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9/25/2017 Galvanised Steel - Causes and Defects in Galvanised Coatings

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Galvanised Steel - Causes and Defects in Galvanised Coatings
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Written by AZoM Oct 1 2002

Topics Covered
Background
Defects in Galvanised Coatings
Ungalvanised Weld Areas
Dark Staining Adjacent To Welds
Dull Gray or Mottled Coatings
Dross Pimples/Inclusions
White Storage Staining
Ash Staining See all Newsletters (/newsletters)

Striations and General Surface Irregularities.


Runs, Drainage Spikes and Puddling
Bare Patches
Rust Staining
Delamination
Black Spots
Spangled Coatings

Background
There are a number of common types of defects arising from the hot dip galvanising process. An explanation of the causes of defects and
variations in appearance follows.

Defects in Galvanised Coatings

Ungalvanised Weld Areas


Coating misses on weld areas are caused by the presence of welding slag on the welds. All welding slag must be removed by the fabricator
prior to despatch to the galvaniser.

Dark Staining Adjacent To Welds


Preparation chemicals entering unsealed overlaps or through poor quality welds boil out of the connection during galvanising and cause
surface contamination and coating misses during galvanising.

Also, anhydrous uxing salts left in the connection will absorb atmospheric moisture and leach out onto the adjacent galvanised surface.
Leaching of these salts will eventually reach equilibrium. A ected area should be washed clean to remove slightly corrosive leachate.

Dull Gray or Mottled Coatings


Reactive steels will generate thicker galvanised coatings that are duller than standard coatings. These coatings have longer life because of
their greater thickness and their appearance is a function of steel metallurgy and generally beyond the control of the galvaniser.

Dross Pimples/Inclusions

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9/25/2017 Galvanised Steel - Causes and Defects in Galvanised Coatings

Dross is formed in the galvanising process in the form or zinc-iron crystals (approx 95% zinc - 5% iron) with a higher melting point than the
metal in the zinc bath. Dross trapped in the galvanised coating may give the coating a rough or gritty appearance. The presence of dross
inclusions in the coatings is not detrimental to the coatings performance as the corrosion resistance of zinc dross is identical to that of the
galvanised coating.

White Storage Staining Newsletters you may be intereste


in
After galvanising, items stored or stacked in wet, poorly ventilated conditions will react with atmospheric moisture to form bulky white zinc
hydroxide deposits on the surface of the galvanised coating.

Ash Staining
Zinc ash is formed in the galvanising process as the work is immersed in the zinc. The ash formed is skimmed o the surface of the molten
zinc prior to withdrawing the work from the galvanising bath. Sometimes, ash is trapped inside inaccessible areas and sticks to the outside
of the coating as the work exits the bath. Ash may leave a dull surface appearance or a light brown stain after removal. It does not a ect
the performance of the galvanised coating.

Striations and General Surface Irregularities.


Ridges and lines thicker than the adjacent galvanised coating are caused by di erent rates of reaction of the zinc with the steel surface due
to stress areas on the steel surface or the presence of weld areas or weld metal with modi ed metallurgy to the parent metal. This
phenomenon is most commonly encountered on pipe and tube products. Coating performance is una ected.
See all Newsletters (/newsletters)

Runs, Drainage Spikes and Puddling


These defects are unavoidable in the hot dip galvanising of general items and are acceptable as long as they do not interfere with the
assembly of the function of the item or present a safety hazard in handling or service.

Bare Patches
Uncoated areas on the surface of galvanised work are due to poor surface preparation, inadequate pretreatment in degreasing, pickling
and pre- uxing. These areas must be repaired using a recommended repair method or the item regalvanised if the defect is of su cient
size.

Rust Staining
Uncoated steel in contact with galvanised coatings will accelerate corrosion of the coating and stain the coating brown in the area of
contact. This can be removed by wire brushing.

Delamination
Very heavy galvanised coatings (over 250 microns thick) may be brittle and delaminate from the surface under impact and require more
careful handling in transport and erection. Thin, cold rolled items with very smooth surface nish and manufactured from reactive steel
may also give rise to coating delamination.

Black Spots
Scattered black spotting is due to residual galvanising ux crystalising on the surface of the work and is generally due to poor rinsing after
galvanising or ux contaminated rinse water. This defect is usually encountered from galvanising baths using the wet galvanising process
where the ux is on top of the molten zinc. Excess aluminium in the galvanising bath can also give rise to this defect.

Spangled Coatings
Some hot dip galvanised coatings exhibit a high level of spangling' caused by zinc crystal patterns on the surface. This phenomenon arises
with galvanising alloys produced in particular smelting processes and these alloys are commonly used for hot dip galvanising. There is no
di erence in coating performance.

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Anant Kadam says: Journals (/materials-journals-index.aspx)
June 21, 2015 at 5:27 AM
While slitting galvanized strip on slitting line top surface zinc was removed in powder form while rubbing with tension felt. It converts in black suit
Software (/engineering-software-index.aspx)
powder form having CQ quality with0.27mm galvanized thickness.
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jamal says:
January 27, 2017 at 2:47 PM Books (/book-reviews-index.aspx)
now we have problem in hot dip galvanizing line . it is 4 months that we have dross formation on the top of strip and we have down all of possibility that
can remove it but still it is Contact (/contact.aspx)

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