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30-12 Laboratories

Although loose worktop and storage units (or equipment) can be can be provided, the rigid services distribution in the laboratory is
associated with rigid service runs, 30.37, any major change in completely standardised, i.e. both supply services and drainage are
layout will involve adaptation or extension of the service runs. If, provided on a regular grid. Loose services units associated with
however, the distribution of rigid service runs within the laboratory furniture can be based on 30.9b or 30.9c.
can be separated from furniture, equipment and partitions, and
flexible connections made to loose services units, 30.38, layouts
9 VERTICAL DIMENSIONS AND SPACE FOR
can be adjusted directly by users to meet new requirements.
SERVICES
Standardisation of furniture layouts is no longer critical.
Island, perimeter and peninsular arrangements can be accommo- 9.01 Vertical dimensions
dated and gangways adjusted to meet safe requirements for The clear height in bench-scale laboratories should not be less than
individual situations (see 30.25). While a wide variety of layouts 2.7 m. If a height approaching 4.8 m is required for tall equipment
or rigs, this may be increased as indicated in 30.39 to allow the
possibility of introducing a mezzanine floor for work which does
not require the double height, thereby achieving a more effective
use of volume.

9.02 Horizontal space for services
Variations are shown in 30.40, 30.41 and 30.42. The space shown
in 30.42 is expensive to provide and can be justified only if
intensive use of the laboratory is predicted 24 hours a day, every
day and services require constant adaptation and maintenance.
Suspended ceilings are not always essential but may be necessary
for cleanliness, acoustic or aesthetic reasons (or to support
services); 50 to 75 mm should be allowed for their construction.
Suspended ceilings which allow direct access to services above
should not form the fire protection for the structural floor above –
a
the access requirement will compromise the fire resistance
function.

9.03 Vertical space for services
If vertical sub-main ducting is used, horizontal space requirements
will be minimal. Minimum size to accommodate fume ducting
plus pipework would be 600 × 1200 mm.

b 2.25 m min

30.37 Rigid services distribution integrated with furniture 4.8 m min to incorporate
mezzanine
layout. a Plan. Although vertical sub-mains are shown, service 2.25 m min
runs could alternatively be supplied from horizontal sub-mains
as in 30.38. b Section
30.39 Double height laboratory incorporating a temporary
mezzanine floor

450 to 600

2700

30.40 Space for pipework, electrics and drainage

750 to
900

2700

30.41 Space for pipework, electrics, drainage and ventilation
ductwork

1500 to 1950

2700

30.38 Rigid overhead services distribution linked via flexible
connections to loose furniture equipment 30.42 All services, plus space for a crawl- or walkway

Laboratories 30-13

10 BIBLIOGRAPHY

10.01 Legislation and Standards

Author, title, publisher Brief summary Author, title, publisher Brief summary

BENCH AND EQUIPMENT SPACE Offices, Shops & Railway This will apply for office
BS 3202: Parts 1–4: 1991 Part 1 defines the scope and Premises Act 1965, HMSO, staff employed more than 21
Laboratory furniture, British relevant statutes London hours/week
Standards Institution, London Part 2 defines strength, speci-
The Factories Act 1961, May affect laboratory build-
fication and performance
HMSO, London ing. Relevance should be
requirements for samples
checked when workshops for
Part 3 contains recommenda-
repair are provided
tion for design, storage ser-
vices Petroleum (Consolidation) May apply when spirit in
Part 4 covers the installation Act 1928, HMSO, London excess of 3 gallons are stored
of laboratory furniture or compressed gases, calcium
carbide or calcium disul-
BS 7258: Parts 1 & 2: 1990 Part 1 specification for the
phide.
Laboratory fume cupboards minimum safety requirements
British Standards Institution, and test method (does not Radioactive Substances Act Explanatory memorandum to
London cover special applications) 1960, HMSO, London explain control on the use
Part 2 minimum information and disposal of radioactive
to be exchanged between par- material
ties to supply contracts, and
Public Health Act 1961,
recommendation for siting/
HMSO, London
ventilation
Dangerous Drugs Acts 1965, All of these Acts make provi-
1967 sions to ensure security in the
SERVICES: ELECTRICAL Pharmacy & Poisons Act storage of drugs
BS 5501: 1977, Electrical Incorporates both BS 229 and 1933
apparatus for potentially 1259; generally covering cir- Therapeutic substances Act
explosive atmosphere, British cuits of equipment which do 1956
Standards Institution, London not create sparks etc. All from HMSO, London
BS 5345: 1990, Selection of Now incorporates CP 1003 Control of Pollution Act
installation of electrical 1974, HMSO, London
equipment for use in poten-
tially explosive situations, Clean Air Act 1956
British Standards Institution, Public Health Acts 1925, These Acts may affect dis-
London 1936, 1937 Public Health posal of laboratory waste
BS 7671: 1992, Regulation Exact copy of IEE, 16th Edi- (London) Act 1936 All from products either by incinera-
for Electrical Installations tion, Wiring Regulations HMSO, London tion or as effluents
British Standards Institution, Health & Safety (Dangerous Covers the keeping and stor-
London Pathogens) Regulations 1981, age of listed pathogens
No. 1011, 1981, HMSO, including notification periods
London for keeping and transportation
ENVIRONMENT: VENTILATION
CP 352: 1958, Code of Prac- Control of Substances Haz- Covers the duty to protect
tice for mechanical ventila- ardous to Health Regulations those working in premises
tion and air conditioning in 1988, No. 1657, 1988 where health risks may arise
buildings, British Standards HMSO, London from work involving hazard-
Institution, London ous substances
BS 4194: 1984, Specification Applies to laboratories having Supplemented by 1990, No. Includes risk assessment test
for design requirements of controlled temperature and 2026, also HMSO, London and examination of control
testing of controlled atmos- humidity measures, exposure monitor-
phere laboratories. ing health surveillance

BS 5295: parts 0–4: 1989, Covers clean room specifica- The Electricity at Work Reg- Covers the general requir-
Environmental cleanliness in tion, and the design, con- ulations, 1989, No. 635, ments for safety of equip-
enclosed spaces, British Stan- struction, operation and mon- HMSO, London ment, including in hazardous
dards Institution, London itoring of clean rooms. environments and work on
equipment.

HEALTH AND SAFETY Health & Safety Executive,
Health and Safety at Work Brings together most relevant Health & Safety in Depart-
Act 1974, Chapter 37, legislation under one Act and ments of Electrical Engineer-
HMSO, London (1975 establishes Health and Safety ing, H&SE Guidance Note,
reprint) Commission and Executive GS34, January 1986

30-14 Laboratories

Author, title, publisher Brief summary Author, title, publisher Brief summary

MICROBIOLOGICAL PROTECTION FIRE PROTECTION
BS 5726: 1992, Microbiolog- Adjusts 1979 BS, Lifts, BS 5588, Fire Precautions in Part 3 deals with offices, Part
ical safety cabinets, British dimensional restraints and air Design and construction of 4 with smoke control in
Standards Institution, London exhausting. Tightens regula- buildings, British Standards escape routes, Part 5, fire-
tions on chemical filtration Institution, London, 1990 fighting, lifts and stairs, Part
resistance, vibration, protec- 6, places of assembly, Part 8,
tion disabled escape, Parts 1 and
9 deal with ventilation and
Advisory Committee on Under Health & Safety at
air conditioning
Dangerous Pathogens: Cate- Work Act, general duty
gorisation of Pathogens applies where there is expo- BS 5908: 1990, Fire precau- Guidance on the nature of
according to hazard and cate- sure to pathogens. New reg- tions in the chemical and fire hazards
gories of containment (second ulation and guidance under allied industries, British Stan-
edition 1990), HMSO, COSHH have come into dards Institution, (London)
London force. These regulations
require a need to assess risks BS 5306, Fire extinguishing Cover selection of systems,
and to implement and main- installations, British Stan- hydrants, sprinklers, fire
tain appropriate control meas- dards Institution, London extinguishers, carbon dioxide
ures, publication lists, micro and halon systems, foam, and
organisers and recommenda- powder systems
tions for containment
BS 5266: 1988, Emergency Specification for small power
Health & Safety Executive, Draft, covering duties, prohi-
lighting, British Standards relays (electromagnetic) for
Proposed control of substan- bitions, health risks, control
Institution, London emergency lighting applica-
ces hazardous to health measures, monitoring
tion

RADIOLOGICAL PROTECTION CP 402: Fire Fighting instal-
BS 4094 Part 1 (1966): 1988, Part 1 deals with shielding of lations, British Standards
Data on shielding from ionis- gamma radiation including Institution, London
ing radiation, British Stan- data for calculation. Part 2
dards Institution London deals with X-ray shielding CP 153: Part 4, Fire hazards
Associated with glazing in
Radio-active substances Act,
buildings, British Standards
HMSO, London 1960 (See
Institution, London
also above)

Ionising Radiation (sealed CP 3: Precautions against
sourced) Regulations 1969, fire, British Standards Institu-
SI No. 808, HMSO, London tion, London

Code of Practice for protec- CP 95: 1970, Fire protection
tion of persons against ionis- for electronic data processing,
ing radiations arising from British Standards Institution,
medical and dental use, London
DHSS, 1972
CP 1019: 1972, Installation
Radiochemical Centre Man- and servicing for electrical
ual, The Radiochemical Cen- fire alarm systems, British
tre, Amersham, Bucks, Standards Institution, London
HMSO, London (1966)
DES Building Bulletin No. 7, Useful information related to
Safe Handling of Radioiso-
Fire and the Design of statutory requirements.
topes, Safety Series No. 1,
Schools Although this deals with
International Atomic Energy
school requirements, the gen-
Agency, Vienna, HMSO
eral principles have wider
(1962)
application
World Health Organisation,
Protection against Ionising DES Safety Series No 2,
Radiation, A Survey of cur- Safety in Science Laborator-
rent world legislation, ies, London, HMSO.
Geneva (1972)

The Charles Darwin 1598 (29. equipment. May 1968) Animal house space – rabbits and small Building. British layout information on a wide range of special laboratory Standards Institution. Electricity 1548 (13. 3. Chemistry and Biology Laboratories: design. 1972 1597 (29. 6. 1971 and gnotobiotic units. section on school laboratory layouts. DES. Laboratories 30-15 10. May 1968) Animal house space – general design Laboratories Investigation Unit paper No. May 1968) Animal house space – dogs University Press. 1977 rodents Nuffield Foundation. November 1967) Balance rooms and services for education and science. June 1968) Animal house space – specific pathogen free London. December 1967) Chromatography rooms Electrics 72/73. November 1967) Solvent stores Laboratories Investigation Unit paper No. Guide to Laboratory Design. Universities of Indiana and California. and other helpful 1971 comments. 1968 construction. 2 (3. Pergamon Press.) DES Building Bulletin No. London. Design guidance for research K. Strategic Estate Management. The design of research laboratories. November 1967) Glass washing facilities laboratory activity. London. (Gives BS 3202. 1974 1547 (13. LIU. December 1967) Controlled temperature rooms Council. 1992 Laboratories Investigation Unit. (Contains recommendations on the layout and specification of laboratories for radioactive and biohazard work. London. HMSO. Schramm. June 1968) Animal house space – cats and primates University Grants Committee. February 1965) ings.) Acknowledgements ABS Information manual. A. HMSO. Zoology laboratories. December 1967) Electron microscope rooms Laboratories Investigation Unit paper No. laboratories. 1959 equipment. Guidelines on environmental design in educational build- 1312 No. University of Edinburgh. Laboratory furniture and fittings. Particular thanks are due to Frank Drake for contributions to the EFL and US Department of Health. Oxford 1599 (29. . Notes on procedure. Growth and change in 1550 (29. Adaptable furniture 1552 (29. Everett and D. HEFCE. Hughes. 1601 (12. forthcoming publication. HMSO. Educational and scientific laboratories.02 Other references Architecture Research Unit. LIU. An extension of the Department of W. 1973 1549 (13. 45 JDPCLASP System building for higher education. Education and Welfare. 1971 1551 (29. London. Oxford 1965. HMSO Butterworths. London 1975. 1970 AJ Information Sheets: DES. 1961 1600 (12. Bristol Polytechnic. 9.

.

information and staff. 1984). for example. art galleries and the temporary 2. boats.31 Museums. vary • The expansion policy considerably in size.03 Collections in national museums are very large and varied in Contents material and generally of international importance. 2 AREA DATA 1. 6 Ancillary accommodation conservation. weapons. however. Many 9 Bibliography and references such museums have only one qualified curator to oversee management of the collections and public services. and type of institution. 31. houses collections 2 Area data of machinery. organization and purpose.7 Uniclass: F754 & F755 Geoffrey Matthews is a museum consultant KEY POINTS: common definitions of a museum.1 shows a typology of museums 1. Such museums are staffed by a wide range of 5 Interpretation.1 A museum typology based on: museological approach/interpretive discipline. and institution characterization 31-1 . among many other 4 Exhibition and collection storage spaces types of material. and subject/approach museum/collection type of institution characterisation science monolithic institution: technology international collections state museum of industrial archaelogy national museum national culture special national/ social history international collections museum ethnology national collections provincial museum anthropology regional collections university museum archaeology local interest independent trust museum geology historic site small museum natural history special interest private museum fine art private collections art gallery decorative art 31. public relations and marketing. and many of the specialist functions may be provided by outside bodies such as 1 INTRODUCTION the Area Museum Councils.01 There is no convenient formula for determining the areas to exhibition spaces associated with similar organizations involves be devoted to the different functions. ship models.02 The design of museums. medals. documents. paintings. art galleries and temporary exhibition spaces CI/Sfb:75 Geoffrey Matthews UDC: 727. 7 Environment and conservation In some local and private museums collections are small. based on subject/museological approach. • Environmental control 1.01 ‘A museum is an institution which collects. communication and display highly qualified experts in collection management. 3 General planning silver. information for the public benefit’ (Museums Association (UK). costumes. and scientific instruments. collection character- preserves. 8 Security and services specific in material content and of specialist or local interest. The National 1 Introduction Maritime Museum in Greenwich. research. The client’s intentions in the housing of a wide range of functions broadly indicated in the respect of public access to collections. collection characterization. It is important • The circulation system therefore to consider the particular context and features that • The storage system characterize a museum in the process of developing concepts. Museums. exhibits and interprets material evidence and associated ization.

and 31.7a.5 shows possible massing concepts.3 A layout concept showing a clear relationship between museum functions and an approach to zoning and expansion .7d or expansion closed open-access orientation commercial public conservation exhibit area storage storage exhibit activities areas documentation library and design and education and public relations acquisition and security research production interpretation and administration museum process layered public access staff areas and controlled access entrance 31. It is important to consider the inspection nature of the narratives appropriate to the museum’s objects of interest. loop and core– arrangement of spaces which is specifically structured operation of collection services: exhibitions. or on more complex concepts related to generic interpretive structures. may be based loading unloading packing unpacking on a simple concept of free circulation around a single open-plan exhibition space. Where a museum is to be but note that not every operation necessarily requires a separate developed around a large-scale permanent installation this should space. Other museums may have smaller collections attractive enough to the visiting public to office security staff orientation lobby entrance warrant the development of sophisticated exhibitions with a workroom designed life of several years. far as possible. 31. 31.7c • detailed treatmentof core An arrangement and satellites where each theme or of a subject leads back to a central data exhibition photography introductory or orientational area.4 shows a possible layout for a small museum in which interpretive exhibitions and educational 3.4 A possible layout diagram for a small museum 3 GENERAL PLANNING 3 .2 shows collection item movements in the operation of collection services. In such cases storage space may be needed primarily for the expansion of the collections. The storyline of an exhibition may be translated into: closed labelling. 0 1 The relationships between functions are common to all museums and art galleries. 3 1 . art galleries and temporary exhibition spaces of commitment to research and conservation will provide an initial public entrance guide.2 Flow diagram of collection item movements in the • Asatellite more complex scheme combining linear. and studio considerable effort may be made to develop educational exhibit areas collection programmes.01 The layout of public areas in a museum. the activity room lobby store bulk remaining in storage and accessible for research and sales conservation purposes only.7. 31. expansion based on this principle. 31.02 Some museums may have only a small proportion of the lecture/ information permanent collections on public exhibition at any one time. middle and end. 31.6 loan out illustrates the three methods of expansion. and disposal acquisition 4 EXHIBITION AND COLLECTION STORAGE SPACES 4. Well-serviced temporary exhibition space may be a priority in such cases. 2.31-2 Museums.02 Museums are long-term developments: concepts for layout and massing should therefore be capable of expansion in all areas and a degree of internal rearrangement. and some services may be provided by outside agencies. • back storage marking workshop conservation A loop where the essentially linear storyline leads naturally open/access and storage measuring to the beginning. conservation and to account for more or less stable relationships between collections management collections and interpretive themes. workshop storage 31. The flow diagram 31. • 31.7a collection 31. As be integrated into the interpretive scheme at an early stage. 31. programmes are central to its operation.7b A linear arrangement of spaces with beginning. 31. collection movement and public circulation should Examples are Jorvik Viking Centre’s archaeological site and the be kept separate. particularly in work and ancillary areas. 3 shows one approach to zoning and National Railway Museum’s turntables.

7 Genetic plans for exhibit and open-access storage areas: a Open plan. collection. requires 3 Ranks of cases glazed on all sides that secure forms of storage equipment and furniture are arranged 4 Full-height wall cases in very compact layouts.6 Three modes of expansion: a Block addition. It is not sufficient to consider only the relationship be accommodated. live inter. b Core + satellites. 0 1 At an early stage the communications strategy of the video. . 31. tableau and reconstruc- museum should be determined.7e . publication. The aim of orientation is not only easy understanding of the building layout but more crucially to facilitate 6 4 access to collections. theatre. storage. on the other hand. d Loop. b Extension. restaurant. security and exhibit areas. the interpretive scheme. computer graphics. public staff facilities circulation and commercial activities c d staff areas public areas 31. However. c Linear procession. Open access. Many museums carefully control access to all collection storage spaces. theatre. associated activities and office space a b workshop. COMMUNICATION AND are now used in museum exhibitions to facilitate communication DISPLAY with the visiting public – graphic display. Museums. education. and the public services offered by the museum. between visitor and displayed collections. e Complex: f Labyrinth a b c 31.5 Two basic massing concepts that allow public areas to be organised on one level e f 1 2 3 31. at the entrance to the museum and at key decision points in the museum information and visible clues should be provided to enable the visitor to grasp the organization of the collections.8 Method of layout in open-access storage areas of open-access storage areas particularly for collection study. c New building 5 • areas A labyrinthine arrangement where the relationships between can be varied from exhibition to exhibition by managing 3 the public circulation. Once beyond the stage of coordination of exhibition. it is increasingly worth considering the provision 31. animatronics.9 shows a 6 Controlled access to staff areas and secure storage secure storage area with open-floor storage for larger collection items. and working environments.0 INTERPRETATION. 1 4 . The 1 Entrance from main exhibit areas former requires that storage areas are made secure and that visitors 2 Orientation point are closely supervised. 5 . information and museum services. 0 2 In any arrangement of exhibition spaces consider the 2 problem of orientation. a wide variety of media 5. art galleries and temporary exhibition spaces 31-3 library. information and collections that must staff and public. audio-visual. The relative importance and tion.8 shows a typical layout for a storage 5 Fire exit area fitted out with ranks of secure display cases. 31. producing a general scheme it is important to consult an exhibition pretation and other forms of direct communication with the public designer and a museum consultant to explore the matrix of are the essential factors that will determine the interface between interactions between people. 31.

support or plinth. graphic information. 31.10 may have any combination of the following elements: a Item or items from the collection: b Fixing mount. retail areas. e Interpretive material: label.c Hanging or humidity.b. thermo-hydrometer (contained exhibits may have buffering material against changes in relative humidity). Reference should be made to the anthropometric data in Chapter 2 in determining coordinating dimensions. This includes: exhibition areas. auditoria.31-4 Museums. informed deci- sions may be made regarding the interpretive process and techniques. art galleries and temporary exhibition spaces 5 4 3 2 1 31. numbered in the other 5 Fire exit 31. and 31.01 Relative humidity and temperature f g h Special consideration must be given to proper control of relative 31. Within the framework that the initial consultations provide. and the choice of media and types of exhibit to be employed.11 indicates the physical elements associated with exhibits. 7 ENVIRONMENT AND CONSERVATION 7. sanitary installations and cloakrooms. laboratories.e Free-standing and open exhibits. loading bays. eg 1.10 shows a broad typology of exhibit and media installations. .g.11 Each of exhibit types in 31. glazing. c Preservation: protection of vulnerable or removeable parts.h Contained exhibits and display cases storage. d e 6 ANCILLARY ACCOMMODATION 6. and conservation. the range of eye levels represented in the visiting population. display and photographic work areas. audio-visual. kinetic device. circulation spaces. sound.9 Grid system for open-floor secure storage area 1 Controlled entrance lobby 2 Inspection area 3 Clear aisles 4 Grid marked on floor. alarm. for example. barrier.5 m squares lettered in one direction. lock. temperature and air pollution in all collection areas of a wall mounted. d.10 Exhibits may be of four basic types: a. museum or art gallery. educational facilities. interactive device a b c A wide range of academic expertise may be brought to bear in the interpretation of collections for exhibition purposes. and libraries reference should be made to other chapters in this book. d Lighting. collection f. catering facilities.01 For guidance on space requirements and design criteria for offices.

May be best level for watercolour and 200 lux on other sensitive materials such as wood. particularly Humid tropics 20–22 65 Acceptable for mixed collections.4 30 20 0. art galleries and archives Passive.8 paintings 22 safety zone for archives 2.2 18 2. Arid regions 20–22 40–45 Acceptable for display of local The eye has a limited ability to adapt to changes in brightness. 31. especially inland Europe II.6 relative humidity % 40 0.2 90 1. low-tech approaches may be considered where climate museums. material.8 14 1.2 winter human comfort zone 24 summer human comfort 3.6 safety zone for vapour pressure (kPa) general collections 20 2. May cause condensation in vulnerable materials. building envelope should provide a sufficient buffering effect to prevent sudden changes in relative humidity during periods of 7. as malfunction Table I Recommended temparatures and relative humidities in various climatic zones can result in the generation of highly damaging ozone levels. in art museums.6 12 1. textile.0 80 70 0. Museums. Climate Temp (°C) RH (%) Notes 7. satisfactory for mixed collections. from all light reaching a collection item: at the higher energy end and other non-arid furniture.12 shows suitable conditions in Information about local air quality should be sought and used to decide on the appropriate approach to control.03 Light and lighting Museum lighting is a complex subject. Air natural and artificial lighting.0 zone safety zone for 2. If air filtration is necessary it should not be of the electrostatic type. textiles and paper exposed to light leather.8 60 50 0.0 16 1. problem.4 2. wooden sculpture in of the spectrum light is very effective in initiating chemical change regions Europe. Direct sunlight should not fall on any circulation very important collection item and UV radiation must be effectively eliminated Temperate coastal 20–22 55 Widely recommended for paintings. Ideal for metal-only collections and as the visitor moves through the museum sudden changes in lighting levels and extreme contrasts of brightness in the field of . oil paint. The maximum light dosage recommended and frosting difficulties in old for different categories of collection item is summarised in Table buildings. art galleries and temporary exhibition spaces 31-5 Key 90 80 70% 60% 50% 3.02 Air pollution repair or maintenance. while Table I gives the ranges of museum interior and the inertia of the building allow.12 Psychrometric chart (see Chapter 38) showing safety and comfort zones for museums. These dosages are normally achieved by limiting the level of and northern North America illumination on collection items during visiting hours to 50 lux per Temperate inland 20–22 45–50 A compromise for mixed collections regions and where condensation may be a annum on the most sensitive material such as paper. even in this case the climatic zones. to determine a clear policy on the approach to However.2 10 0 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 dry bulb temperature (°C) 31. It is important. Full air conditioning may be temperature and relative humidity recommended in various required to cope with climatic extremes. RH too high for iron and chloride-containing bronzes.4 10 1.

and Sue Runyard (eds). A. Museums the museum into secure areas. Museums 2000: Politics. Lon- cloakrooms don. water and waste pipes should Oil and tempera paintings. 950 Higher dosage is heating/air conditioning system or independent control system is stone. For example.). art galleries and temporary exhibition spaces Table II Recommended maximum light dosages 8. HMSO. corporate and development planning for Functional zones should be provided with surface or sub-surface museums and galleries. American Association a dull effect and possible problems of visual accommodation. The Museum Time-Machine. 9–10 April 1987) Museums 8 SECURITY AND SERVICES Association/United Kingdon Institute for Conservation/Group of Designers and Interpreters in Museums.).03 Security staffing is also considerably more effective and economic if all exhibition and open storage areas are on one Type of collection Dosage Notes (kilolux-h) level. On Display. Leicester University interrupt the structural transmission of sound. Butterworth. and Bernadette Higgins-Mcloughlin.g. Oxford. collection packing and Experience. lecture theatre. et al. London. study collections Gary Thomson. Belhaven Press. Objects and Collections: A Cultural The health and safety of the public and the staff and collection Study. Butterworth. London. orientation/information. Abbeville Press. dyed leather. Galleries and Historic Houses (Bristol University. handbook of business. London. Museums sufficient to separate public and staff areas. Leicester University Press. Miles. Routledge. ROM. glass. ceramics. Prince. 1991 outside contractors. 1991 materials that dampen impact sounds and isolating cavities to Michael Belcher. However. watercolours. S. Heritage Interpretation (Vol. Museums of Influence. a reasonable range of contrast 9 BIBLIOGRAPHY should be maintained in conditions of low illumination to prevent Edward P. 1986 5 Conservation workshops. A Conference on lighting in Museums. London. the penetration of low-frequency sound is Douglas Davis. Design Council. Designing Exhibitions. 1976 1 Entrance. Routledge. 1987 elimination of small-scale air gaps in doors. bone and ivory. 1987 closed to the public it is normal to secure more specific zones. 1982 8. paintings in distemper media. Forward Planning: a The transport of sound through structure should be controlled. (ed. gouache.05 Risk management is also greatly enhanced if a separate Objects insensitive to light. 1987 Lighting. Press. For general guidance see appropriate chapters in this book. undyed leather.02 Secure areas Susan M. and the shaping of interior fessionals and Profit. jewellery.): The Visitor 6 Collection storage. of UV is necessary 8. 1992 3 Educational facilities. New Museums: A Start-up Guide. Objects specially sensitive to light. Cambridge. spaces to prevent flutter and unwanted amplifying effects. enamel. 650 If a daylight component horn. Most addition. Museums. Communicating with the Museum Visi- example: tor: Guidelines for Planning.01 Security Gail Dexter Lord. London. metal. During open hours it may be UK: The Findings of the Museums Data-Base Project. Manual of Curatorship. and of high-frequency sound by the Margaret Hall. Museums Association/Routledge. and one staff entrance controlled by the security staff Geoff Matthews.04 Acoustics and zoning Timothy Ambrose.). 1988 attendants. Pro- finishes on floors. ideal is one public entrance monitored by information staff and/or London. artificial lighting miniatures. London. John. e. 7 Exhibition and maintenance workshops. to achieve with 8. The Robert Lumley. tapestries. Conservation and Exhibitions. including botanical risk to the collections when locating service installations and specimens. shop. 1991 access points to the site and to the building to a minimum. Cambridge University walls. e. special consideration should be given to minimising the natural history items. fur and feathers routing service ducts. and Barry Lord (eds). conservation. London.g. (ed. HMSO. London. 2nd edn. Butterworth Architecture. 1991 be controlled within zones by appropriate choices of material Patrick Boylan. divided into several secure exhibit areas Butterworth/Museums Association. Nashville. Exhibitions in Museums. etc. People. Unwin Hyman. To 1992 generalise and simplify. New lessened by structural mass. café and toilets/ Nathan Stolow. 1989 inspection areas Giles Velarde. Alexander. curatorial. for State and Local History. The Design of Educational Exhibits. design. 200 Usually only possible textiles. Museums in Motion. The Manual of Museum Many security problems can be avoided by keeping the number of Planning. Noise levels should Press. London. Thompson. laboratories. (ed. London. 2. possible but usually provided in collection areas.04 Services prints and drawings. 1987 7.31-6 Museums. of middle frequencies by diffusing York 1990 and absorbing surfaces. M. costumes. 2nd end. for Royal Ontario Museum. security staff areas. walls and ceilings. oriental lacquer is used great reduction not be routed near collection storage and exhibition areas. 1987 8. 1988 . R. photographic facilities David Uzzell.). The Museum Transformed. 4 Offices: administration. Pearce.. (ed. manuscripts. In wallpapers. 1992 security are the prime considerations in determining the zoning of David R. 1979 Timothy Ambrose. and objects in which colour change is not unnecessary of high importance view should be avoided. The Museum Environment. Museums and Art Galleries: A Design and responsible for key control and the checking of deliveries and Development Guide. 1987 2 Temporary and permanent exhibitions – in larger museums sub. Lund Humphries. windows and partition Kenneth Hudson. When the museum is Association.

Reader facilities Catalogue reference Contents Document copying 1 Introduction CD-ROM viewing/listening 2 Design checklist Accessing remote databases 3 Design criteria Microform viewing 4 Area allowances Video cassette viewing/listening 5 Book storage capacity Audio reproduction 6 Readers’ facilities Poster display 7 Storage for other media 8 Control counters Refreshments 9 Bibliography Storage of readers’ belongings Coats Bags 1 INTRODUCTION Umbrellas About 50 000 new books are now published in the UK each year. microforms of Staff services to user information as well as books. Much depends on Vending machines the size and style of readership in the catchment area.32 Libraries and information centres CI/SfB(1976): 76 UDC: 727. because they weed out as well as replenish and Bookshop extend stocks. Typing room Exhibition area • Libraries in future may not be visited in person. technical) Receipt and despatch Local history Post and packing Arts Printing Other departments Photography 32-1 . It is relevant mainly (but not Branch library supply and services only) to public libraries. Telephones Public libraries. City of London KEY POINTS: Associated activities • Libraries are increasingly becoming places from which to obtain information rather than only books. CD-ROMS. newspapers Cataloguing Music Processing Special reference (e. but accessed remotely. Libraries deal with films. servicing) Hours Days of the week Technical services Times of the year (particularly for educational libraries) Number and types of staff Offices Numbers of readers (preferably separate figures for each part of Administrative the library) Executive Bibliographical Network manager General reference Adult lending Areas for Children’s lending Accessioning Periodicals. Academic Lavatories and research libraries tend to grow by about 5 per cent per year. prisons.g. Meeting rooms Lecture rooms • Information accessible in future libraries will be less from conventional books are more from other forms of media.8 This chapter is an updated version of that in the previous edition which was written Uniclass: F76 by Godfrey Thompson. and libraries are expected to try to absorb this growth. However. Security points Book issue and return Reader enquiries 2 DESIGN CHECKLIST The following checklist covers the kinds of information that may External activity for which the library is the headquarters be needed to draw up a design brief. etc.) User services Privileged readers (school teachers to select books from a display Opening hours range) Peak-use times Mobile libraries (garaging. School library supply and services Welfare libraries (handicapped readers. books are likely to form Number of staff on duty at the following points the bulk of library stock for some time to come. do not grow so quickly. sound recordings. commercial. if at all. He was until his retirement Guildhall Librarian and Director of Art Gallery.

01 Types of library Libraries are of three basic types: 450 • Lending width of kneehole libraries with minimal or no reader areas 610 • lending facilities Reference libraries with large reader areas and few or no 600 32.32-2 Libraries and information centres CD-ROM making 900–1000 Binding Poster drawing Staff rooms Lounge Tea room and kitchen 60° Lavatories Storage Strong room Stationery Furniture Cleaning materials Car parking 620 min 3 DESIGN CRITERIA 150 min 3. and consists of a thin disk 120 mm in diameter.03 Catalogue An essential part of any library is the catalogue. The British Library is purely for reference – its lending facilities are elsewhere. In the past this 32. To view the contents of a CD-ROM.04 Viewing facilities sound the CD-ROM may include does not disturb others. or more commonly standard mixture of all three. the same public technology is progressing all the time. which can be text. 3. catalogues are kept on computer and this can be 3. 432 3.2 A simple microfiche reader was kept almost invariably in the form of index cards. staff somewhere else on the network. provided it flat liquid crystal screens. which Monitors and keyboards will be required for all staff positions. However. 32. consider that a page of this workstations on a network. Even in this type of library.1. This would be ics and sound are much less economical in space. The design criteria be needed. This can store up to 650 additional ones for the use of the public.06 Networking facilities they will need to be able to access many obsolete forms of record. usually 6 in × 4 in. microform readers and printers of different types will the Internet and other network facilities. sound. where some or most of the material is on open shelves on which the users may browse. where the general users have to ask for the material they need and • Open access.3 a type for such facilities shown in previous editions have been omitted as of printer/reader suitable for both microfiche and microfilm. for a library Most public libraries have separate sections of both main types. graph- A computer workstation is shown in 32. These can be dumb megabytes of information. kept captive in drawers in cabinets. Much information is readily and often cheaply available through In particular. 3. suitable for both staff and for the public to use. One CD- manager and storage for back-up material which may be tapes or ROM is therefore able to store about 100 000 such pages – CD-ROMS. Such a network will require a network book of pure text would need about 7 kilobytes to store. pictures. To understand this. The current preferred media for storage is the CD-ROM. it leaves its detritus in its wake.02 Book storage There are two forms of library in relation to book and other material storage: • Closed 403 access. University libraries usually combine the types. some closed storage will be required for valuable stock and for obsolescent material. they are now completely obsolete. or a terminals for a central computer. Again. it should be provided with earphones so that the 3. Unless it is situated in a closed carrel. and new facilities are using workstation as for viewing the catalogue may be used. Nowadays.2 shows a simple microfiche viewer and 32. the same . As many libraries are archive depositories. or if the CD-ROM is loaded by tube monitors. but 378 may lend for periods of only a few hours. Some libraries used paper slips in binders as an alternative method. Although the technology moves on all the time. something like three Encyclopedia Britannicas! However. however. obviating the need for bulky cathode-ray has a CD-ROM drive incorporated.1 A workstation with keyboard and standard monitor suitable • Libraries with reference/study areas plus lending facilities.05 CD-ROM combined with monitoring the lending and acquisition functions.

User Floor area m2 Student or general reader 2. Alternatively. but the International Federation of Library Associations has worked out averages based on actual libraries. or network databases. This could Book stacks and shelving systems are rigidly standardised on a be by hand in a notebook. many of these will be needed. workstations may be used for this purpose. It would capacity of the library. Colleges with at least 30 per cent of advanced work 390 m2 for the first 500 full-time students and then 0. parallel rolling and right-angled rolling stacks. Table III Books per 300 mm run of shelf 4. A layout for stacks within a 6900 mm structural grid is given in 3. and also by the dimensions of the vertical structural workstation. Incidentally. as this would permit a computer virus to be elements and other facilities such as service ducts. 3.38 m 2 for each additional student. either now or in the future. sliding drawer.4 m. careful integration of all structural and service staff therefore need a facility to provide this service for the user. eg have been: hinged shelf.93 to 1. politics and economics 7 200 • Scientific and technical 6 250 50 to 65 volumes per m2 of overall floor area.07 Numbers of computer workstations 32. etc. items is essential. it can be transferred to length of 900 mm. In this building introduced into the network with potentially disastrous results. .07 Note-taking Information derived from CD-ROM. 32.70 4. are available. Libraries and information centres 32-3 Table I Public library serving population of 100 000 Function* Floor area m2 Comment Adult lending 750 Plus 10% if exhibition area needed Adult reference Book stock 200 Plus 20% overall for Seating 375 staff workrooms and Periodicals 100 offices Children’s library 350 Plus 20% 1300 Stack 100 overall for Staff rooms 180 circulation area Total 2945 *These areas exclude music library.4 and Table III lists the book capacity of structural grids ranging It will not be possible during the design period to predict how from 5. most of them proprietary. Medical 5 250 Law 4 200 For libraries in educational establishments under the control of the Department of Education and Employment allowances in the past NB: Various space-saving devices.01 Public libraries Actual floor area occupied b y reader at table 0.3 to 3. may 5. Spacing of book stacks. audio-visual material and administrative offices if the library is headquarters for branches of mobile libraries. Therefore provision should be made in accommodation and Table II Reader space requirements cabling to allow for expansion of these at the expence of conventional reading spaces which will be less required.3 4 AREA ALLOWANCES Research worker 3. although they will need 5 BOOK STORAGE CAPACITY to be fitted with an appropriate monitoring and metering device to 5.6 to 8. will be radically affected by the chosen not be appropriate to fit a floppy drive to a publicly accessed structural grid.5 m2 floor area per seat – overall area Literature and history. The type. and therefore the removable electronic media such as a 3½ -in floppy disk. These are given in Table I.44 m2 for each additional student 813 colleges with less than 30 per cent advanced work 684 300 m 2 for the first 500 students and then 0.02 University and college libraries Number Recommended Type Published space recommendations also vary but an approximate shelf depth guide would be: Children’s books 10–12 200–300 • One seat for each of 30 per cent of students Loan and fiction stocks in public libraries 8 200 • 2. continuing need for accommodation of conventional books for some time to come.02 Structural grid need to be recorded by the user for later consultation.3 A reader/printer for microfiche and microfilm Spaces taken by library readers are given in Table II.01 There is no doubt that in most libraries there will be a ensure that any fees incurred can be correctly attributed. so some form of control to prevent 5. if in no other.20 Space requirements vary considerably.25 Carrel user 3. a CD-ROM brought in from outside could also be used for nefarious purposes.03 Layout this is also necessary.

04 Bookshelf capacity The capacity of standard 900 mm bookshelves to hold books periodicals and reports is indicated in 32.4 Capacity of bookstacks within a 6900 mm structural grid: 2 stacks on grid line = 10 800 Table IV Book capacity at various sizes of structural grid 8 stacks in bay = 47 200 = 58 m run of shelves Grid Spacing No.2 1.56 4 9380 160 140 to 7.25 5 10780 7.68 4 10220 130 vols 150 8.6 1. 5. .7 Capacity of lateral filing cabinets to hold reports 32. The average space requirements of each type must take account of the length of stack. be able to pass in comfort.30 5 11290 280 120 to to 180 8.4 5 12292 ft 900 Table V Shelf depth and spacing section 32. 5.11 shows dimensions for these.1 6 12992 7.8 shows the limitations of various narrow aisle widths. ten stacks.0 1.8 1. three quarters full to Type of book % of Spacing Depth d allow for expansion and movement total mm mm Popular (light novels) 50 225 230 General 97 280 230 Bound periodicals — 300 230 Oversize books 3 500 300–400 300 75 vols As space is often at a premium.06 Closed access systems Libraries often have their shelves arranged to form alcoves with 32.7.8 1.2 4 6860 6.0 1.4 1.9.5 1. 810 mm is the minimum if a trolley is to be used. two people must of book are given in Table IV.5 3 5460 6.55 4 8310 7. of double-sided Books per 58 m of shelves 7 high = 406 m run of books size m of stacks stacks structural bay 406 m at 20 books/m = 8120 books per bay or 169 books/m 2 floor area 5.5 1. However.5 to 32.2 6 14364 8. say. depending on the frequency of use and the numbers of staff. if the distance 5.1 4 6160 7.2 5 10276 7.6 Capacity of shelves to hold periodicals in bound volumes building due to the heavy structural load involved. 32. These shelves 5.10.25 1.7 1. 32.5 Capacity of shelves to hold books.07 Open-access systems are assumed to be only three-quarters full to allow for expansion Where the public are given access to the shelves the dimensions and book movement. If long. pass a wheelchair. If used on suspended floors there are also onerous limitations of deflection which could cause jamming. sliding stacks may be used.05 Shelf depth and spacing between cross-aisles is no more than about 8 m it may be Table V gives the recommended shelf depth and the average acceptable to make the aisle width no more than will comfortably spacing along the shelf for the main types of book. Anything less than 610 mm makes it difficult to bend to reach the 32. books shelved on three sides. Sliding stacks are generally confined to the lowest level of the 32.4 1.4 3 5012 6.4 1.45 4 8610 7. say 900 mm.32-4 Libraries and information centres 500 column 6900 bookstacks 1380 750 to 1450 1800 reports 880 900 500 1000 500 1000 5400 32. These provide for only one such 900 mm aisle for.12 is for use where the alcoves also accommodate reading lower shelves. Recommended minimum dimen- sions are given in 32. Someone in a wheelchair must also be able to pass a standing person. tables.0 1.

10 Recommended minima in open-access bookshelf areas 32. Libraries and information centres 32-5 560 610 810 810 910 960 32. 225 225 2700 3600 2250 1500 2250 32.9 Minimum clearances in shelving areas for various attitudes: wide aisles 900 1800 1800 225 1800 2700.8 Minimum clearances in shelving areas for various attitudes: narrow aisles 1170 1220 1320 1370 1470 1570 32.11 Recommended minima for open-access bookshelf areas arranged as alcoves .

24. 6.16.18 to 32.20 show 32.26. People in wheelchairs will need require more space. assistance from staff in normal libraries to reach the higher and possibly the lower shelves.22 6 READERS’ FACILITIES • Open carrels.03 Children In reference libraries tables are commonly arranged in rows in For children’s use lower tables are used. 32.13 gives height criteria for adults.25. 32. 1 5 for small children. 32. 1370 1480 1730 1930 32. 6. 32. in: • Individual tables. these can be placed within bookstack areas. (660mm recom- squatting position 300 mended) mended) 32.13 Optimum shelf heights for adults 32. such as in ensure a measure of privacy.14 Optimum shelf heights for teenagers highest shelf 1140 browsing shelves 910 4050 660 32. or 6. Double-sided tables The easiest shelves to access are those at the user’s eye height. For libraries. Round tables.17. 32. 32. used mainly by teenagers 32.12 Recommended minima for open-access bookshelf areas min for no 460 arranged as alcoves containing reading tables squatting squatting shelves 100 32.14 should be followed. areas separate from the bulk of the books. The size of table must reflect the schools. and material likely to be consulted – obviously maps and newspapers 3 2 .21 • Dual reading tables with screens. only shelves between 400 and Where users will require more privacy they can be accommodated 1200 mm above the floor should be used.16 Reading table height for adults 5. 32.23.32-6 Libraries and information centres highest shelf 1680 browsing shelves 1300 900 table optimum 990 1200 1200 1200 min shelf height for 610 no squatting squatting shelves 230 3600 32.01 Tables Most readers are expected to use communal tables. design parameters for these are given in 32.17 Minimum clearances in reading areas .15 Optimum shelf heights for children MAX REACH 2060 MAX SHELF 1830 HEIGHT 1860 browsing shelves 1370 1070 table length max 150mm minimum height to 610 710 to 760mm 635 to 660mm avoid squatting (710mm recom.08 Shelf heights reading tables for up to eight people at a table. The • Closed carrels.27 are commonly used.02 Carrels ularly for wheelchair users. In libraries designed to cater partic. 32. are not popular unless there is a low screen down the middle to 32.

23 Open carrel 1200mm between tables shelving over 900×600mm work table 3350 × 1200 mm table 900 900mm to face of bookshelf 1800 mm 1200-2100mm aisle aisle aisle between tables to face of bookshelf 32. braries and information centres 32-7 shelf possibly fitted 1200 mm between tables with lockable front 3350 × 600mm table 600 200mm shelf 710 to 760mm 635 to 660mm 1200 mm (710mm recom.25 Recommended single-person enclosed carrel 900 × 600mm table 900 table length 32.21 Recommended minima for one-person reading tables 635 to 700mm 32.20 Minima for six-person reading tables 600 600 32.24 Arrangement for open carrels in bookshelf areas 2500 × 1200 mm tables 1200× 600mm table 2100 180 0 mm between tables 1700 32.27 Round reading tables .22 Minima for dual-reading tables 32.18 Minima for single-sided tables for four people 32. (660mm recom- between tables mended) mended) 1000 700 32.26 Reading table height for children 1800mm between tables 1500mm 600mm 1800mm between between to main 1200mm diameter tables tables aisle table 32.19 Minima for eight-person reading tables 1500- 1800 120 0 mm between tables main aisle 32.

06 Audio cassettes 32. × 17 mm. A CD-ROM disk is often supplied in a ‘jewel case’. Such larger format of 311 × 242 mm. 7. down fronts. but older music is often found in a slightly holding up to 48 disks in a space 320 × 160 × 45 mm.01 CD-ROM storage libraries for people with impaired vision among others.29. Microforms are: • 675 Microfilm stored in cabinets. ‘Talking books’ are available in many public 7. suffers from congestion at busy times 1200 return 500 books books 32.32-8 Libraries and information centres 7 STORAGE FOR OTHER MEDIA twin cassettes are 109 × 70 × 34 mm. Those originally intended for the 7. internal dimensions 393 × 300 × 73 mm. Both these formats are used principally for music. conveniently be in or close to the network manager’s office.07 Sheet music now obsolete 5¼ -in floppy computer disk could be used for this Sheet music can be bound into books placed on normal shelving. When stored in these. They are usually kept in cabinets with shelves of shallow depth.03 Other electronic media • In the smallest library a single control. the usual sizes of which are 125 × 75. that it is at standing height and can have cupboards fitted. although the risk of spontaneous combustion that issue 1200 was associated with original film stock no longer applies. or 125 reels of 16 mm film. 32.28 Storage cabinet for microfilms 500 7.30 Control arrangements for a slightly larger library: more The predominant cassette format is still the ‘compact cassette’ security and less congestion. However. are often in double boxes 139 × 107 transparent plastic box 140 × 125 × 10 mm.01 Shape 7.29 Control counter for a small library. 7. control 500 book book area area 0 66 76 0 normal vertical cabinet height 32. • The layout in 32. but a counter has the advantage A limited number of 3½ -in floppy disks may need to be kept. The traditional method of storge albums may be easily accommodated on standard bookshelves of of single sheets and thin items is in shallow drawers with drop- suitable depth and spacing.05 Films Cinema film tends to deteriorate unless kept in a controlled environment. and these can be stored in drawers in cabinets. storage for older sizes may also be necessary. A desk may be used. These cabinets will hold reels of 35 mm film. They may be more visible when on the shelf with the longest dimension vertical.04 Microforms times to operate it. These.225 × 150 and 215 × 165 mm. but requires at least two staff at all enclosed in a box that is 109 × 70 × 17 mm.30 offers more security control and fewer traffic problems. Boxes containing times .28. This together with backup tapes of various types and sizes. economically kept in paper or plastic envelopes. It is unlikely that a general library would wish to store cinema film – it is now easily transferred to videotape which make its use much simpler. covers both issue and return. This is a even when a single cassette. All formats have their titles on ‘spines’ designed to be the disks take up substantial additional space. None of this layout has the disadvantage that the inevitable crossing of traffic material is likely to be required by library users. staff area • 125 to 100 × 150 mm but the current ISO Standard specifies Microfiche.02 Video cassette storage Concerns have been expressed over the bulk storage of video 8 CONTROL COUNTERS cassettes with a risk of spontaneous combustion. previously in a number of sizes varying from 75 × only 105 × 148 mm. purpose! An alternative form of storage is in pocketed albums The standard size is A4. so its storage may routes can be troublesome at peak times. 32. but two members of staff are necessary at all 7. 8. 2000 • Micro-opaques.

Video the shape can fit in with that of the building.2.34 Section through a control counter one person during quiet periods 600 1500 600 enquiries in out 900 500 1050 reservations audio visual 32. but it is usually surveillance will be necessary where there is valuable material. periods. The devices inside the books can be neutralised at the counter.31. A AJ Information sheet 1593. One problem that has yet to be solved is dealing with the person • In the largest libraries.65 150 mm bag rail on the outside of the in-counter. Library planning: structural modules. etc. 8. design can be used. 32.3. Here that tears out pages from a book.02 Width AJ Information sheet 1318. Library furniture and equipment 1: Book storage. with an Architectural Press.35 Recommended minima for library staff 32.68 placed while being checked in. In some university libraries such a counter can be more than 20 m long. universities. Unfortunately all libraries need to take precautions against theft. so height should be 1. Library planning 2: Space standards.03 Height 3. 32. 8. but with a counter 750 mm high. Libraries and information centres 32-9 enquiries 200 1000 3000 500 150 32. straight.32 Variation of 32. Copying machines at reasonable prices and change readily available can help to reduce this.05 Security 32.31 for larger libraries – can still be operated by one person overall height of 950 mm.34.20 m. a variation can be this shape doubled otherwise the exit controls could be by-passed by simply setting so that a reserved book and enquiry area can be manned at quiet off a fire alarm! times with minimal staffing. particularly in universities. 32. the counter acts as a barrier between readers and staff working areas. 1973. Where staff need working space away from the control counter 500 32.33. Staff can then sit to receive books.31 Most common type of control counter: can be operated by 32.65 Both readers and staff will stand. 28. London. the same Godfrey Thompson. or can • This shape. 2: General. Planning and Design of Library Buildings. 24.33 Type of control counter preferred in very large libraries. The Architects’ Journal. is the commonest of all. Alternatively. 32. Counters are usually 500 mm wide and sometimes also have a The Architects’ Journal.35 gives recommendations. In larger libraries.32. Libraries need special control arrangements in case of fire. with slight variation.2. Exits incorporate the kind of electronic monitoring used in shops to detect books and other items not checked out at the counter. 2nd edn 1977 . It shields the staff and allows one person to serve at quiet be passed back to borrowers once they have passed the barrier. popular variation has a slope on the in-counter where books can be The Architects’ Journal. 9 BIBLIOGRAPHY 8. AJ Information sheets 1319 and 1320.

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a practice specialising in socially UDC: 728 conscious housing Uniclass:F81 KEY POINTS: While the privately funded sector used to be geared to the • There are less statutory controls than in the past. there is a therefore a tendency for standards in the ‘spec housing’ market to Contents be cut to the bone. which lays down cost allowances based upon In Britain. other people such as those in wheelchairs require substantial tions (HAS). later. which have subsequently become Association Management Team is unlikely to have a larger (or universally known as Parker Morris Standards.01 Housing standards accommodation. The Tudor Walters two very distinct systems of providing housing in the UK that Report of 1918 and the Dudley Report in 1944 reflected the tenants of social housing have less choice in their dwellings. This 3 Other design data reflects the demographic changes this century: household sizes 4 Single-family houses have fallen dramatically. The use of HC TCI space standards does not the provision of social housing. were imposed as smaller). Also.33 Houses and flats Ian Chown CI/SfB: 81 Ian Chown is an associate at PRP Architects. and perhaps a family. Even people 1 INTRODUCTION living on their own are beginning to demand more generous 1. In some cases they have been found difficult to sell when the original owners have required more space. dwelling coming available for a requested transfer. and for purchase through mortages. This may be a large. 8 Sheltered housing are able to sell and buy somewhere bigger. 9 Estate modernisation older house. Larger dwelling plans had a side-benefit for the wealthy by helping to provide a nearby tend to attract greater cost allowances (but higher rents can then pool of labour. children may grow up. to be mandatory in 1981. In the early years of the probable occupancies.02 Public and private sector housing Indicators (TCI). appointed as a so the tenant is likely to be in his or her flat or house for a long subcommittee of the Central Housing Advisory Committee of the time. prefer- for. funded and subsidised through the Housing Corpora. as is sometimes suggested. With the volatility of interest rates. They ceased sector that reasonable standards are maintained. 1 Introduction There has until recently been a constant demand for small 2 Other published space standards ‘starter homes’ – both flats and houses – at affordable prices. published by the Parker Morris Committee. and were converted to metric in circular 1/68. Later. but these are also very broad and approx- century. and to their architects. It is unlikely tion (HC). government measures: right-to-buy. restriction of LA expenditure. Babies may be born. is limited. The growth of municipal housing became such that in some urban boroughs most of the housing was in their ownership.03 Housing for different users has been reversed in the last twenty years by a number of A significant proportion of the population is disabled in some way. Instead. so that the bands vary from well below to well above PM charitable foundations (such as the Peabody and Guinness Trusts) dwelling sizes. the HC funds HA schemes according to its Total Cost 1. However. People must have the room to settle satisfactorily into what is It was the hope of the Parker Morris (PM) Committee that their likely to be their long-term home. Such housing was promoted to therefore mean that housing associations can no longer build to keep the poor out of insanitary slums or even off the streets. that all new housing will ever have to be totally accessible to 33-1 . initially. The funded. the level of affordable payments is crucial for most of its customers. but the harassed LA Housing Department or small Housing standards in this report. grannies may Ministry of Housing and Local Government (MHLG). building societies. it now almost exclusively provides • Low space standards lead to dissatisfaction. the private sector remained aloof. It is uncertain whether the demand for starter homes will continue. It also PM standards. Often the only opportunity is likely to be a mutual swap In 1961 the report ‘Homes for Today and Tomorrow’ was with another household. some of these initially small 7 Accommodation for single people households. their ability to move home world war. modifications to enable them to live satisfactorily. These bands (see Table I) are related to privately and publicly funded sectors. Clearly this does not happen very often. but the numbers of independent house- 5 Purpose-built flats holds have exploded. associations. This mandatory on local authority housing in 1967 by MHLG Circular is the argument for ensuring especially in the publicly funded 36/67. mainly from the banks and • Accommodation has to be tailored to numbers and characteristics of expected residents. but provision of housing for rent. as in many other countries. While many of these people are able to cope in normal dwellings. partly due to the steady growth of failed 6 House conversions marriages and partnerships. when they have more money. The die. whether publicly or privately standards are no longer mandatory for new-build schemes. and by the growth (or regrowth) of charitable Housing Associa. Since 1981 the Parker Morris standards would apply to all housing. This 1. although the standards become the minimum Housing Corporation does not lay down space standards. follow). housing is divided into 5m2 increment bands. or it may be one of the superior quality speculative 10 Bibliography houses that some developers are building at or even above PM standards. all housing association ring to leave these to the experience and judgement of the housing new-build schemes. all local authority and. ‘homes fit for heroes’ feeling of social optimism following each once the household is accommodated. the new local authorities increasingly took over from imate. Governments have made a number of attempts during this century The public sector is very different. It is a baleful symptom of the to influence or impose standards in housing.

5 6. any area over 12.06 Room-by-room commentary on room area standards referred to as ‘Parker Morris’.5 4.5 4. 5 and 6 persons 2 2 FLATS N 30 44.0 m can count as general storage understood that some will still be exempt. although it is should be separated from linen or bedroom cupboards or wardrobes. They were particularly applied to occupied. If it is needed.5 85.5 Exceeding 60 m2 and not exceeding 65 m2 3 and 4 persons 2 2 Exceeding 65 m and not exceeding 70 m 3 and 4 persons 3 storey N – – – – 94 98 112 Exceeding 70 m2 and not exceeding 75 m2 3.0 m can count towards the 1.5 m . any space within a store required as access from one side of the house to the other is known as general needs housing. And. 7 and 8 persons Net space is the area enclosed by the walls of the dwelling. as it is debatable successful feature of Parker Morris housing. Housing not specifically designed for people with disabilities the areas of dustbin stores. 1.5 108 Exceeding 105 m2 and not exceeding 110 m2 6 and 7 persons S – – – 3. both for mobility and more onerous wheelchair General storage space should be provided in addition to the net space. 4 and 5 persons if built-in) Total – – – – 98. requirements. This edition of the Metric Handbook therefore continues to Since the demise of Parker Morris as statutory minima.5 47.5 108 Exceeding 35 m2 and not exceeding 40 m2 1 and 2 persons (semi or end S – – – 4.5 4.5 2 2 terrace) Total Exceeding 40 m and not exceeding 45 m 2 persons – – – 76. partitions. In addition. where public sector housing has been designed to which funded many housing association projects in the capital in lower than PM standards.5 m2 should be at ground level. bedspaces) used as a guide to appropriate floor areas for households of given numbers.5 Exceeding 55 m and not exceeding 60 m 2 and 3 persons terrace) Total – – – 79 89. then the following areas housing.g. in addition to these minimum standards.5 80 88.5 61 71.5 60 73.5 57 70 79 86. Other important recommendations included by Parker our opinion that these should be taken as absolute minima for Morris are integrated into the following subsections of this public sector houses and flats.5 97 114.5 – Exceeding 25 m and not exceeding 30 m 1 person Exceeding 30 m2 and not exceeding 35 m2 1 and 2 persons 2 storey N – – – 72 82 92. if total dwelling areas chapter.5 4. 2 In flats and maisonettes no more than 1.5 – Up to 25 m 1 person 2 2 Total 33 48. there is usually a good level of S = General storage space satisfaction with the internal layout and space standards. and porches or lobbies open to the air. fuel stores. As stated above. It excludes use. and on upper floors it access to a substantial proportion of new dwellings. given now include them in their briefing documents to architects. measured to unfinished faces. are based on PM standards.5 3.5 82.5 m height.5 m if there is only one appliance 2 Morris ruled by statute. Research into housing built to PM 2. If there is an 2 integral or adjoining garage. and this has proved to be a popular and being sought. pram space. It excludes the area of general storage space. flues and heating appliances.5 57 67 75. A new Part M of the Building (taken as 700 mm wide). now being built. the Housing Commission’s rooms. published dwelling had to be furnishable with a specified amount of furniture in the early 1990s.5 108 Exceeding 50 m2 and not exceeding 55 m2 2 and 3 persons 2 2 (intermediate S – – – 4. and. The origin of these figures given in the table of room areas lists of required furniture and also the NHBC minimum (Table IV) is understood to have been the Greater London Council. These recommendations start design standards for social housing. 7 and 8 persons Total – – – 75. . standards were never mandatorily applied. any area over 12. gives recom- went out of their way to avoid being prescriptive about individual mended areas based on experience. These are quite commonly but erroneously 1. chimney breasts.5 3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Dwelling floor area Probable occupancy HOUSES 1 storey N 30 44. such as the confused and insecure N = Net space arrangement of external spaces.5 4.e.5 3.04 Parker Morris standards in a lockable store off a common area) and. balconies. these include the essential parts of the Parker Morris standards as its room sizes have been increasingly seen as reasonable minimum basic minimum recommendations.5 Exceeding 45 m2 and not exceeding 50 m2 2 persons 2 storey N – – – 74. these room sizes can be exceeded. areas with people in wheelchairs.5 6.5 3.0 m if there is no auxiliary storage standards has shown that. in a single-access house. public or private.5 Exceeding 110 m2 and not exceeding 115 m2 6.5 – Exceeding 90 m and not exceeding 95 m 5 and 6 persons Total 32.5 118. standards has come to be widely accepted for the minimum sizes of individual rooms.33-2 Houses and flats Table I Housing Corporation floor area bands. conversely. if there is an integral or adjoining 2 2 garage. 4 and 5 persons (excluding garage S – – – – 4.5 97 114. This is potentially controversial. It should be stressed that Parker Morris did not lay down Some London boroughs have included these room areas in the minimum areas for rooms.5 Exceeding 115 m2 and not exceeding 120 m2 6. Regulations is likely to extend the requirements for wheelchair In houses. 5 and 6 persons 2 2 S 2.5 2 2 Exceeding 80 m and not exceeding 85 m 4.5 86. many housing associations with the areas of net floor space and general storage space.5 3. 1. as minima which must be achieved in any (Table III) which had to be shown on the plans. at least.0 3 3. whether planning authorities have the power under Town and Country Planning Acts to lay down minimum space standards. It includes accommodation for frail and elderly. The report simply stated that the standards sections of their Unitary Development Plans.5 Exceeding 75 m2 and not exceeding 80 m2 3.05 Room area standards Private developers have a long tradition of resisting space In the housing association sector an additional set of space standards imposed other than by the market.0 m if there are two appliances or in rural areas 2 For flats and maisonettes 1. or where PM housing has been over.5 84 – 2 S 3 4. fuel stores.5 – Exceeding 85 m and not exceeding 90 m 4. for use with Total Cost Table II Parker Morris minimum floor areas (square metres) (mandatory for Indicators (1998) publicly funded housing from 1967 to 1981) NB : Probable occupancies in persons are noted. to which Parker Morris dissatisfaction.5 3.5 90 – Exceeding 95 m2 and not exceeding 100 m2 5 and 6 persons 2 2 MAISONETTES – – Exceeding 100 m and not exceeding 105 m 6 and 7 persons N – 72 82 92. the 1970s and early 1980s.5 102. for which planning approval is reasonable storage space.0 4 4.56 6.5 4. while there may be much wrong with other aspects of estate design. It is in Table II. For the reasons given above.5 85 92. at least 2. it is important that public sector Fuel storage is excluded from the table.5 m may be outside the dwelling (e. is not allowed to slip below the standards that should be provided in addition to Net space and General storage space: came to be accepted as reasonable during the period when Parker For houses 2 1. the tenants have responded by consistently expressing refurbishment or rehabilitation projects. the PM committee Table IV.5 4. but this table is not intended to be Number of persons (i. space. garages.5 96 111. but housing to special needs standards is sloping ceilings below 1. It also required housing schemes. dustbin stores. including the area occupied in every floor by staircases.

by housing associations through its published ‘Design and . 2. the Housing Development Directorate of bedside tables chest of drawers the DoE produced a number of Occasional Papers. All the useful double wardrobe or space for cupboard to be built in** publications are listed in the Bibliography at the end of this small dressing table chapter. as this size of room can be a TV set small tables used flexibly by a single person. depending on shape. they may abut. They are sometimes but erroneously referred to as ‘Parker Morris’ room (d) Bedroom areas. when outside temperature is –1°C.5 6. Additionally. The minimum sizes recommended for dining kitchens are reasonable.5 m2 should be regarded as the absolute minimum.5 6. the furniture list now (sic) and bookcase published by the HC for social housing makes 11 m2 or 12 m2 (d) Single bedroom: bed or divan 2000 × 900 mm necessary. and living and dining areas at 18°C.3 m 11 minimum 8 11 11 11 11 11 including ventilated ‘cool’ cupboard (now less relevant) and broom cupboard (need Other double bedrooms not be in kitchen).6 m3 recommended 5. 5 Space heating Minimum installation should be able to maintain kitchen and circulation spaces at • Kitchens: These are no longer places solely for the preparation of food and washing up. for double bed and large wardrobe.5 18. or space for cupboard to be built in 6. a number of which refer specifically (f) Other double 2 single beds 2000 × 900 mm each bedrooms: to housing. 8 m2 is a more reasonable standard.5 6.5 5. (e) Hall or landing 1 ‘Recommended’ room areas are shown as guidance for better provision. minimum – – – 10 10 10 10 Kitchens should provide an unbroken sequence: worktop/cooker Single bedrooms position/worktop/sink/worktop recommended – *9 8 8 8 8 8 minimum – *8 6. and 5-person flats and single-storey houses: recommended 11 12 13 14 15 17 16 1 WC in a separate compartment minimum 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 (c) 5-or more person houses and maisonettes. (c) Living area: 2 or 3 easy chairs a settee • O t h e r d o u b l e b e d r o o m s : The minimum of 10 m 2 can be acceptable in some circumstances. bedside table chest of drawers • Single bedroom: There is evidence that 6. unless one is built in elderly people. followed by the DOE published a number of Design Bulletins in the 1970s. and wardrobe. a widow may well not want to dispose of her (b) Dining area: dining table and chairs double bed and other familiar furniture.7 m 12 12 3 recommended 9 12 12 12 12 (b) 3-or more person dweling: 2.5 7 8 8 9 minimum 5.5 Building Regulations) Dining kitchen recommended 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 2 Linen storage (not counting as general storage space) minimum 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 (a) 1–2-or 3-person dwelling: 0. Standard fittings measured overall for depth and width. *Where single beds are shown. the sizes given in the ‘absolute minimum’ table can be acceptable.02 The Housing Corporation used to control development **May be outside the room if easily accessible. minimum 8 m each. 6 Furniture All plans should be able to show the following furniture satisfactorily • Main bedroom: Master bedrooms of less than 12 m2 should be considered tight. when outside temperature is –1°C. this is now required under minimum 13 14 15 16 17. Just watch one episode of a TV general needs housing should be able to be maintained at 18°C. but would be roughly appropriate if each number represented a double socket) • Living rooms: Provided a proper dining kitchen is included.5 5. PM in fact made a point of not laying down requirements for room areas. although you may have difficulty tracking down copies of some of them. and all new and refurbished to be treated as living rooms. and – – – 12 12 12 12 recommended from underside worktop to top of plinth for height.5 6. However. by children in bunks or by two reasonable quantity of other possessions such as radiogram single beds set against walls. The NHBC (e) Main bedroom: double bed 2000 × 1500 mm or. (g) Bedsitting room in 1 person dwelling 5 (h) Integral or attached garage 1 (i) Walk-in general store (in house only) 1 (These standards would now be considered low. etc.4 m3 Galley kitchen ( b ) 4-or more person dwelling: 0. however. where possible: 2 single beds* 2000 × 900 mm as alternative area would barely accommodate a bed. Great accommodated: (a) Kitchen: care needs to be taken over single-person flats. bedside tables chest of drawers double wardrobe or space for cupboard 2 OTHER PUBLISHED SPACE STANDARDS to be built in dressing table 2. especially (f) Bedsitting room in family dwelling 3 in social housing.) except for single-bedroom dwellings.5 m2 is too small for most single bedrooms. Houses and flats 33-3 2 Table III Parker Morris standards for fittings and space for furniture Table IV Room sizes. and they tend increasingly (This standard would now be considered far too low. especially for a small table. or where alongside walls should have 750 mm between them.5 6.01 The MHLG.5 7 7 7 9 3 Kitchen fitments 3 Main bedroom (double) (a) 1-or 2-person dwellings: 1. (c) Living area 3 Notes: ‘Minimum’ room areas shown are those commonly required in social 2 housing.5 4 Electric socket outlets (a) Working area of kitchen 4 *A flat for two single people should have two single bedrooms of recommended 2 2 (b) Dining area 1 9 m . minimum and recommended (see text.5 6. a wardrobe and a chair. with 21°C for day soap opera! We do not therefore recommend galley kitchens rooms. areas in m ) (Mandatory for publicly funded housing from 1967 to 1981) Number of residents 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 WCs and washbasins (a) 1–2-and 3-person dwellings: 1 WC (may be in bathroom) Living room in a dwelling with a dining kitchen (b) 4-person houses and maisonettes. considerable time in their kitchens. Most households now spend a 13°C. and 6-or more person flats and single-storey houses: 2 WCs (1 may be in bathroom) Living room in a dwelling with a galley kitchen: recommended 13 14 16 17 19 20 21 (PM also required a separate WC to have a washbasin.5 19.

by the Access Committee (u) individual tenant control of heating output. comfortable and appropriately furnished (c) orientations to give privacy and freedom from noise (d) common room to be wheelchair accessible ( d ) main pathways convenient and well lit (e) WC and basin near to common room (e) drying facilities (f) chair store for common room (f) canopy or porch (g) tea kitchen for common room (g) directional signs and numbering (h) laundry room. 15 mm upstand) (b) passenger lift(s) should be able to take wheelchair.1.33-4 Houses and flats Table V Housing Corporation standards. visitors Recommended: (c) common room to be heated.1. and Essential: (l) entrance-level WC and basin. when wheelchair user housing is provided. washing and cleaning items (i) in large shared schemes.1 General access.4) (d) a communal side-entry bath or similar 2 INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT (e) a communal wheelchair-entry shower 2. with firm. and the inside of the door.1 General convenience. (h) central linen store (i) sluice room 2. dishwasher. and accommodation of specified furniture etc. and special needs housing (c) sensible circulation space for room activities (d) adequate space for sensible furniture arrangement (see Table VI for Essential: Housing Corporation’s required list of furniture) (a) individual bedrooms (e) space to move larger items of furniture (b) 1 bath. tumble-dryer. and accessibility purposes is measured between the inside face of the door stop (g) 24-hour alarm facilities. and (b) dropped kerbs where main paths meet roads and drives (z) shower. Essential: Recommended: (a) individual parts or dwellings should meet sheltered Category 2 (d) convenient off-road hardstanding. and ( a ) layout to minimise noise transmissions (l) furniture.1 Location.1. . fittings. 1 WC and 1 basin per 5 persons maximum (f) space for whole family and occasional visitors to gather (c) separate WC. located near main communal area: central ( m ) enclosed storage for brooms and tall equipment laundry with coin-operated machine. even surface Essential: (f) level area outside front door. (b) convenient relationships between rooms 2. small interview/reception room. fridge/freezer and washer (i) space for a pram or pushchair (family units) (f) appropriate balance of private and shared spaces (j) adequate and sensibly placed electrical outlets (g) catering facilities. with automatic washing machine.2) (c) communal facilities to include all those in list above (section 2. and WC with basin. and standards (e) car parking located to enable natural surveillance.6 Shared housing. (b) all parts should be wheelchair user accessible (see section 3.e. and Essential: (k) office. (i) internal doors minimum clear opening width 750 mm (j) corridors at entrance level wide enough for wheelchair access 2.4 Communal facilities in housing for the elderly and special needs 1. and near to a WC. WC and basin 3 ACCESSIBILITY ( q ) additional separate WC and basin in units for 5p and over 3. and Recommended: 2 entrance-level WC not essential in dwellings for less than 5 persons.1. to be sized for wheelchair access 2. etc (a) entrance path gateways minimum 850 mm clear width ( y ) principles of ‘Accommodating Diversity’ to be incorporated. for housing association dwellings Table V (Continued) (from HC Scheme Development Standards. (c) dwelling approaches level or gently sloping (d) lifts. max.1. services and other general and (a) accommodation for a resident warden social facilities. fridge/freezer and washer (s) whole dwelling heating The Housing Corporation requires compliance with the Essential Criteria (t) heating to provide suitable temperatures for room use from ‘Building Homes for successive generations’. allowing for people with limited mobility (r) space and connections for cooker. (o) enclosed storage for airing clothes and linen (p) a bath. (a) convenient access for deliveries and public services 2.1. close to main entrance. (h) convenient. where provided. if bathroom shared by more than 2 people (g) space for a small worktop or similar in single bedrooms (d) bathrooms and WCs must be conveniently located (h) space for an occasional cot in main bedroom (family units) (e) cooker.2 Vehicular access and parking (j) circulation areas to be heated and appropriately furnished. when opened at 90 degrees. utensils. (e) easy-rise staircase with handrails to both sides in Category 2 housing (f) electrical outlets and switches positioned for convenient use by the NB: Description of clear door opening width: a clear opening for elderly. fixtures and floor coverings. and for England (ACE) in general needs housing (see Table XI) although with (v) additional sanitary and kitchen provisions in extended family relaxations: accommodation. (The (f) communal toilets near the common room and dining room Corporation also refers to Sections 15 to 18 of BRE’s Housing Design (g) communal laundry Handbook). August 1995) 2 INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT (Continued) 1 EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT 2. site layout and orientation Essential in Sheltered Category 2 and Frail elderly schemes. central and/or dispersed (k) aerial point with appropriate coaxial cable links (h) furniture. with space for sensible furniture for residents and (b) location readily accessible. and ( b ) common room. 1. and (c) shared driveways should serve no more than 5 dwellings. sink. and (d) thermostatic mixing valves in Category 2 housing ( o ) other ‘desirable’ or ‘optional’ features from ACE guide. 1 front entrance doors minimum clear opening width of 775 mm. and (h) entrance door minimum clear opening width 775 mm (c) lift controls should be operable from a wheelchair. (n) hanging space for outdoor clothes pay phone and cloakroom. fixtures and floor coverings (l) enclosed storage space for food. where appropriate.1 General within dwellings (j) catering facilities.2 Communal areas and landings (e) main paths minimum 900 mm wide. heated and comfortably furnished. a shower with non-slip surface and side seat (n) entrance-level WC and basins in units smaller than 5 persons. in 5 person units and larger (a) bathroom/WC doors to open out. where internal space is limited ( b ) bathrooms to have external override door locks and handholds Recommended: ( m ) entrance door minimum clear opening width 800 mm (c) as an alternative to a bath. ( w ) space for two people to have casual meals in kitchen Essential: (x) space for extra kitchen equipment such as microwave. accessible and inconspicuous refuse areas and bench and extract ventilation (i) lockable external storage (i) twin bed guest room with basin.1. but Optional in Essential: Sheltered Category 1 and Special needs schemes: (a) location convenient for public transport.5 Frail elderly schemes (b) shared surface cul-de-sacs should serve no more than 25 dwellings.3 Housing for the elderly (k) staircase suitable for future stair-lift. fittings. at threshold level (a) passenger lift(s) if required for user group (g) entrance door flush threshold (i. central and/or dispersed Essential: (k) catering facilities to be wheelchair usable if dispersed.

or in buildings >65/≤70 78 84 63 69 which cannot be SAP assessed (certain types of multi-residential >70/≤75 79 85 64 70 buildings) evidence that energy-efficient measures have been incorporated. (The Corporation requires advice to be sought from the Local Police Architectural Liasion officers or Design Advisers. bedrooms: the Access Committee for England’s recommendations for accessi- windows to maximise views out while seated. and They also refer to the recommendations in the BRE’s Housing floor gully in bathroom. diagonal and side transfer schedule of furniture requirements which impinges on room sizes. or WC where separate.2 Dwellings designed for wheelchair users 6. (d) wheelchair user kitchen.2 Security. and >110/≤120 84 90 69 75 (d) BRE Environmental Standard Award. space for safe wheelchair manoeuvre 400 mm wide transfer platform at head of bath. They were revised in 1995. fittings and equipment to be good quality all rooms to be on one level or accessible by wheelchair vertical lift (c) new fittings and equipment to be compatible with any existing heating to be able to maintain all habitable rooms at 22°C (d) housing management and maintenance departments to be consulted. and >75/≤80 80 86 65 71 (b) housing for vulnerable users to allow for higher temperatures and >80/≤90 81 87 66 72 extended heating periods as appropriate. or mechanical extract. wheelchair circulation space between furniture in all rooms wheelchair manoeuvring space in all rooms (1500 mm clear diameter Recommended: circle) (b) finishings. as well as to (f) living rooms.) comprehensive set of standards for private house builders.) Table VI SAP ratings referred to in Table V.1 above (a) service installations to be readily accessible for inspection. (g) min. See Tables V. and very small indeed. and car parking spaces no further away than 30 m for shared units. >90/≤100 82 88 67 73 >100/≤110 83 89 68 74 Recommended: (c) SAP rating to exceed minimum standards by at least 6 (see Table VI).2 Suitability and durability of components and materials (c) additional internal features: Essential: entrance door minimum clear opening width 800 mm (a) durability and suitability to be appropriate for position of use. walls robust enough to take support rails ceilings robust enough to take track and hoist Although the SDSs do not lay down space standards. In 1993 the knee space for safe wheelchair manoeuvre. 1200 mm clear in front of kitchen equipment in shared housing. (The Corporation also refers to the relevant sections of the BRE’s Housing 2. internally and externally Scheme Development Standards. Houses and flats 33-5 Table V (Continued) Table V (Continued) 2 ACCESSIBILITY (Continued) 6 BUILDING PRACTICE AND MAINTENANCE 3. They also cover issues such as general The Scheme Development Standards include an appendix giving further accessibility and mobility standards (requiring level thresholds and requirements for accommodation for wheelchair users. see Table X. bility (see para 3. either for slip-resistant floor finish overall dwellings or for individual rooms. (c) pipework and ductwork to be unobtrusive. section 5 Essential:- (a) side or rear gates to be lockable (b) rear fencing to deter climbing Floor New-build SAP Rehabilitation SAP (c) layout to avoid through-routes and minimise hiding places area (d) layout to maximise natural surveillance ( m2 ) minimum recommended minimum recommended (e) opening window lights to be secure. level paved areas outside all external doors Recommended: main paths minimum 1 200 mm wide. and generally unsuitable for the public sector. including: full range of units and worktop accessible storage waist-level oven Contract Criteria’. bedroom ceiling robust enough to take track and hoist. dards. and (b) additional external features: (b) service installations to be accessible for routine maintenance and repair. and Housing Corporation published new Scheme Development Stan- slip-resistant floor finish. but they also include a (a) windows to be safely openable and cleanable (b) stairs and steps to be safely negotiable limited number of specific space standards. with firm even surface. and (e) availability of replacement parts and components to be taken into wheelchair charging area to be ventilated either naturally at high level account. Some of the NHBC space and dimensional standards are given in 4. >55/≤60 76 82 61 67 Essential: >60/≤65 77 83 62 68 (a) SAP rating to meet minimum standards (see Table VI). These replaced the previous (e) bathrooms/WCs: WC and basin at entrance level standards as mandatory requirements for housing association second separate WC in dwellings for 4 or more persons developments. VI and VII for extracts from the HC 4. front doors giving minimum 775mm clear openings) as well as standards for insulation that may exceed those in the Building 4 SAFETY AND SECURITY Regulations. and from the Police ‘Secured by Design’ initiative. and >50/≤55 75 81 60 66 155 Energy efficient refurbishment of existing housing (for refurbishment).1 Safety. 6. dining rooms. Design Handbook. These were replaced by less prescriptive built-in hob documents: the HC Procedure Guide (with mandatory require- fridge/freezer fittings accessible from wheelchair ments) and HC Good Practice Guide (advisory).03 The National House Building Council publishes a Design Handbook.1 Service installations Essential: Essential: (a) essential items a-d from section 3. internally and externally Table VIII. they do include a WCs to allow front.04 below). The NHBC minimum standards for bedrooms are (e) kitchen and bathroom to be safely laid out (f) min. linked car port for individual self-contained units. >120 85 91 70 76 . ≤35 71 77 56 62 ENERGY EFFICIENCY >35/≤40 72 78 57 63 5 >40/≤45 73 79 58 64 The Corporation refers to the Energy Efficiency Office’s Good Practice >45/≤50 74 80 59 65 Guides: 79 Low energy design for housing associations (for new-build). Most of Essential: these concern standards for construction. for furniture and activity spaces. (d) pipework and ductwork to be economical in layout. 1000 mm clear in front of all kitchen equipment. and space for wheelchair storage and charging. and ramps to have handrails and safety edges to both sides. and (f) external doors to be sturdy and have mortice deadlocks. Ones to watch out for (c) lighting to be adequate for safety are minimum kitchen dimensions and minimum loft hatch (d) opened doors and windows not to be obstructive or hazardous dimensions.

and it is likely that this part will be extended to apply to • secure storage: medicines and hazardous substances • space for bulk-buy food.01 Ceiling heights by low furniture such as a bed. (should reflect number of persons in household) • cupboards for cleaning materials of basement habitable rooms.05 Other statutory controls Kitchen: The Underground Rooms Regulations . or for areas close to urban centres or good transport links. Planning densities are normally expressed in habitable rooms Serviced spaces (to include all electrical and plumbing connections) for: per hectare (or acre). This will have important effects on the planning and construction • chest of drawers of housing. Plans. and 1992 * • A Structure storage units. Other free-standing furniture such as wardrobes. utensils. • broom cupboard PIanning Authorities are now publishing Unitary Development • larder unit (may be within additional cupboards and/or wall units) • drawers for cutlery. and sizes. August 1995 (see Table V. operative 1995.1. chapter 12. but this may change. The NHBC does not set space standards. All the parts • space for pram/pushchair/buggy (family units only) except M (Access and Facilities for the Disabled) apply to • enclosed storage: airing and linen housing. hectare (60 habitable rooms per acre) to 250 habitable rooms per kettle. format.3 . It is therefore prudent to aim to satisfy machine. they are clear and easy to understand. etc. Now that the Regulations are published in ‘Approved Document’ • bath. • single wardrobe. 2. • bicycles. the old standard of 2.33-6 Houses and flats Table VII Housing Corporation requirements: furniture list from Appendix 1 Table IX Building Regulations (England and Wales) applying to dwellings to Scheme Development Standards. E Resistance to passage of sound F Ventilation 1992 1995 * * * * G Hygiene (bathrooms. etc) 1992 * * Double bedroom: • double bed or two single beds H Drainage and waste disposal 1990 * * • two bedside tables J Heat producing appliances 1990 * * • chest of drawers K Stairs. Some authorities allow higher densities for non-family housing. house and less for a flat. sewing some housing quite soon. 250 at foot 3 OTHER DESIGN DATA Large chest of drawers 950 × 600 1000 deep (700 if space bounded by low furniture such as a bed) Several important dimensions and spatial requirements are not Small chest of drawers 750 × 450 covered by statutory control. latter commonly only if more than 13 m 2 ). and sizes of gardens (normally those for which a mortgage is needed) summarised from NHBC Standards. cover lighting and ventilation etc. in some cases. ironing board.) (should be positioned to reflect relevant zones of activity). Dressing table 1100 × 400 600 deep Large wardrobe 950 × 600 1000 deep (700 if space bounded 3. section 2. Double bed 2000 × 1350 400 to sides.04 Building Regulations • wc and cistern. Densities for new • washer-drier (unless provided for in laundry/utility room). but suburban areas may demand two or chests of drawers etc.2 and 33. Visitors’ spaces need to be added at 10 to 20 Furniture and activity spaces (mm) per cent. minimum room • worktops. as the DOE has decided that they do not significantly affect health and safety. etc. Inner-city planners may require only one space per obstructing the door swing. B Fire Safety (Means of Escape. N Glazing materials and protection 1998 * Single bedroom: • single bed *The government is currently (1998) considering extending Part M to cover all or • bedside table some dwellings. ramps and guarding 1998 * * • dressing table with stool L Conservation of fuel and power 1995 * * • double or two single wardrobes. and its requirements where possible. • wall units (should reflect number of persons in household) external design. broom. hectare (100 habitable rooms per acre). External Table VIII National House Building Council requirements for private sector design generally covers minimum dimensions between habitable dwellings rooms facing each other directly or obliquely.) 1992 * * C Site preparation (resistance to moisture) 1992 * Dining area: • dining table and chairs for occupiers. Some authorities at present allow considerable relaxation of their requirements for social housing. crockery. and • desk with stool. etc. etc. 33. Bathroom: 2. and other external spaces. we draw attention to the main parts Internal and external storage (see kitchen also): • hanging space for outside clothes affecting the planning of housing (see Table IX). 450 at foot Single bed 2000 × 900 400 to side. Despite this. Small wardrobe 600 × 600 These have not been covered by the Building Regulations since or if wardrobe has sliding doors) Bedside table 400 × 400 None 1985. tools and gardening equipment (as appropriate to user group and dwelling type). The definition of habitable rooms is normally • cooker • refrigerator (space with removable worktop over and co-ordinated with wall taken to be all living rooms. and housing commonly vary from around 150 habitable rooms per • additional electrical socket outlets for at least six worktop appliances (toaster. on the basis of lower than Furniture Furniture size Activity space average recorded car ownership. may be shown at the builder’s discretion. bedrooms and dining kitchens (the units to allow option of fridge–freezer). but requires that purchasers are provided Car-parking requirements vary considerably between planning with floor plans showing that bedrooms can accommodate bed or beds without authorities. and.1. published by some local • a range of built-in kitchen fitments incorporating cupboards for pans. household steps.1) Approved Document Last Applies to Relevant to Living room: revision housing planning • armchair/settee for occupiers plus seating for two visitors of housing • television • coffee table. These cover such areas as housing density. 33.4 . and D Toxic substances (cavity insulation) 1985 * • storage unit (unless dining area within kitchen). suitcases. car parking. No general guide is included here. authorities under the Housing Acts. However. including standards for housing which are imposed through • tray space development control. • sink top and drainer/s. more spaces per house.3 m should . 33. and • washhand basin. towels. and M* Access and facilities for disabled people 1992 • cot space – occasional (main bedroom of family units).

section 3. b Terraced houses around an urban square: 50 dwellings per hectare (20 per acre).04 Kitchen units The previous edition of this Handbook included detailed graphs on comfortable heights for kitchen worktops. but this does not cover the majority of single family-houses.5 m. m rear gardens 9m 5 m frontage frontage 37 m 40 m plot depth from centre of square a plot depth from centre of road b 33. For the majority of women. 950 to 975 mm is recommended. A much-distilled summary of some of the main requirements is given in Table X. 150 sq. worktops at 950 mm and sinktops at 975 mm are the most comfortable. The movement of furniture should be considered. which may in turn cause the overall dwelling area to exceed Parker Morris standards. Much more important are linear dimensions across circulation areas and between fixed appliances or obstructions. and location Chapter 3 for sanitary installations for disabled people. demonstrating that the common standard height of 900 to 914 mm is too low for the 33. a Semi-detached houses with in-curtilage car parking: 30 dwellings per hectare (12 per acre).04 Space standards for housing in relation to people with disabilities When planning dwellings for regular occupation by users of wheelchairs or walking frames. floor areas are calculated to include only those parts where the ceiling height exceeds 1. 3. and 800 mm should be the minimum reasonable clear stair width in domestic building.5 . (See also Chapter 2 for wheelchair data.4 m is preferable.) . at 850 mm. widths of staircases to blocks of flats are covered in part B. PM standards should therefore be considered the 33. 3. especially as ‘white goods’ will rarely fit underneath this height. So for fixed kitchens used by both sexes of able-bodied people. for housing for the elderly is not recommended. For rooms in the roof. and widths of circulation spaces. For men.3 Housing layout at 150 hr/ha (60 hr/acre) in a suburban absolute minimum. For means of escape purposes. 2. For further information see Chapter 2.2 Housing layout at 250 hr/ha (100 hr/acre) in a typical majority of both men and women. it might be supposed that recommended room areas would need to be augmented. 33. For this reason the planning of kitchens and bathrooms is especially important. m rear gardens 65 m sq. these heights can be increased further. These recommendations will tend to lead to increases in the floor areas of kitchens and bathrooms. This is not necessarily always the case. This height generally suits only urban location with open car-parking area women over 60.02 Staircase widths These have not been included in part K of the Building Regulations since 1992.1 National housing layouts at 150 and 250 hr/ha based upon typical houses of five habitable rooms. Ample guidance is given in Selwyn Goldsmith’s Designing for the Disabled. 150 habitable rooms per hectare (60 per acre). 3. 250 habitable rooms per hectare (100 per acre) still be considered the minimum reasonable ceiling height for domestic buildings. The use of lower worktops.

blocks of Homes’. NB: Different planning authorities have widely differing minimum dimension requirements Table X Key dimensional requirements for wheelchair and mobility housing: recommended minima in millimetres Wheelchair Mobility housing housing not counted in floor area Entrance doorway clear width 800 775 2300 minimum 2400 preferred Level threshold maximum upstand 15 15 1500 Internal doorway clear width 750 750 Space to side of door 300 3 0 0 recommended (on lock/latch side) 100 m i n i m u m 2300 minimum under beam Corridor width 1200 1050 recommended 2400 preferred 2000 minumum 900 minimum 2100 preferred Turning-circle diameter 1500 – Space between bathroom and 1500 recommended 1200 recommended kitchen fittings 1200 minimum 1000 m i n i m u m Bedroom width 3000 2800 33.5 Ceiling heights and rooms in the roof. not least to permit them to visit friends and relations.05 Lifetime Homes of the Building Regulations.4 Typical planning standards. such as resulting from an accidental tee for England (a semi-govermental body) has published Building injury. The standards for Lifetime Homes are not mandatory. JRF’s recom- homes for successive generations giving data for this. but it is possible that some of the recommendations for accessibility may be reflected in the forthcoming revised Part M 3. from accident or illness. Table XI gives these criteria. instead of having to move to more accessible accommodation.33-8 Houses and flats min 22 m between hab. no longer covered Wheelchair storage 1200 × 700 – by Building Regulations (may overlap hall space) Transfer space for WC: front 1200 – diagonal 750 – side 750 – There has been a radical change in thinking in the last few years. and there will probably be special consideration for residents’ future disabilities. in their concept of ‘Lifetime suggests that there will be exceptions: for example. This will also permit people to remain in their dwellings well into old age or infirmity. . which is expected to cover dwell- A further recent initiative has been published and promoted by ings for the first time. on street rooms at rear car parking at 1 space per house recommened plus 75 to 100 m2 visitors rear garden to house min 11 m garden depth min 50 m2 min 18 m rear garden between hab. These 16 points are listed in accessiblity will soon be extended to general needs housing on Table XII. could be either temporary. the idea is to flats under five storeys without lifts are still likely to be construct dwellings that can be more easily adapted to cope with permitted. should these arise. similar lines. Such disabilities houses in very hilly areas. to house rooms at front rear garden to block of flats based on oblique distance min 25 m2 per flat. As in the ACE recommendations. and there is mendations take the form of 16 points covering the planning and good reason for believing that the Building Regulations on construction of new dwellings. There is now an increasing view that all housing should be WC pan centre to adjacent wall 400 400 accessible to people in wheelchairs. rooms (better to give GF can be reduced to flats min 50 m2) 10 or 15 m I car parking for flats at 1 space in-curtilage per flat car parking (sometimes at 2 spaces l/2 space per flat) per house 33. or permanent. The Access Commit. The information currently available the Joseph Rowntree Foundation. between hab.

g.*** the simple expedient of larger double-glazed windows on the 8 The sitting room (or family room) should be at entrance level. for highway. nal areas are very limited. or capable of being made strong enough. where the resources to 3 Entrances to dwellings should have flush thresholds. accessible to disabled people. storeys can be appropriate in urban areas. e.e. Similarly. if not more importantly. Equally. 2 Areas normally used by 4 Internal doorsets should have a minimum visitors. hall. above. made so that wheelchair users can turn into adjacent public domain (i.*** there is often pressure to build narrow-frontage houses – especially in urban areas. dating from the late 1980s.* sunlight for a large part of the day. a staircase should be designed to houses planned like this in the Victorian inner cities. the highway. for example to a bedroom next to the foundations and roofs. It is not just that children need private gardens. are difficult to plan. accessible to disabled people.g. recommended for others would not be built now as there is no entrance-level WC. between 600 mm and 1200 mm from the floor). within the paths should be the same as for public buildings in the Building Regulations. dining areas factor is the potential for passive solar gain in the winter through and sitting rooms and adequate circulation space for wheelchair users elsewhere. if necessary.) 4 All entrances should be illuminated*** and have level access over the dwelling it should normally be possible to arrange for one of the threshold. the front door opening directly. Also refer to the Access Committee for England’s guide for other details. Houses and flats 33-9 Table XI Recommendations for accessible general needs housing from 4 SINGLE FAMILY HOUSES Building homes for successive generations 4.* 2 The distance from the car-parking space to the home should be kept to a less seriously now than twenty years ago. Four- bathroom. and allowances should be users. to connect the Regulations Part B1). diagonal or lateral transfer to the WC successful houses have not been built with no front garden.6 . it should be capable of enlargement Orientation of the dwelling for best sunlight is probably taken to attain 3. (e. This is not to say that sufficient mobility to make either a front. especially from unsu- pervised rear pathways. WC and clear opening width of 750 mm.* and the main entrance should be covered. This scheme.* southern elevation. but in these designed internally for easy allow for possible future installation of a movement and be amenable to stairlift. the street. such as in uninterrupted terraces. 14 The bathroom layout should be designed to incorporate ease of access. 33. and often leads to tangible neglect. *essential **essential for 5-person dwellings and above. The expense of building 12 The design should incorporate provision for a future stairlift* and a suitably identified space for potential installation of a house lift (through-the-floor lift) taller is usually more than compensated for by savings in from the ground to the first floor. 4.04 Frontage widths should be easy to open/operate.3 m width. Mutual escape is normally provided between two rooms by a hoist. to the bath and WC. and with minimum depth of 7 The entrance-level WC should allow for 2 to 3 m has proven benefits as defensible space . However.*** storey houses. 9 In houses of two or more storeys. and should not minimum and should be level or gently sloping. it should be wheelchair accessible. making this an economical type. even when these are of practical Access convenience.and first-floor maisonettes with to dwellings should be possible. should be 4. neither public nor private but needs to be communally managed. See Table V.* (Gradients for ships of private and public domains. court. 1 Where car-parking is adjacent to the home.* (See Table XI) for the other to face the rear giving direct garden access. A private front garden.02 Orientation and gardens 5 Circulation spaces at entrance level. and a minimum clear opening overcome the management and maintenance problems of commu- door width of 800 mm. and 6 The width of the doorways and hallways should accord with the Access Committee for England’s standards. Anything less than 5. them.*** Fixtures and fittings 15 Living room window glazing should begin at 800 mm or lower. with front gate and entrance level front path leading to the front door.*** 16 Switches. including many wheelchair halls and corridors) should have a minimum The relationship between the single-family dwelling and the width of 900 mm. approach. however. or via an inset porch. to support a hoist at a later date. but this leads to probably from a side approach. three handrails. section 3. This is especially true in the public sector. or – rooms and corridors. Although ***recommended reasonably satisfactory houses have been built with frontages of . there should be space on the ground floor that could be used as a convenient bed space.* normally take precedence over achieving simple clear relation- 3 The approach to all entrances should be level or gently sloping.e. because of the need 13 The bath/bedroom ceiling should be strong enough.*** Within the bath/bedroom for an alternative escape route from the upper floors (Building wall provision should be made for a future floor to ceiling door. 10 There should be a downstairs toilet** which should be wheelchair accessible. adjacent houses via adjoining rooms or balconies. as promulgated access by a wheelchair user who has by Oscar Newman and Alice Coleman. the lifts should be accessible to wheelchair users. There are many thousands of quite satisfactory storey or level should be level. living room.03 Height 11 Walls in bathrooms and toilets should be capable of taking adaptations such as Although the majority of family houses are of two storeys. the shared entrances. rear gardens benefit from simplicity and clarity of relationship to the house and of enclosure. Another 7 There should be space for the turning of wheelchairs in kitchens. cases the pavement is clearly part of the publicly maintained modification. and unaided. from the 3 Dwellings on more than one 8 For dwellings on more than one storey or public pavement. published by Joseph Rowntree Foundation against any provision of rear access. have a level or gently sloped direct entrances. staircases including wheelchair users. two day rooms (living room or dining kitchen) to get direct 5 Where homes are reached by a lift.01 There is now a large consensus that families with children PRINCIPLES: ESSENTIAL CRITERIA: should be housed at ground level in single-family houses.0 m width can be considered Notes: See Table V for Housing Corporation SDS requirements: narrow frontage. have proved to be largely incompatible with family life. When there is an intervening ‘confused’ space that is persons of limited mobility. Communal space is best kept to a minimum or omitted altogether. It is preferable for one day Inside the home room to face the front permitting supervision of the street. or in 1 The approaches and entrances 1 Entrances to dwellings should. with drainage and service provision enabling a shower to be fitted at any time. and windows 4. wherever ground-floor flats or ground. for Housing Corporation’s requirements relating to the this is rarely satisfactory. Because of the costs of providing roads and services infrastructure. much less satisfactorily – the footpath) should be as clear and 6 There should be a WC and a living room at simple as possible. Such is the concern about security these days that opinion is generally Table XII Lifetime Home standards. sockets and service controls should be at a height usable by all (i. 2 Where dwellings (usually flats) are accessed and corridors in blocks of flats. and the external spaces around by lifts. also be accessible. The wash basins should potential security risks.

25 m frontage.5 m frontage. two-storey terrace house of 79 m . A reasonable minimum could be daylighting means that frontage. c First-floor plan .5 m2 a b c 2 33.5 double kitchen/ kitchen hall hall 8. 9 a three- It is not generally realised that high ceiling heights in some bedroom. three bedroom. three-bedroom. become apologetic.5 m room hall living kitchen room bedroom 12 m2 15 m 2 11.0 m or even 3. a b 33. four-person. four-person.10 a three-bedroom.9 doors dining 13.5 m.0 m living room living/ bath 14.8 shows three-storey terrace house with a 4. a Ground floor. 33. Taking 5. the stresses on internal planning start to build frontage and substantial plan depth.0 1.0 m optional hatch/ double optional double doors hatch/ bed 15.7 A five-person.6 twin dining 4.6 Example of narrow-frontage terraced house for an inner-city site. 33.8 A two-bedroom.5 m frontage of 17 m2.7 shows a five-person. b First floor. depth and ceiling height are taken to be 4. 3 3 . a two-bedroom. a Ground floor. The centre-to-centre frontage width of 4. The need for adequate up below approximately 4. b First floor. b Alternative ground floor with living/dining room. Below this width. two-and-a-half-storey house. c Second floor 5. two-storey house.7 19.5 m.0 bed store 12. a Ground-floor plan with kitchen/diner. two-storey house. The staircase is very tight and only feasible with winders. 33. c Second floor 4. 98 m . three-storey terrace house with a 4.2 9.05 m is very narrow and close to the minimum possible.3 a b C 2 33.33-10 Houses and flats 3.85 m dining bedroom bedroom area 10 m 2 10 m 2 10 m2 store bath- 8. five-person. Architects: Hunt Thompson Associates.0 m as the normal terrace house frontage. rear gardens also interdependent. Architects: PRP Architects. larger Victorian houses result from a combination of narrow six-person. equivalent to a Parker Morris five-person house.

two-storey terrace house of 85. a second bedroom 2 13.10 A three-bedroom. this arrange- ment is not normally either popular or advised. In larger family houses with four or more bedrooms. also the possibility of opening the two spaces into one.0 optional kitchen doors single kitchen bed twin bed Text dining hall 9.4 1. one of them in the bathroom. as it can mean having a WC on each floor. It is.5 kitchen/diner Several of the examples shown in this chapter give alternative 13. This can be useful in w three-storey houses.8 prohibition of WCs opening directly from kitchens. six-person.3 good outlook and supervision to both front and rear.06 Living/dining versus kitchen/diner 8.9 A three-bedroom. a Ground-floor plan with living/dining to three-person dwellings. Architects: PRP Architects. One bathroom or shower room can be en-suite with the main bedroom. this has not normally been considered to be c d appropriate in social housing.2 10. In three-storey houses this living room sometimes works well in combination with a front living room at living room 16. In standards. 33.8 a b c 33. is recommended. a Ground-floor plan with kitchen/diner. or shower room. b Ground floor with kitchen/diner. when the floor d Second-floor plan area of the house exceeded the minimum for five persons. 4. however. houses. although where it is adjacent to a bathroom or a utility room this w is often omitted.9 m 2 . kitchen 4.2 11. c First-floor plan. the dining kitchen will almost certainly be at the rear.5 bathroom. In three-storey houses this might be the first or the second floor.0 wc wc ground-floor plans with the dining space in either the living room or the kitchen.0 first-floor level as in 33.0 m most of the full width of the front of the house. An exception might bedroom 1 lin sometimes be a utility room containing a WC and forming the w 15. A ground-floor WC is very desirable in all family bathroom bedroom 3 st houses. five-person. Although there is no longer a legal 12.5 st 1.0 st 1.0 m a seven-person semi-detached or end-of-terrace house. and two WCs. two-and-a-half-storey WCs were not especially generous: one WC in the bathroom for up terrace house of 99 m2. The Parker Morris standards for 33. as well as benefiting from sunlight with almost any orientation. Houses and flats 33-11 5.0 0. These should be considered the absolute minima. becoming more acquisitive all the time. b Ground-floor plan with living/dining room.1 4. General storage space is laid down in PM to be via the living room: in fact Parker Morris ruled this out.5 achieves a full-width ground-floor front room by placing the entrance in the side wall.0 m living room bath 17. c First-floor plan narrow-frontage houses where the living room needs to occupy 5. and offer 20.07 The main bathroom This should preferably be located on the floor with the most bedrooms. and therefore no recommendation is given here standards for storage. over and above net floor space (see Table II).7 7. rarely satisfactory for the only access to the rear garden space are increasing.1 m st optional living/dining doors 22. however small. one separate WC for four-person room. Rooms can then be full width.3 14. PM was .08 Storage Opinions continue to differ over the relative positions of living Where Parker Morris scored highly was in specifying good room and kitchen. and with people as to whether the kitchen is best at the front or the back. This has proved popular.05 Internal planning 4. WC compartments should have a handbasin. real needs for storage however.11 shows 9.9 route to the garden.6 double bed 12. this st 1. a b 4.7.