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a) (Definition of the early reading) Teacher can assist a child to read at the stage of

early reading by providing him/her with on-going support in his/her reading. They can
provide guidance as they direct the child to use specific tools to build the childs
understanding while reading. For example, teacher can include the use of pictures,
knowledge of sounds and letters and experience of subject matter as they read with
the child. It is because children will use the pictures to help them to make sense of
the text. (motivation + students awareness + allow them to choose book)

b) One of the reasons I chose this text is because I enjoy reading fables and I
think most children in the primary school also enjoy reading it. Using fables or twists
on fables in the classroom is a good way to attract the students in and get them
excited about reading. It is because the language used in this text is simple which
can help the students to understand the text better.

Another reason is because it provides a context for students to think about

frogs and their ecosystem. The story mainly focused on the frogs and their
ecosystem in which they live. It is part of the science curriculum to learn various
ecosystems and interdependency among the animals that live in that habitat. In my
opinion, this text provides details that can spark the interest of students on frogs.
They can read the text and seek out the informational text in order to learn more
about frogs and their habitat.

The literary elements within this text also provide a stable framework of key
events and characters for students to think about while reading stories. There are
also moral values included in this story. I think it is a good way to inculcate moral
value within the students while reading stories. For example, the moral values in this
short story are very related to the students as the writer focus on the important of
persistence, encouragement and friendship.
2. Nowadays, students assume that writing is the most difficult skill to master. At
the developmental stage of writing, this pupil has problems to make a good writing
although there are several strengths in this sample.

Based on the writing sample, the writer clearly shows that he understands
and has a wide knowledge about horses. He manages to put all his idea in order and
the sentence structures are correctly used. For example, he started his sentence by
describing about horse and his dream to own a horse at the end of the writing. He
manages to write simple sentences correctly and tries to use compound and complex
sentences in his writing. However, there are several obvious errors spotted in this

One of the weaknesses that can be found in this sample writing is the spelling
error. This pupil keeps repeating the same spelling mistake of horse as hores. Most
of the words in this sample writing are correctly spelled except for hores, carot,
frind, coud and strait up. It is because at this stage, children spell most words with
the reliance on phonics knowledge to spell longer words. Next, the writer also uses
punctuation marks incorrectly and uses capital and lower case letters in the wrong
places. This can be proven as all letter k are written in the capital case letters
although they are situated in the middle or at the end of the words. The only
punctuation mark that can be found in this sample writing is full stop. He also does
not know where to put period correctly in this writing and this shows in her first and
last sentences.

There are several activities that can help the pupil to improve his writing skill.
One of the activities is read up activity. Regular reading can help to strengthen his
writing skill as well as vocabulary and shows them different ways of using words.
This also makes it easier for them to use these words in their own writing. Next,
teacher also can make writing fun by including games and activities that encourage
writing. Crossword puzzles and word games are great for everyone especially to this
pupil as he is still in his primary school. For example, teacher can play word games
where students need to search for items and write down the word when they find
each item. This type of game is very suitable for this writer as it can help to improve
his spelling.

In short, the teacher plays an important role in order to guide the students to
be better in writing.