water Mist
Applications

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Applications
Focused approach where third party protocol and certification exist and are
accepted
FM5560
Includes component approval

Machinery Spaces Escalators

Industrial Fryers Compact Archive

Light / Ordinary Hazard Data Centre

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Applications Machinery Spaces
Fire Characteristics
Hydrocarbon fuel loads
High heat release
Deluge / Extinguishing
Alternative to:
Sprinklers
Foam
Water Spray
CO2
Gaseous Suppression
Advantages:
Reducing water supply infrastructure
Room integrity not critical
Rapid recovery limited consequential damage
Limitations: Examples
Volume DRUPS
UPS Generators
< 80m3
Engine Test Cells
< 260m3
Boiler Rooms
> 260m3
Height generally 5m /8m
Fuel Storage 416L Less volatile than heptane
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Applications Industrial Fryer
Fire Characteristics
Hydrocarbon fuel loads
High heat release
Deluge / Extinguishing
Alternative to:
CO2
Chemical
Advantages:
Full Scale fire tested
Robust & Reliable
Rapid recovery limited consequential damage
Limitations:
Manufacturer Specified dimensions
Examples
Batch Fryers
Kettle Fryers
Conveyor Fryers

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Applications Light / Ordinary Hazard I
Fire Characteristics
Organic Combustibles
Low heat release
Automatic / Control
Alternative to:
Sprinklers
Advantages:
Reducing water supply infrastructure
Reducing pipe sizes
Rapid recovery limited consequential damage
Limitations:
OH1
Height 5m
Examples
Schools
Offices
Prisons
Care homes
Hotels

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Applications Data Centre
Fire Characteristics
Mixed Combustibles
Medium heat release
Automatic / Control
Alternative to:
Sprinklers
Gaseous Suppression
Advantages:
Application specific proven performance
Reducing water supply infrastructure
Reducing spatial infrastructure
Reducing pipe sizes
Enclosure integrity not critical
Rapid recovery limited consequential damage
Fit-out flexible design
Fixed capacity system
Limitations:
Air velocity
Height 5m
Examples
Data Hall
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Tyco AquaMist

2012 2014
AquaMist
2010 LPG creation as
acquisition
Atomizer Tycos Water
technology Mist Brand
developed
More than
15 years of
experience
in Low Flow

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Tyco AquaMist

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Applications

Product not tested or


approved should not be
specified or installed

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Total Solutions

Tyco has a broad product range and can present all options without bias

Water
Mechanical
Foam and Foam Hardware
Inert and Synthetic Gaseous Extinguishing

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AquaMist Video

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Myths
Myth Fact

Water mist uses only 10% of the Only with class B fires
water compared to a traditional
Typical OH applications 25 -50%
sprinkler system

Only High pressure systems are Any system tested and approved by
Water Mist a recognised third party with droplets
<1000 microns

High Pressure Systems use less Slightly less for class B fires
water Slightly more for class A fire

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Myths
Myth Fact

Only FM5560 includes robust fire


All fire tests are considered equal testing and component approval
No Safety factor in VdS

Water Mists can be used to protect No, only those proven during full
any application scale fire testing

All Water Mist system designs are No, System design is manufacturer
the same specific

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Water Mist Design
Standards

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Design Standards
Design/Installation Standard Fire Test Protocol

DD8489-1 2015 IMO Circ Res A.800


CEN/TS 14972 FM 5560
FM 4-2 FM 5580
NFPA 750 VdS 2562
Installation and IMO 1165
maintenance criteria IMO 913
Duration UL 2167
Design area Fire suppression
No nozzle design criteria performance criteria
Component approval

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DD8489 2015 - Scope
Scope:
Non Domestic Occupancies Used for human inhibition with
occupancies < 8m x 4m

Non Residential Occupancies - Multiple occupancy for human


inhabitation with occupancies < 8m x 4m
and <20m high

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DD8489 2015 - Scope
Industrial and Commercial Water Mist Systems:

Part 1 Code of Practice for Design and Installation


Part 4 Tests and requirements for watermist systems for local
applications involving flammable liquid fires
Part 5 Tests and requirements for watermist systems for
protection of combustion turbines and machinery spaces with
volumes upto and inducing 80m3
Part 6 Tests and requirements for watermist systems for
protection of industrial oil cookers
Part 7 Tests and requirements for watermist systems for
protection of low hazard occupancies

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DD8489 2015 - Scope
The watermist system is to be:

Tested in accordance with a recognized test protocol;


Published in a printed or online record by the testing laboratory.
Use only components and equipment recognized by a testing
laboratory
Installed by trained personnel in accordance with the manufacturers
watermist system design and installation manual.

A match needs to be established between test conditions on which the


testing is based and the conditions of the actual installation

Where a watermist system application is not covered by a recognized


standard fire test, additional testing might be required to meet the
requirements of the authority having jurisdiction (AHJ) .

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DD8489 2015 - Protocols
Automatic / Control Protocols:

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DD8489 2015 FM5560 G

FM5560 Approval Standard for water mist


systems
Appendix G : Fire tests for water mist systems
for the protection of non-storage occupancies,
hazard category 1 (HC-1)
Restricted Approval 95m2
2.4m ceiling height
Two test configurations
Small compartment fire test
Large component fire test

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DD8489 2015 FM5560 G Small
compartment

Single nozzle within the room


Control nozzle in corridor
Ignition centered on lower bunk
Approval criteria
Corridor nozzle shall not operate
Lower bunk damage limited to <40%
Maximum ceiling surface temperature 260c
Maximum gas temp over ignition <315c

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DD8489 2015 FM5560 G Small
compartment

Operation of the nozzle occurred


approximately 150 seconds after ignition.
The test was run for 10 minutes following
operation.
Pass

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DD8489 2015 FM5560 G Large
compartment

Four nozzles within the room


Control nozzle in opposing doorways
Ignition centered in non-door corner
Wood crib and furniture simulation
Approval criteria
Door nozzles shall not operate
Maximum ceiling surface temperature 265c
Maximum gas temp over ignition <315c

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DD8489 2015 FM5560 G Large
compartment

Operation of the nozzle occurred


approximately 90 seconds after ignition.
The test was run for 10 minutes following
operation.
One nozzle (out of four permitted) operated
in the compartment.
Pass

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DD8489 2015 FM5560 G Public Space

FM5560 Approval Standard for water mist


systems
Appendix G : Fire tests for water mist systems
for the protection of non-storage occupancies,
hazard category 1 (HC-1)
Un-restricted Approval
Rooms shall be at least 80m2
5m ceiling height
Three test configurations
Under one nozzle
Between two nozzles
Between four nozzles

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DD8489 2015 FM5560 G Public Space
Sixteen nozzles within the room
Rooms shall be at least 80m2
Ignition centered
Under one nozzle
Between two nozzles
Between four nozzles
The fuel package consisted of four adjacent
couches.
Approval criteria
No more than five nozzles shall operate
One nozzle shall remain un-activated
Damage shall not >50%
Maximum ceiling surface temperature 260c
Maximum gas temp over ignition <315c

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DD8489 2015 FM5560 G Public Space

Under 1 nozzle:
Successful
Operation 160 seconds after ignition
One nozzle (out of 5 permitted) operated in the ceiling
Between 2 nozzles:
Successful
Operation 200 seconds after ignition
Two nozzles (out of 5 permitted) operated in the ceiling
Between 4 nozzles:
Successful
Operation 210 seconds after ignition
Four nozzles (out of 5 permitted) operated in the ceiling
Pass

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DD8489 2015
Deluge / Extinguishment Protocols:

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DD8489 2015 FM5560 D,E,F
Restricted Approval 260m3 : 7.3m x 7.3m x 4.9m
5m ceiling height
Personel Access door without locking mechanism
Twelve test configurations
Approval Criteria
Extinguishment

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DD8489 2015 FM5560 D,E,F
Test 1 : Unshielded 1MW Heptane Spray Fire
Test 2 : Shielded 1MW Heptane Spray Fire
Test 3 : Shielded Heptane Pool Fire
Test 4 : Shielded 2MW Heptane Spray Fire - Ventilated
Test 5 : Shielded 2MW Heptane Spray Fire Small Enclosure
Test 6 : Unshielded 1MW Diesel Spray Fire
Test 7 : Shielded 1MW Diesel Spray Fire
Test 8 : Shielded Diesel Pool Fire
Test 9 : Shielded 2MW Diesel Spray Fire Ventilated
Test 10 : Shielded 2MW Diesel Spray Fire Small Enclosure
Test 11 : Saturated Mat and Spray Fire
Test 12 : Large Mat Pool FIre

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DD8489 2015 FM5560 D,E,F
Approval Criteria
Extinguish all fire tests with no manual intervention
Quickest 1.06
Slowest 4.49
System supply shall be twice the worst case fire test result or 10
minutes, whichever is the largest
Machinery rundown time must be considered
Pass

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DD8489 2015
Duration:
Automatic / Control:
60mins
72m2 AMAO
Deluge / extinguishment:
Twice time to extinguish fire and prevent re-ignition as established in the test
Minimum:

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DD8489 2015
Installation:
Water supply location
Support spacing
Bending radius
Test devices
Permanent means to measure maximum pressure and flow
Commissioning
Dry pipe : 2.5 bar 24 hours
All pipe : 1.5x working pressure 2 hours
Maintenance

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DD8489 2015 Pump P&ID

Key
1 Tank isolation valve Nozzle Strainer
2 Float valve Isolation valve Hydraulic pump
3 Low level alarm
4 Suction isolation valve Stop valve Control panel
5 Strainer
6 Fire pumpset System drain valve Water tank
7 Outlet isolation valve
8 System drain valve Flow switch
9 Zone valve Pressure switch
10 Additional zone valve where Pressure gauge
needed Non-return valve
11 Alarm flow switch
12 Pump pressure switch
13 Alarm test valve
NOTE Mains isolation valve and backflow prevention device omitted for clarity.

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DD8489 2015 Cylinder P&ID

Key
1 Propellant low pressure switch Nozzle Pressure gauge
2 Propellant regulator Isolation valve
3 System low pressure switch
4 System flow switch Stop valve
5 Propellant vent valve System drain valve Water cylinder
6 Propellant safety vent
7 System drain valve Inert gas cylinder

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Data Centre
Case Study

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Case Study Data Centre
Global leader in Data Centre construction and operation
FM Global Insured
Multiple Global Sites
Multiple risk protection

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Case Study Data Centre

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Case Study Data Centre - Challenges
Challenges
FM Approval restricted to generic HC-1 classification
FM Approval restricted to wet systems
FM Approval restricts airflow

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Case Study Data Centre - Above Floor
12m x 11m Two server racks 1.2m centers Perforated floor grates
between racks
5m high maximum Two simulated server racks
1.2m centers
1m floor Void

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Case Study Data Centre Above Floor

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Case Study Data Centre Above Floor
Cable Fire Scenario
Represents propagating fire
overheating cables

0.46m Wide

0.46m above server racks

Vertical cable entry inline with rack air


supply 152mm x 51mm bundle

Horizontal tray 102mm full

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Case Study Data Centre Above Floor

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Case Study Data Centre Above Floor
Carton Fire Scenario
Represents poor house keeping

16 cardboard cartons
(53mmx53mmx53mm) filled with
polystyrene foam blocks

Cartons assembled 2 x 4 x 2

Cable tray above Loaded as cable fire


scenario

~500kW

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Case Study Data Centre Above Floor

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Case Study Data Centre Above Floor
Approval Criteria
Perimeter ceiling temp <57c

Ceiling temp <538c

Fire does not propagate to the ends of the cable tray

Fire does not propagate the length of the carton stack

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Case Study Data Centre Below Floor
Square, minimum 2x maximum 600mm tiles
nozzle spacing
1200mm 70% opening
1m high ventilated tiles

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Case Study Data Centre Below Floor

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Case Study Data Centre Below Floor
Cable Fire Scenario
600mm wide tray

Minimum length = maximum nozzle spacing

Tray 300mm from slab

76mm tray fill

Test 1 Tray located between grills

Test 2 Tray located below grills

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Case Study Data Centre Below Floor
Approval Criteria
Fire does not propagate to the ends of the cable tray

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Case Study Data Centre - conclusion

Approved Solution
Pre-Action Configuration
Ventilation Operational
FM & DD8449 compliant
Duty, Standby Water Supplies
5 Pre-Action Valves
170 Nozzles

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Case Study Data Centre - video

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Archive
Case Study

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Case Study - Archives
University of Oxford, New Bodleian Library
1930s construction
Grade II listed
Irreplaceable collection

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Case Study - Archives
Fixed Racking
Roller Racking
Low ceilings
<150mm services access
High density racking, 25mm

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Case Study - Archives
Various fire loads
Paper
Books
Microfilm
CD
Minimal Ignition sources
Difficult access and egress
Limited infrastructure space
Arson

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Case Study - Archives
Gaseous Suppression
Integrity impossible
Over pressurisation relief impossible
Storage limitations
Co-ordination challenges

Sprinklers
Insufficient drainage capacity
Insufficient space
Co-ordination challenges

Water Mist
Meets challenges of other technologies
No recognised protocol or design for this risk configuration

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Case Study - Archives
NFPA 750 protocol for test design
Protocol agreed with
University Archivists
University Project Management
Fire Consultant
Independent verifier (Warrington fire)
Main Contractor
Tyco Distributor
Tyco
Test Criteria
Pass/fail criteria
Test layout
Fire load
Data Acquisition
Hardware requirement
Health and safety requirement
Location

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Case Study - Archives

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Case Study - Archives

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Case Study Archives Open Rack

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Case Study Archives Open Rack

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Case Study Archives Open Rack

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Case Study Archives Open Rack

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Case Study Archives Open Rack

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Case Study Archives Open Rack

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Case Study Archives Compact Rack

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Case Study Archives Compact Rack

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Case Study Archives Compact Rack

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Case Study Archives Compact Rack

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Case Study Archives Compact Rack

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Case Study Archives Compact Rack

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Case Study Archives

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Case Study Archives - Conclusions
N+1 Water Supplies
6 duty
1 standby
36 Zones
2136 Nozzles

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Case Study Archive - video

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Industrial Fryer
Case Study

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Case Study Industrial Fryer
European leader in fried snack production
Zurich Insured
Multiple UK Sites
Multiple risk protection

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Case Study Industrial Fryer
Large quantities of oil
Industrial applications
Risks
Primary Cooking Area
Take out Area
Fines Box
Exhaust Stacks

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Case Study Industrial Fryer
Zurich mandated water mist protection
No sprinkler infrastructure
CO2 cannot manage re-ignition

5 tendering contractors
All claimed compliance
3 based on IMO cabin fire test protocol
2 based on ISO 15371 kitchen galley protocol

Zurich re-specified FM5560

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Case Study Industrial Fryer
Insurers view
Significant risk potential
Material damage
Consequential loss
Large recent claim history

Operators view
Rapid suppression
Minimal infrastructure impact
Quick recovery

Why FM 5560?
Full scale fire testing matching hazard
Includes component testing

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Case Study Industrial Fryer - protocol
Fire Testing per FM 5560
Appendix J: Fire Tests for Water Mist Systems for the Protection of
Industrial Oil Cookers
Primary Cooking Area Dimensions
Mock-Up A: 8.0 ft (2.4 m) wide by 8.0 ft (2.4 m) long (1 x L)
Mock-Up B: 8.0 ft (2.4 m) wide by 16.0 ft (4.8 m) long (2 x L)
Mock-Up C: 8.0 ft (2.4 m) wide by 24.0 ft (7.2 m) long (3 x L)

Test Mock-Up Hood Position


1 A Up
We have proved infinite length
2 A Down
scalability through fire testing; the
3 B Up results suggest there is no trend
4 B Down between fryer length and rapid
5 C Up extinguishment reliability.
6 C Down

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Case Study Industrial Fryer - protocol

Fire Test Approval Criteria

Extinguish AIT fire inside oil cooker mockup, regardless of hood position
Extinguish all open flames within 1-minute of system discharge
Cool oil so its average temperature is below the oils flash point 600oF
(316oC) within two minutes of system discharge
Design Duration shall be twice the cooling time to get below Flash point, or
10 minutes, whichever is greater (be aware of potential spill over)
No excessive fire flare-ups, micro explosions of oil reacting with water, or
splashing of burning oil

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Case Study Industrial Fryer - protocol

TFPP Fire Tests


More than 50 full-scale fire tests were performed
14 tests were witnessed by FM Global in Marinette, WI

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Case Study Industrial Fryer - protocol

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Case Study Industrial Fryer - protocol

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Case Study Industrial Fryer - protocol

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Case Study Industrial Fryer - protocol
11131-T20121212-2
700 300
Activation

650 Extinguishmen 250

AT Flame t

600 200

Nozzle Pressure [PSIG]


Average Oil Temp [F]

550 150

Avg Oil Temp


Max Oil Temp
500 100
Autoignition Temp
Flash Point

Milestones
450 50
Nozzle Pressure

400 0
-120 -60 0 60 120 180
Elapsed time [sec]

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Case Study Industrial Fryer - Conclusion
FM Approved Solution
Duty Water Supply
4 pump
30 Minute Duraton
17 Fryer Protection
Fryer combinations
Kettle fryer
Conveyor fryer

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Case Study Industrial Fryer - Video

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Conclusion
Water Mist is a viable fire protection solution
OH1 Risks
Machinery Spaces
Third Party Approval
Hazard Review

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Thank You

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