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Beam - Columns

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Beam - Columns

Common examples of Beam- Columns structures


Building columns with moment connections

Exposed columns subject to wind


Columns with eccentric loads

Beams subject to axial forces and moments

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Beam - Columns

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Beam - Columns

Bolted moment end plate connection

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Beam - Columns
Interaction Formulas

The relationship between required and available strengths can


be expressed as


+ 1.0

Where

and are required and available axial strength respectively

and are required and available moment strength


respectively.
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Beam - Columns
Interaction Formulas

For biaxial bending, there will be two moment ratios,


+ + 1.0

Whereas x and y subscript represent bending about the x and y


axes.

According to AISC requirements as given in Chapter H,


Design of Members for combined Forces and Torsion the
above formula is classified based on axial loading.
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Beam - Columns
Interaction Formulas


For 0.2,

8
+ + 1.0
9


For < 0.2,


+ + 1.0
2

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Beam - Columns
Interaction Formulas - LRFD


For 0.2,

8
+ + 1.0
9


For < 0.2,


+ + 1.0
2

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Example 1

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Example 1 - Solution

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Example 1 - Solution

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Moment Amplification
The presence of axial load produces
secondary moments, and unless the axial
load is relatively small, these additional
moment must be accounted for.

For a Figure shown, consider an


arbitrary point O, which is subjected to
bending moment due to uniform load
and an additional moment caused by the
axial load.

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Moment Amplification
This secondary moment is largest when
the moment is largest.

The total deflection cannot be found out


directly.

Ordinary structural analysis methods


that do not take displaced geometry into
account are referred as first-order
method.

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Moment Amplification
Iterative numerical methods called second order methods,
can be used to find the deflections and secondary moments.
However, these methods are impractical for manual
calculations and are usually implemented with a computer
programme.

AISC specification, permits the use of either a second-order


analysis or the moment amplification method.

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Moment Amplification
In moment amplification method, the maximum bending
moment from flexural loading is calculated using first order
analysis then multiplied by a moment amplification factor
to account for the secondary moment.

Consider a simply supported member with an initial axial


load and an initial out-of-straightness. This initial
crookedness can be approximated as

= e sin

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Moment Amplification

= e sin

Where e is the maximum initial displacement at mid-span.


The moment curvature relationship can be written as
2/2 = /

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Moment Amplification
At any point, the moment is

M = P ( + y)

Where y and is the deflection due to bending and initial


crookedness respectively.

Therefore moment curvature can be written as,


2/2 = - e sin +


2/2 + y=- sin

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Moment Amplification

2/2 + y=- sin

Applying boundary conditions,

At x = 0, y = 0 and x = L and y = 0

The function that satisfies both the differential equation and the
boundary conditions is

y = B sin

Where B is a constant. Substituting into the differential equation


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Moment Amplification
2
B sin + B sin =- sin
2

Solving for constant B



B = 2 = 2 =

2
1 2
1

Where

2
=
2

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Moment Amplification
Therefore


y = B sin = sin
1

M = P ( + y)


M = P e sin + sin
1


The maximum moment occur at x =
2

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Moment Amplification

Mmax = P e +

1


The maximum moment occur at x =
2



1+1
Mmax = Pe

1

1
Mmax = Mo
1

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Moment Amplification
1
Mmax = Mo
1

Where Mo is the unamplified maximum moment that results from


initial crookedness, therefore the moment amplification factor is

1

1

For LRFD, moment amplification factor can be written as

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Moment Amplification
For LRFD, moment amplification factor can be written as

1

1

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Example 2
Use moment amplification equation to calculate LRFD
amplification factor for Example 1.

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Example 2 -Solution

From Example 1 Pu = 200kips, therefore amplification factor is

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