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# 10/20/2016

Beam - Columns

Beam - Columns

## Common examples of Beam- Columns structures

Building columns with moment connections

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Beam - Columns

Beam - Columns

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Beam - Columns
Interaction Formulas

be expressed as

+ 1.0

Where

## and are required and available moment strength

respectively.
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Beam - Columns
Interaction Formulas

+ + 1.0

axes.

## According to AISC requirements as given in Chapter H,

Design of Members for combined Forces and Torsion the
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Beam - Columns
Interaction Formulas

For 0.2,

8
+ + 1.0
9

For < 0.2,

+ + 1.0
2

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Beam - Columns
Interaction Formulas - LRFD

For 0.2,

8
+ + 1.0
9

For < 0.2,

+ + 1.0
2

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Example 1

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Example 1 - Solution

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Example 1 - Solution

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Moment Amplification
The presence of axial load produces
secondary moments, and unless the axial
moment must be accounted for.

## For a Figure shown, consider an

arbitrary point O, which is subjected to
bending moment due to uniform load
and an additional moment caused by the

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Moment Amplification
This secondary moment is largest when
the moment is largest.

directly.

## Ordinary structural analysis methods

that do not take displaced geometry into
account are referred as first-order
method.

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Moment Amplification
Iterative numerical methods called second order methods,
can be used to find the deflections and secondary moments.
However, these methods are impractical for manual
calculations and are usually implemented with a computer
programme.

## AISC specification, permits the use of either a second-order

analysis or the moment amplification method.

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Moment Amplification
In moment amplification method, the maximum bending
analysis then multiplied by a moment amplification factor
to account for the secondary moment.

## Consider a simply supported member with an initial axial

load and an initial out-of-straightness. This initial
crookedness can be approximated as

= e sin

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Moment Amplification

= e sin

## Where e is the maximum initial displacement at mid-span.

The moment curvature relationship can be written as
2/2 = /

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Moment Amplification
At any point, the moment is

M = P ( + y)

## Where y and is the deflection due to bending and initial

crookedness respectively.

## Therefore moment curvature can be written as,

2/2 = - e sin +

2/2 + y=- sin

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Moment Amplification

2/2 + y=- sin

## Applying boundary conditions,

At x = 0, y = 0 and x = L and y = 0

The function that satisfies both the differential equation and the
boundary conditions is

y = B sin

## Where B is a constant. Substituting into the differential equation

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Moment Amplification
2
B sin + B sin =- sin
2

B = 2 = 2 =

2
1 2
1

Where

2
=
2

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Moment Amplification
Therefore

y = B sin = sin
1

M = P ( + y)

M = P e sin + sin
1

The maximum moment occur at x =
2

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Moment Amplification

Mmax = P e +

1

The maximum moment occur at x =
2

1+1
Mmax = Pe

1

1
Mmax = Mo
1

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Moment Amplification
1
Mmax = Mo
1

## Where Mo is the unamplified maximum moment that results from

initial crookedness, therefore the moment amplification factor is

1

1

For LRFD, moment amplification factor can be written as

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Moment Amplification
For LRFD, moment amplification factor can be written as

1

1

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Example 2
Use moment amplification equation to calculate LRFD
amplification factor for Example 1.

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Example 2 -Solution

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