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Materials 46-15

Table XXVI Co-ordinating sizes of aluminium windows

600 900 1200


300
500

600

700

900

1100

1300

1500

1800

2100

1500 1800 2100 2400


300

500

600

700

900

1100

1300

1500

1800

2100
46-16 Materials

Table XXVII Co-ordinating sizes of internal doorsets Table XXVIII Co-ordinating sizes of external doorsets

1500 900 1000 1200 1500 1800 2100


1800
600 700 800 900 1000 1200 2100
2100

2100

2300

2300

2400

2350

2700
2400

3000
2700

3000

10.03 Pipe joints EN 1057-R220 soft


The methods in general use are: EN 1057-R250 half-hard
EN 1057-R290 hard
Screwed joints steel, plastic and copper (rarely nowadays)
Welding steel Sizes and thicknesses are given in Table XXXII.
Spigot and socket dry (push-fit)
Spigot and socket with cementitious material cast iron 10.07 Stainless steel
Spigot and socket with solvent cement plastics These are used as a lower-cost substitute for copper pipe. They are
Compression fittings copper, stainless steel, light-gauge steel, supplied in the same sizes corresponding to external diameter, as
plastics
above.
Capillary soldering copper.

10.08 Cast iron


10.04 Insulation
Cast iron pipes are still made to the following three
Pipes carrying hot or chilled liquids, or in exposed conditions, will
specifications:
be insulated. The thickness of insulation will be between 25 and
75 mm depending on material used and the size of the pipe. After BS 460: 1964 Light grade rainwater pipes
allowing for any such insulation, the space allowed for any pipe BS 416 Part 1: 1990 for soil waste and vent pipes with spigots
should be between two to three times the actual diameter of the and sockets above ground
barrel. This will allow for sockets, joints, bends and clearances. BS 416 Part 2: 1990 for socketless systems
BS 437: 1978 for underground pipework, whether buried or in
ducts.
10.05 Steel pipes for screwed joints
These are available in light, medium and heavy qualities. The sizes They are made in nominal inch sizes, the external diameters of
given in Table XXXI are to international standard ISO/65, and are which are given in Table XXXIII.
based on nominal inch sizes.
10.09 Plastics
10.06 Copper The types of plastic used for pipes, and the uses of the pipes, are
Copper pipes are specified in accordance with EN 1057-R25. both numerous. Consequently, there are a considerable number of
Joints in these pipes are made with compression fittings or British and European Standards governing this material. BS 3867:
capillary soldered fittings. There are three quality grades: 1987 lays down some general information on sizing and pressure
Materials 46-17

Table XXIX Types of internal doors

coordinating sizes
600 700 800 900 1000 1200 1500 1800 2100

flush
unglazed

flush
glazed

ABCDEF ABCDEF ABE ABE ABE ABE

panelled

RSTU RSTU RU RU RU RU

leaf length 526 626 726 362 826 412 926 462 562 712 862 1012
clear opening 472 572 672 641 772 741 872 841 1041 1341 1641 1941
(min)

Table XXX Types of external doors Table XXXII Sizes of copper pipes
to BS EN 1057

coordinating sizes
Size; external diameter Thicknesses
900 1000 1200 1500 1800 2100

R220 and R250


flush 6 0.6, 0.8
unglazed 8 0.6, 0.8
10 0.7, 0.8
12 0.6, 0.8
15 0.7, 1.0
22 0.9, 1.2
28 0.9, 1.2
flush
35 1.2, 1.5
glazed 42 1.2, 1.5
54 1.2, 2.0
BCDG BCDG B B B B 66.7 1.2, 2.0
76.1 1.5, 2.0
108 1.5, 2.5

R250
panelled
133 1.5
159 2.0
RSTU RSTU RU RU RU RU

leaf length 807 907 552 702 825 1002


clear opening 751 851 1018 1318 1618 1918
(min)

Table XXXI Mean outside diameters of steel pipes (mm)

Table XXXIII Maximum external diameters of cast iron pipe (mm)


Nominal bore mm Light Medium
in and heavy
Nominal BS 460 BS 416 BS 437
bore rainwater above ground below ground
1
/3 6 9.9 10.1
pipes s, w and v
8 13.4 13.6
in mm pipe socket
3
/8 10 16.9 17.1
15 21.2 21.4 pipe socket pipe socket

3
/8 20 26.6 26.9
1 25 33.5 33.8 2 50 54 69 64 89 65 117
1 32 42.2 42.5 2 65 67 89 76 103
1 40 48.1 48.4 3 75 79 94 89 116 92 150
2 50 59.9 60.3 3 90 102 130
2 65 75.6 76.0 4 100 105 120 114 143 119 185
3 80 88.3 88.8 5 125 130 146 140 171
4 100 113.4 114.1 6 150 156 175 165 197 173 239
5 125 139.6 9 225 256 337
46-18 Materials

Table XXXIV Sizes of plastic pipes to BS 3867: Table XXXV Sizes of polypropylene and
1987 (More larger sizes are also included in the thermoplastic waste pipes to BS 5254: 1976 and
standard) BS 5255: 1989

Size: nominal Mean external Nominal size: Outside diameter


inches diameter (mm) in/mm (mm)

1
/8 10.2 1 /32 38.25 0.15
13.5 1 /40 44.60 0.15
3
/8 17.2 2/50 57.30 0.15
21.3
3
/4 26.3
1 33.7
1 42.4
1 48.3
2 60.3
2 75.3
3 88.9
4 114.3
6 168.3

Table XXXVI Dimensions of PVC insulated, PVC sheathed electric cables (mm)

Cross-sectional Approximate Single Flat twin Flat three Flat twin Flat three
area of single normal rating (dia) + earth + earth
2
conductor (mm ) (amps)

1.0 6 4.2 6.7 4.4 9.0 4.4 7.8 4.4 10.2 4 . 4


1.5 8 4.4 7.2 4.6 9.8 4.6 8.3 4.6 11.0 4 . 7
2.5 11 5.0 8.6 5.4 11.9 5.5 9.7 5.4 13.0 5.5
4.0 15 6.2 10.7 6.5 15.0 6.7 12.0 6.5
6.0 19 6.8 12.0 7.3 16.7 7.3 13.8 7.3
10.0 26 8.1 14.9 8.8 21.0 8.9 17.4 8.8

Table XXXVII Dimensions of flexible electric cords (for connection of mobile appliances to outlets)

Cross-sectional Suspension Approximate Tough rubber sheathed Circular cotton PVC sheathed
area of single capacity normal braided
conductor (kg) rating twin three-core four-core twin flat twin round three-core four-core
2 twin three-core
(mm ) (amps)

0.5 2 3 6.2 6.6 7.3 5.1 5.5 4 . 0 6.1 6.1 6.5 7.0
0.75 3 6 6.6 7.2 7.8 6.3 6.8 4.2 6.5 6.5 6.9 7.5
1.0 5 10 7.2 7.8 8.3 6.7 7.2 6.9 7.3 8.2
1.5 5 15 8.8 9.3 10.3 7.3 7.8 7.5 8.1 9.0
2.5 5 20 10.2 10.9 12.1 9.8 10.8
4.0 5 25 12.1 12.8 14.2 11.6 12.7

gradings for inch-series pipes, as given in Table XXXIV. BS 5254: Wiring harnesses (manufactured for specific locations, hence
1976 covers polypropylene waste pipes and fittings and BS 5255: non-standard).
1989 those of thermoplastic material. Table XXXV gives the
dimensions of these limited ranges. 11.02 PVC double-insulated cables
These are normally used in electrical distribution for the smaller
10.10 Pipes of vitrified clay building types. Table XXXVI gives the dimensions of these, which
These pipes are covered in BS EN 295. The series of sizes is as are often accommodated in small ducts or voids in the construc-
follows, with the first preference in ordinary type and the second tion. Conductor cross-sectional areas of 1 and 1.5 mm2 are used for
in italics: lighting circuits, while ring mains are composed of cables with
conductors of 2.5 mm2 . Since earth-continuity conductors are now
75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 225, 250, 300, 375, 450, 525,
used in all circuits, all cable types have integral earth conductors.
600, 675, 750, 825, 900 mm
Cables with three insulated cores plus earth are used for circuits
with two-way switching of lights. Flexible electrical cords for the
connection of mobile and portable equipment are detailed in Table
11 MATERIALS FOR ELECTRICITY SUPPLY AND XXXVII.
DISTRIBUTION
11.03 Mineral insulated cables (MICC or pyro)
11.01 Electricity supply and distribution cables are mainly:
These are used mainly when space is at a premium, or in external
Armoured cable for intake (not covered here, see the technical situations. Table XXXVIII gives the dimensions of these.
literature)
PVC insulated, in conduits of steel or plastic 11.04 Steel conduits
PVC insulated, PVC sheathed These are covered in BS 4568: Part 1: 1970, and conduits of
Mineral insulated copper (or aluminium) conductors plastics in BS 4607: Part 1: 1984; summarised in Table XXXIX.
Materials 46-19

Table XXXVIII Sizes of mineral insulated cables

No of Cross-sectional Copper sheathed Aluminium sheathed


conductors area of single
conductor Approximate normal Cable diameter Approximate normal Cable diameter
(mm )
2 rating (amps) over copper rating (amps) over aluminium
sheath (mm) sheath (mm)
single-phase three-phase single-phase three-phase

1 1.0 22 18 3.1
1.5 27 23 3.4
2.5 36 31 3.8
4.0 46 41 4.4

6 63 56 6.4
10 85 75 7.3
16 112 99 8.3 100* 88* 8.6
25 146 128 9.6 130* 114* 9.9

2 1.0 17 5.1 19 5.4


1.5 22 5.7 24 5.4
2.5 29 6.6 33 6.8
4.0 38 7.7 44 7.9

6 53 10.9 55 9.0
10 71 12.7
16 94 14.7 84* 15.0
25 124 17.1 113* 18.8

3 1.0 14 14 5.8 16 16 6.0


1.5 18 18 6.4 21 21 6.6
2.5 26 26 9.3
4.0 34 34 10.4

6 44 44 11.5
10 59 59 13.6
16 78 78 15.6 71* 71* 16.0
25 103 103 18.2 94* 94* 20.0

4 1.0 15 15 6.3 16 16 6.0


1.5 19 19 7.0 21 21 7.3
2.5 27 27 10.1
4.0 35 35 11.4

*Aluminium conductors

Table XXXIX Electrical conduits

Nominal size Minimum internal diameter d 2 Non-circular conduits


corresponding
to maximum Steel Rigid Pliable plastic self- Maximum Minimum
external PVC extinguishing outside dims inside dims
diameter d 1 Light gauge Heavy gauge
plain ends screwed ends Plain Corrugated

13 13.0 8.1 11.0 6.1


16 13.5 12.7 13.0 10.7 11.7 16.3 9.9 14.3 7.9
20 17.5 16.2 16.9 14.1 15.5 22.6 11.4 20.6 9.4
25 21.9 21.1 21.4 18.4 19.8 28.7 11.4 26.5 9.2
32 28.9 28.1 27.8 24.4 26.4 32.5 11.4 30.3 9.2
40 31.2 34.0
50 39.7 43.5
63 49.6 56.0

d2

d2 d2 d2 d2

d1 d1 d1 d1

d1
46-20 Materials

Table XL Circular boxes for electrical conduit systems: minimum outside Table XLI Rectangular boxes for the accommodation of electrical wiring
dimensions (diameter depth) accessories

Box type Nominal Rigid PVC Cast iron Steel Box Nominal External Nominal Cast Steel
conduit type conduit face external depth iron
size sizes dimensions Insulating
material

Small circular box 16 64.4 28.6 64.3 2 7 . 0 63.2 26.5


20 64.4 28.6 64.3 27.0 63.2 26.5 UA1 16, 20 and 25 75 75 17.5 18.0 17.0
25 64.4 31.8 64.3 30.0 63.2 29.5 27.0 27.3 26.2
37.0 37.3 36.2
Cover thickness 2.4 1.15
43.0 43.3 42.2
49.0 49.3 48.2
Circular looping box 16 64.6 32 (nom) 67.5 34.0 66.4 33.5
20 64.6 32 (nom) 67.5 34.0 66.4 33.5 UA2 16, 20 and 25 135 7 5 17.5 18.0 17.0
25 67.5 34.0 66.4 33.5 27.0 27.3 26.2
37.0 37.3 36.2
Cover thickness 2.0 1.47
43.0 43.3 42.2
49.0 49.3 48.2
Large circular box 20 86.6 37.8 85.7 36.5
25 86.6 37.8 85.7 36.5 UA3 20 and 25 195 7 5 43.0 43.3 42.2
32 86.6 40.8 85.7 39.5 UA4 20 and 25 135 135 43.0 43.3 42.2
UA6 20 and 25 195 135 43.0 43.3 42.2
Cover thickness 3.2 1.47

Extension rings 20 nominal depths


of 13, 20, 25
and 32 mm

These British Standards also give details of the round connection Class 3: Medium heavy protection, inside as class 2, outside as
boxes used for junctions, looping and for the attachment of ceiling class 4
roses (known colloquially as beezer boxes). Table XL summaries Class 4: Heavy protection inside and out (hot-dip zinc coating,
the dimensional information about these in the standards. As far as sherardised).
steel conduits are concerned, it is worth noting that these are
obtainable in four classes of protection:
11.05 Rectangular boxes
Class 1: Light protection inside and out (priming paint) Boxes of the type used to accommodate wiring accessories such as
Class 2: Medium protection inside and out (stove enamel, air- switches, socket outlets, cooker points etc are covered by BS 4662:
drying paint) 1970. These are summarised in Table XLI.
Appendix A
The SI system
Table I Base units of the SI system

Quantity Name of unit Unit symbol

Length metre m
Mass kilogram kg
Tme second s
Electric current ampere A
Thermodynamic temperature kelvin* K
Amount of substance mole mol
Luminous intensity candela cd

Supplementary units
Plane angle radian rad
Solid angle steradian sr

Table II Derived SI units

Quantity Name of unit Symbol Remarks

Frequency hertz Hz 1 Hz = s- 1

Force newton N 1 N = 1 kg.m/s2

Pressure pascal Pa 1 Pa = 1 N/m2


Stress

Energy joule J 1 J = 1N. m


Work
Quantity of heat

Power watt W 1 W = 1 J/s


Radiant flux

Electric charge coulomb C 1 C = 1 A.s


Quantity of electricity

Electric potential volt V 1 V = 1 W/A


Potential difference
Tension
Electromotive force

Capacitance farad F 1 F = 1 C/V

Electrical resistance ohm 1 = 1 V/A

Electrical conductance siemens S 1 S = 1 -1

Magnetic flux weber Wb 1 Wb = 1 V.s

Magnetic flux density tesla T 1 T = 1 Wb/m2

Inductance henry H 1 H = 1 Wb/A

Celsius temperature degree Celsius C 1 C = 1 K

Luminous flux lumen lm 1 lm = 1 cd sr

Illuminance lux lx 1 lx = 1 lm/m2

Table III Multiples and submultiples of SI units

Power of 10 Prefix Symbol

24 yetta Y
21 zetta Z
18 exa E
15 peta P
12 tera T
9 giga G
6 mega M
3 kilo k
2 hecto h
1 deca da
- 1 deci c
- 2 centi C
- 3 milli m
- 6 micro
- 9 nano n
-12 pico p
-15 femto f
-18 atto a
-21 zepto z
-24 yocto y

A-1
A-2 Appendix A The SI system

Table IV Approved SI units, multiples and submultiples together with other units commonly in use. Based on BS 5555:1981 An asterisk indicates a unit outside the
SI system currently recognised by the CIPM for a specific use

Item no in Quantity SI unit Recommended multiples Other units which may Remarks
ISO 31:1992 and sub-multiples be used

1 Space and time


1-1 Plane angle rad (radian) mrad degree () = /180 rad Radians are principally used in
rad minute (') = (1/60) purely mathematical situations. In
second (") = (1/60)' practice, degrees and its
G
grade ( ) = /200 rad subdivisions are normally used in
the UK. The sumbols ' and " are
exceptions in that there is no space
between the value and the symbol.
Decimal subdivisions of the degree
are preferred to minutes and
seconds; this facilitates the using of
pocket calculators. On continental
Europe, the grade (or its alternative
name, the gon) is often used,
always decimally subdivided.

1-2 Solid angle sr (steradian)

1-3 Length m (metre) km, cm, mm, m, nm, *nautical mile The statute mile is currently intended
pm, fm 1 n mile = 1852 m exactly to stay for the moment on road signs
in the UK
1 mile = 1.609 344 km exactly
On road signs the mile is confusingly
abbreviated m, ml is preferred

1-4 Area m2 km 2 , dm 2 , cm 2 , mm 2 *hectare (ha), *are (a) The square foot is still used by
1 ha = 104 m2 commercial estate agents in the UK
1 a = 102 m2 2
1 sq ft = 0.092 290 304 m exactly
The acre is also commonly found in
the UK
1 acre = 0.404 685 6422 ha exactly
3
1-5 Volume m 3
dm ,cm ,mm
3 3
*litre (l), *hl, *cl, *ml The abbreviations I and L may each
-1 3
1 h1 = 10 m be used for litre; the full name is
1 l = 10-3 m3 = 1 dm3 often used to avoid confusion.
-5 3
1 cl = 10 m The imperial pint (pt) has been
1 ml = 10-6 m3 = 1 cm3 approved for continuing use in the
UK, but only for draught beer and
for milk in bottles (not cartons!).
1 pt = 0.568 2451

1-6.1 Time s (second) ks, ms, s, ns minute (min) Other units such as week, month
1 min = 60 s exactly and year (a) are in common use;
hour (h) definitions of month and year often
1 h = 60 min exactly need to be specified
day (d)
d = 24 h exactly
1-8.1 Angular velocity rad/s
1-10.1 m/s m/h 1 *knot = 1.852 km/h exactly
kilometre per hour (km/h) (no abbreviation approved)
1 km/h = (1/3.6) m/s Miles per hour (mph) are continuing
on UK road signs
1 mph = 1.609 344 km/h exactly
1-11.1 m/s

2 Periodic and related phenomena


2-3.1 Frequency Hz (hertz) THz, GHz, MHz, kHz
-1 -1
2-3.2 Rotational frequency s min revs per min (r/min) and
revs per sec (r/s) are also used

2-4 Angular frequency rad/s

3 Mechanics
3
3-1 Mass kg (kilogram) Mg, g, mg, g tonne (t) unified atomic 1 t = 10 kg tonne in the UK also
mass unit (u) called metric ton
-27
1 u approx = l.660 540 10 kg
3 3 3 3 3
3-2 Volumic mass kg/m Mg/m kg/dm , g/cm t/m , kg/l (kg/litre), g/ml,
Density (all the same) g/l
Mass density

3-5 Lineic mass kg/m mg/m 1 tex = 10-6 kg/m = 1 g/km


Linear density The tex is used for textile filaments
3-7 Moment of inertia kg.m

3-8 Momentum kg.m/s


3-9 Force N (newton) MN, kN, mN, N

3-11 Moment of momentum kg.m


Angular momentum
3-12.1 Moment of force N.m MN.m, kN.m, mN.m, Moment of force is often called
N.m simply moment or bending moment
3-15.1 Pressure Pa (pascal) GPa, MPa, kPa, hPa, *bar = 100 kPa exactly
mPa, Pa 1 mbar = 1 hPa
bars are used only in fluid
pressures

3-15.2 Normal stress Pa GPa, MPa, kPa 1 MPa = 1 N/mm


Appendix A The SI system A-3

Table IV Continued

Item no in Quantity SI unit Recommended multiples Other units which may Remarks
ISO 31:1992 and sub-multiples be used

3 Mechanics, continued
3-23 Dynamic viscosity Pa.s mPa.s poise (P)
1 cP = 1 mPa.s
The poise is only used in
conjunction with CGS units
3-24 Kinematic viscosity m/s mm/s stokes (St)
1 cSt = 1 mm/s
The stokes is used only in
conjunction with CGS units

3-25 Surface tension N/m mN/m


3-26.1 Energy J (joule) EJ, PJ, TJ, MJ, kJ, mJ electronvolt (eV) kilowatt-hour (kW.h)
6
3-26.2 Work 1 eV 1 kWh = 3.6 10 J = 3.6 MJ
= (1.602 10 0.000 07) W.h, kW.h, MW.h, GW.h and TW.h
-19
10 J are used in the electrical power
eV, MeV and GeV are industry
used in accelerator
technology
3-27 Power W (watt) GW, MW, kW, mW, W 1 W = 1 J/s

4 Heat
4-l Thermodynamic K (kelvin)
temperature

4-2 Celsius temperature C (no space beween 1 C = 1 K


value and sumbol) The temperature in C is the
temperature expressed in kelvins
minus exactly 273.15 K

4-3.1 Linear expansion coefficient K- 1

4-6 Heat, quantity of heat J EJ, PJ, TJ, GJ, MJ, kJ,
mJ
4-7 Heat flow rate W kW 1 W = 1 J/s

4-9 Thermal conductivity W/(m.k)


4-10.1 Coefficient of heat transfer W/(m.K)
4-11 Thermal insulance m.k/W
4-15 Heat capacity J/K kJ/K
4-16.1 Massic heat capacity (was J/(kg.K) kJ/(kg.K)
specific)
4-18 Entropy J/K kJ/K
4-19 Massic entropy J/(kg.K) kJ/(kg.K)
4-21.2 Massic thermodynamic J/kg MJ/kg, kJ/kg
energy (was specific
energy)

5 Electricity and magnetism


5-1 Electric current A (ampere) kA, mA, A, nA, pA
5-2 Electric charge, quantity of C (coulomb) kC, C, nC, pC 1 A.h = 3.6 kC
electricity

5-3 Volumic charge, charge C/m C/mm or GC/m, MC/m


density or C/cm, kc/m, mC/m,
C/m
5-4 Areic charge, surface C/m MC/m or C/mm, C/cm,
density of charge kC/m, mC/m, C/m

5-5 Electric field strength V/m MV/m, kV/m or V/mm,


V/cm, mV/m, V/m

5-6.1 Electric potential V (volt) MV, kV,mV, .V


5-6.2 Potential difference tension
5-6.3 Electromotive force
5-7 Electrical flux density C/m C/cm 2 , kC/m 2 , mC/m 2 ,
2
C/m
5-9 Capacitance F (farad) mF, F, nF, pF
5-33 Resistance to direct current (ohm) G, M, k, m,
5-34 Conductance of direct S (siemens) kS, mS, S 1 S = 1/
current
5-36 Resistivity m Gm, Mm, km, m = 10-2 m
-6
cm, mm, m, nm (mm2)/m = 10 m = m
are also used
5-37 Conductivity S/m MS/m, kS/M

5-38 Reluctance H- 1

5-39 Permeance H (henry)


5-49 Active power W TW, GW, MW, kW, mW, In electric power technology active
W, nW power is expressed in watts, apparent
power in volt amperes
V.A and reactive power in vars (var)

5-52 Active energy J TJ, GJ, MJ, KJ 1 W.h = 3.6kJ exactly


TW.h, GW.h, MW.h, kW.h
A-4 Appendix A The SI system

Table IV Continued

Item no in Quantity SI unit Recommended multiples Other units which may Remarks
ISO 31:1992 and sub-multiples be used

6 Light
-10 -4 -1
6-3 Wavelength m m, nm, pm *ngstrm () 1 = 10 m = 10 m = 10 nm

6-7 Radiant energy J

6-10 Radiant power energy flux W

6-13 Radiant intensity W/sr

6-15 Radiant exitance w / m2

6-29 Luminous intensity cd (candela)

6-30 Luminous flux lm (lumen)

6-31 Quantity of light lm.h 1 lm.h = 3600 lm.s exactly


2
6-32 Luminance cd/m

6-33 Luminous exitance lx (lux)

6-35 Light exposure lx.s

6-36.1 Luminous efficacy lm/W

7 Acoustics
7-1 Period, periodic time s ms, s
7-2 Frequency Hz MHz, kHz

7-5 Wavelength m mm
3
7-8 Volumic mass kg/m
Mass density
Density

7-9.1 Static pressure Pa nPa, Pa

7-9.2 (Instantaneous) sound


pressure

7-11 (Instantaneous) sound m/s mm/s


particle velocity

7-13 (Instantaneous) volume flow m3 / s


rate

7-14.1 Velocity of sound m/s


7-16 Sound power W
2 2 2 2
7-17 Sound intensity W/m mW/m , W/m , pW/m

7-18 Acoustic impedance Pa.s/m 3

7-19 Mechanical impedance N.s/m

7-20.1 Surface density of Pa.s/m


mechanical impedance

7-21 Sound pressure level bel (B), dB 1 dB = 10-1 B

7-28 Sound reduction index B, dB

7-29 Equivalent absorption area m2


of surface or object

7-30 Reverberation time s


Appendix B
Conversion factors and tables

Table 1 Conversion factors Bold type indicates exact conversions. Otherwise four Table 1 Continued
or five significant figures are given.

Quantity Conversion factors


Quantity Conversion factors

1
General purposes
Area x square yards per ton = X 1215 kg/m 2
x
coverage
Length 1 mile = 1.609 km
1 chain = 20.1168 m 1
x square yards per gallon = X 5.437 litre/m2
1 yard = 0.9144 m x
1 foot = 0 . 3 0 4 8 m = 3 0 4 . 8 mm
1 inch = 25.4 mm = 2.54 cm Volume rate 1 cubic feet per minute = 0.4719 litre/s
3
of flow = 471.9 cm /s
3
2 = 0.0004719 m / s
Area 1 square mile = 2.590 km = 259.0 ha 3
1 cusec (cu ft per sec) = 0.02832 m /s (cumec)
1 hectare = 10 000 m2
1 acre = 4 046.9 m 2 = 0.40469 ha 1 cu ft per thousand acres = 0.06997 litre/ha
3 2
2 = 0.006997 m /km
= 4 840 y d
1 square yard = 0.8361 m 2 = 6997 cm 3 /km 2
= 2 2 1 cubic inch per second = 16.39 ml/s
1 square foot 0.09290 m = 929.03 cm 3 3
1 square inch = 2 2 1 gallon per year = 4546 cm /a* = 0.004546 m /a
645.2 mm = 6.452 cm
1 gallon per day = 4546 cm 3/d
1 litre/s = 86.4 cm 3/d
3
Volume 1 cubic yard = 0.7646 m 1 million gallons per day = 0.05262 m /s
3
3 3
1 litre = 1 dm = 1000 cm 1 gallon per person per day = 4.546 litre/(person day)
3
1 m = 1 000 litres 1 gallon per sq yd per day = 3
0.005437 m /(m .d)
2

1 millilitre = l cm 3 = 1000 mm = 0.000062928 mm/s


3
1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m = 28.32 litre 1 gallon per cu yd per day = 3
0.005946 m /(m .d)
3
3
1 petrograd standard = 4.672 m 1 gallon per hour = 4.5461 litre/h
3 3
1 cubic inch = 16 387 mm = 16.387 cm 1 gallon per minute = 0.07577 litre/s
= 16.387 ml = 0.016387 litre 1 gallon per second = 4.5461 litre/s

Capacity 1 UK gallon = 4.546 litre Fuel 1 gallon per mile = 2.825 litre/km
1 UK quart = 1.137 litre consumption 1 mile per gallon = 0.354 km/litre
1 UK pint = 0.5683 1
1 UK fluid ounce = 28.413 cm 3 x miles per gallon = 282.5 litre 100 km
x
1 US barrel (for petroleum) = 159.0 litre
1 US gallon = 3.785 litre
1 US liquid quart = 0.9464 litre Velocity 1 mile per hour = 1.609 km/h = 0.44704 m/s
1 US dry quart = 1.101 litre 1 foot per minute = 0.3048 m/min = 0.0051 m/s
1 US liquid pint = 0.4732 litre 1 foot per second = 0.3048 m/s
1 US dry pint = 0.5506 litre 1 inch per second = 25.4 mm/s
1 US liquid ounce = 29.574 cm 3 1 UK knot = 0.5148 m/s = 1.853 km/h
= 1.00064 international knot

Mass 1 UK ton = 1.016 tonne = 1016.05 kg


2
1 US (or short) ton = 0.9072 tonne = 907.2 kg Acceleration 1 foot per sec per sec = 0.3048 m/s
1 kip (1000 lb) = 453.59 kg 1 mile per hr per sec = 0.44704 m/s 2
1 UK hundredweight = 50.80 kg 1 g (standard gravity) = 9.806 65 m/s2
1 short (US) hundred-weight = 100 lb = 45.36 kg
1 pound = 0.4536 kg
Heating
1 ounce avoirdupois = 28.35 g
1 ounce troy = 31.10 g Temperature x Fahrenheit = 5
9 (x 32) Celsius

Mass per 1 UK to per mile = 0.6313 kg/m = 0.6313 t/km Temperature 1 F = 0.5556 K = 0.5556 C
unit length 1 lb per yard = 0.4961 kg/m interval
1 lb per foot = 1.4882 kg/m
1 lb per inch = 17.86 kg/m Energy (heat) 1 British thermal unit = 1055 J = 1.055 kJ
1 oz per inch = 1.1161 kg/m 1 Therm = 105.5 MJ
1 calorie = 4.1868 J
Length per 1 yd per lb = 2.016 m/kg 1 kilowatt-hour = 3.6 MJ
unit mass 1 foot pound-force = 1.356 J
1 kilogram force-metre = 9.806 6.5 J

Mass per 1 ton per square mile = 392.3 kg/km 2 = 0.3923 g/m 2
unit area = 3.923 kg/ha Power (also 1 J/s = 1W
1 ton per acre = 0.2511 kg/m 2 heat flow 1 Btu per hour = 0.293 07 W
1 hundred weight per acre = 0.01255 kg/m 2 rate) 1 horsepower = 745.70 W
1 lb per square foot = 4.882 kg/m 2 1 ft-lbf per second = 1.356 W
1 lb per square inch = 703.07 kg/m 2 1 kgf-metre per second = 9.806 65 W
1 oz per square yard = 33.91 g/m 2 1 calorie per second = 4.1868 W
1 oz per square foot = 305.15 g/m 2 1 kilocalorie per hour = 1.163 W
1 kg/cm
2
= 10 t/m 2 1 metric horsepower = 735.5 W

2
Mass density 1 ton per cubic yard 3
= 1329 kg/m = 1.3289 t/m
3 Density of 1 Btu per square foot hour = 3.155 W/m
(mass per 1 lb per cubic yard = 0.5933 kg/m 3 heat flow
unit volume) 1 lb per cubic foot = 16.02 kg/m
3 rate
1 lb per cubic inch = 27.68 g/cm 3 = 27.68 t/m 3
*a (for annum) is the symbol for year.

B-1
B-2 Appendix B Conversion factors and tables

Table 1 Continued Table 1 Continued

Quantity Conversion factors Quantity Conversion factors

Thermal 1 Btu inch per square foot hour = 0.1442 W/(m.K) Structural design (All tons are UK tons)
conductivity degree Fahrenheit
Force 1 pound-force = 4.448 N
k value
1 kip-force = 4.448 kN
1 ton-force = 9.964 kN
2
Thermal 1 Btu per square foot hour = 5.678 W/(m K) 1 kilogram-force = 9.807 N
transmittance degree Fahrenheit 1 kilopond = 9.807 N
or coefficient
of heat
Force per 1 pound-force per foot = 14.59 N/m
transfer or
unit length 1 pound-force per inch = 175.1 kN/m = 175.1 N/mm
thermal
1 ton-force per foot = 32.69 kN/m
conductance
1 kilogram-force per metre = 9.807 N/m
or U value
1 kilogram-force per centimetre = 0.9807 kN/m

Thermal 1 sq ft hr F per Btu inch = 6.933 m.K/W Force per 1 lbf per square foot = 47.88 N/m 2 = 47.88 Pa
k-
l
resistivity unit area or = 0.04788 kN/m 2
value =
Stress or 1 lbf per square inch 6.895 kN/m 2 = 6.895 kPa
Pressure 1 tonf per square foot = 107.3 kN/m 2 = 107.3 kPa
Thermal or 1 Btu per lb F = 4.187 kJ/(kg.K) 1 tonf per square inch = 15.44 MN/m 2 = 15.44 N/mm 2
specific heat 1 Btu per cu ft F = 67.07 kJ/(m 3 .K) = 15.44 MPa
capacity 1 kgf per square metre = 9.807 N/m 2 = 9.807 Pa
1 kgf per sq centimetre = 98.07 kN/m 2 = 98.07 kPa
1 bar = 100 kN/m 2 = 100 kPa
Calorific 1 Btu per pound = 2.326 kJ/kg 1 millibar = 100 N/m 2 = 100 Pa
value 1 Btu per cubic foot = 37.26 kJ/m 3 = 37.26 J/litre 1 standard atmosphere = 101.325 kPa
1 Btu per gallon = 232.1 J/litre 1 inch of mercury = 3.386 kPa
1 foot of water = 2.989 kPa
Refrigeration 1 ton = 3517 W = 300 mbar approx

1 foot-candle
Bending 1 pound-force foot = 1.356 Nm
Lighting = 10.76 lx
1 lumen per sq ft moment of 1 pound-force inch = 0.1130 Nm = 113.0 Nmm
Illumination = 10.76 lx
torque 1 kip-force foot = 1.356 kNm
1 kip-force inch = 0.1130 kNm = 113.0 Nm
2
Luminance 1 candela per square inch = 1550 cd/m 1 ton-force foot = 3.037 kNm
1 candela per square foot = 10.76 cd/m2 1 ton-force inch = 0.2531 kNm = 253.1 Nm
1 apostilb = -l cd/m 2 = 0.3183 cd/m 2
1 kilogram-force metre = 9.807 Nm

Table II Inches and fractions of an inch to millimetres ( 1/16 in increments up to 1115/16 in)

1 1 3 1 5 3 7 1 9 5 11 3 13 7 15
Inches /16 /8 /16 /4 /16 /8 /16 /2 /16 /8 /16 /4 /16 /8 /16

millimetres

0 1.6 3.2 4.8 6.4 7.9 9.5 11.1 12.7 14.3 15.9 17.5 19.1 20.6 22.2 23.8
1 25.4 27.0 28.6 30.2 31.8 33.3 34.9 36.5 38.1 39.7 41.3 42.9 44.5 46.0 47.6 49.2
2 50.8 52.4 54.0 55.6 57.2 58.7 60.3 61.9 63.5 65.1 66.7 68.3 69.9 71.4 73.0 74.6
3 76.2 77.8 79.4 81.0 82.6 84.1 85.7 87.3 88.9 90.5 92.1 93.7 95.3 96.8 98.4 100.0
4 101.6 103.2 104.8 106.4 108.0 109.5 111.1 112.7 114.3 115.9 117.5 119.1 120.7 122.2 123.8 125.4
5 127.0 128.6 130.2 131.8 133.4 134.9 136.5 138.1 139.7 141.3 142.9 144.5 146.1 147.6 149.2 150.8
6 152.4 154.0 155.6 157.2 158.8 160.3 161.9 163.5 165.1 166.7 168.3 169.9 171.5 173.0 174.6 176.2
7 177.8 179.4 181.0 182.6 184.2 185.7 187.3 188.9 190.5 192.1 193.7 195.3 196.9 198.4 200.0 201.6
8 203.2 204.8 206.4 208.0 209.6 211.1 212.7 214.3 215.9 217.5 219.1 220.7 222.3 223.8 225.4 227.0
9 228.6 230.2 231.8 233.4 235.0 236.5 238.1 239.7 241.3 242.9 244.5 246.1 247.7 249.2 250.8 252.4
10 254.0 255.6 257.2 258.8 260.4 261.9 263.5 265.1 266.7 268.3 269.9 271.5 273.1 274.6 276.2 277.8
11 279.4 281.0 282.6 284.2 285.8 287.3 288.9 290.5 292.1 293.7 295.3 296.9 298.5 300.0 301.6 303.2
Appendix B Conversion factors and tables B-3

Table III Feet to millimetres (up to 200 ft)

feet 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Millimetres

0 304.8 609.6 9 14.4 1 219.2 1 524.0 1 828.8 2 133.6 2 438.4 2 743.2


10 3 048.0 3 352.8 3 657.6 3 962.4 4 267.2 4 572.0 4 876.8 5181.6 5 486.4 5 791.2
20 6096.0 6 400.8 6 705.6 7 010.4 7 315.2 7 620.0 7 924.8 8229.6 8 534.4 8 839.2
30 9 144.0 9 448.8 9 753.6 10 058.4 10 363.2 10 668.0 10 972.8 11 277.6 11 582.4 11 887.2
40 12 192.0 12 496.8 12 801.6 13 106.4 13411.2 13716.0 14 020.8 14 325.6 14 630.4 14 935.2

50 15 240.0 15 544.8 15 849.6 16 154.4 16 459.2 16 764.0 17 068.8 17 373.6 17 678.4 17 983.2
60 18 288.0 18 592.8 18 897.6 19 202.4 19 507.2 19 812.0 20 116.8 20 421.6 20 726.4 21 031.2
70 21 336.0 21 640.8 21 945.6 22 250.4 22 555.2 22 860.0 23 164.8 23 469.6 23 774.4 24 079.2
80 24 384.0 24 688.8 24 993.6 25 298.4 25 603.2 25 908.0 26 212.8 26 517.6 26 822.4 27 127.2
90 27 432.0 27 736.8 28 041.6 28 346.4 28 651.2 28 956.0 29 260.8 29 565.6 29 870.4 30 175.2

100 30 480.0 30 784.8 31 089.6 31 394.4 31 699.2 32 004.0 32 308.8 32 613.6 32 918.4 33 223.2
110 33 528.0 33 832.8 34 137.6 34 442.4 34 747.2 35 052.0 35 356.8 35 661.6 35 966.4 36 271.2
120 36 576.0 36 880.8 37 185.6 37 490.4 37 785.2 38 100.0 38 404.8 38 709.6 39 014.4 39 319.2
130 39 624.0 39 928.8 40 233.6 40 538.4 40 843.2 41 148.0 41 452.8 41 757.6 42 062.4 42 367.2
140 42 672.0 42 976.8 43 281.6 43 586.4 43 891.2 44 196.0 44 500.8 44 805.6 45 110.4 45 415.2

150 45 720.0 46 024.8 46 329.6 46 634.4 46 939.2 47 244.0 47 548.8 47 853.6 48 158.4 48 463.2
160 48 768.0 49 072.8 49 377.6 49 682.4 49 987.2 50 292.0 50 596.8 50 901.6 51 206.4 51 511.2
170 51 816.0 52 120.8 52 425.6 52 730.4 53 035.2 53 340.0 53 644.8 53 949.6 54 254.4 54 559.2
180 54 864.0 55 168.8 55 473.6 55 778.4 56 083.2 56 388.0 56 692.8 56 997.6 57 302.4 57 607.2
190 57 912.0 58 216.8 58 521.6 58 826.4 59 131.2 59 436.0 59 740.8 60 045.6 60 350.4 60 655.2

200 60 960.0

Note: use Tables II and III together to obtain the metric equivalent of any dimension up to 200 ft. For example
56 ft 3 in: 56 ft = 17068.8
3 in = 95.3
TOTAL = 17164.1 mm = 17.164 m

Table IV Miles (up to 100 miles) to kilometres (to two places of decimals) may also be used to convert mph to kph

Miles 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Kilometres

0 1.61 3.22 4.83 6.44 8.05 9.66 11.27 12.87 14.48


10 16.09 17.70 19.31 20.92 22.53 24.14 25.75 27.36 28.97 30.58
20 32.19 33.80 35.41 37.01 38.62 40.23 41.84 43.45 45.06 46.67
30 48.28 49.89 51.50 53.11 54.72 56.33 57.94 59.55 61.16 62.76
40 64.37 65.98 67.59 69.20 70.81 72.42 74.03 75.64 77.25 78.86

50 80.47 82.08 83.69 85.30 86.90 88.51 90.12 91.73 93.34 94.95
60 96.56 98.17 99.78 101.39 103.00 104.61 106.22 107.83 109.44 111.05
70 112.65 114.26 115.87 117.48 119.09 120.70 122.31 123.92 125.53 127.14
80 128.75 130.36 131.97 133.58 135.19 136.79 138.40 140.01 141.62 143.23
90 144.84 146.45 148.06 149.67 151.28 152.89 154.50 156.11 57.72 159.33

100 160.93

Table V Square inches (up to 100 sq in) to square millimetres (to one place of decimals)

Square 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
inches
Square millimetres (mm 2 )

0 645.2 1290.3 1935.5 2580.6 3225.8 3871.0 4516.1 5161.3 5806.4


10 6451.6 7096.8 7741.9 8387.1 9032.2 9677.4 10322.6 10967.7 11612.9 12258.0
20 12903.2 13548.4 14193.5 14838.7 15483.8 16129.0 16774.2 17419.3 18064.5 18709.6
30 19354.8 20000.0 20645.1 21290.3 21935.4 22580.6 23225.8 23870.9 24516.1 25161.2
40 25806.4 26451.6 27096.7 27741.9 28387.0 29032.2 29677.4 30322.5 30967.7 31612.8

50 32258.0 32903.2 33548.3 34193.5 34838.6 35483.8 36129.0 36774.1 37419.3 38064.4
60 38709.6 39354.8 39999.9 40645.1 41290.2 41935.4 42580.6 43225.7 43870.9 44516.0
70 45161.2 45806.4 46451.5 47096.7 47741.8 48387.0 49032.2 49677.3 50322.5 50967.6
80 51612.8 52258.0 52903.1 53548.3 54193.4 54838.6 55483.8 56128.9 56774.1 57419.2
90 58064.4 58709.6 59354.7 59999.9 60645.0 61290.2 61935.4 62580.5 63225.7 63870.8

100 64516.0
B-4 Appendix B Conversion factors and tables

Table VI Square feet (up to 500ft 2 ) to square metres (to two places of decimals)

Square 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
feet
2
Square metres (m )

0 0.09 0.19 0.28 0.37 0.46 0.56 0.65 0.74 0.84


10 0.93 1.02 1.11 1.21 1.30 1.39 1.49 1.58 1.67 1.77
20 1.86 1.95 2.04 2.14 2.23 2.32 2.42 2.51 2.60 2.69
30 2.79 2.88 2.97 3.07 3.16 3.25 3.34 3.44 3.53 3.62
40 3.72 3.81 3.90 3.99 4.09 4.18 4.27 4.37 4.46 4.55

50 4.65 4.74 4.83 4.92 5.02 5.11 5.20 5.30 5.39 5.48
60 5.57 5.67 5.76 5.85 5.95 6.04 6.13 6.22 6.32 6.41
70 6.50 6.60 6.69 6.78 6.87 6.97 7.06 7.15 7.25 7.34
80 7.43 7.53 7.62 7.71 7.80 7.90 7.99 8.08 8.18 8.27
90 8.36 8.45 8.55 8.64 8.73 8.83 8.92 9.01 9.10 9.20

100 9.29 9.38 9.48 9.57 9.66 9.75 9.85 9.94 10.03 10.13
110 10.22 10.31 10.41 10.50 10.59 10.68 10.78 10.87 10.96 11.06
120 11.15 11.24 11.33 11.43 11.52 11.61 11.71 11.80 11.89 11.98
130 12.08 12.17 12.26 12.36 12.45 12.54 12.63 12.73 12.82 12.91
140 13.01 13.10 13.19 13.29 13.38 13.47 13.56 13.66 13.75 13.84

150 13.94 14.03 14.12 14.21 14.31 14.40 14.49 14.59 14.68 14.77
160 14.86 14.96 15.05 15.14 15.24 15.33 15.42 15.51 15.61 15.70
170 15.79 15.89 15.98 16.07 16.17 16.26 16.35 16.44 16.54 16.63
180 16.72 16.82 16.91 17.00 17.09 17.19 17.28 17.37 17.47 17.56
190 17.65 17.74 17.84 17.93 18.02 18.12 18.21 18.30 18.39 18.49

200 18.58 18.67 18.77 18.86 18.95 19.05 19.14 19.23 19.32 19.42
210 19.51 19.60 19.70 19.79 19.88 19.97 20.07 20.16 20.25 20.35
220 20.44 20.53 20.62 20.72 20.81 20.90 21.00 21.09 21.18 21.27
230 21.37 21.46 21.55 21.65 21.74 21.83 21.93 22.02 22.11 22.20
240 22.30 22.39 22.48 22.58 22.67 22.76 22.85 22.95 23.04 23.13

250 23.23 23.32 23.41 23.50 23.60 23.69 23.78 23.88 23.97 24.06
260 24.15 24.25 24.34 24.43 24.53 24.62 24.71 24.81 24.90 24.99
270 25.08 25.18 25.27 25.36 25.46 25.55 25.64 25.73 25.83 25.92
280 26.01 26.11 26.20 26.29 26.38 26.48 26.57 26.66 26.76 26.85
290 26.94 27.03 27.13 27.22 27.31 27.41 27.50 27.59 27.69 27.78

300 27.87 27.96 28.06 28.15 28.24 28.34 28.43 28.52 28.61 28.71
310 28.80 28.89 28.99 29.08 29.17 29.26 29.36 29.45 29.54 29.64
320 29.73 29.82 29.91 30.01 30.10 30.19 30.29 30.38 30.47 30.57
330 30.66 30.75 30.84 30.94 31.03 31.12 31.22 31.31 31.40 31.49
340 31.59 31.68 31.77 31.87 31.96 32.05 32.14 32.24 32.33 32.42

350 32.52 32.61 32.70 32.79 32.89 32.98 33.07 33.17 33.26 33.35
360 33.45 33.54 33.63 33.72 33.82 33.91 34.00 34.10 34.19 34.28
370 34.37 34.47 34.56 34.65 34.75 34.84 34.93 35.02 35.12 35.21
380 35.30 35.40 35.49 35.58 35.67 35.17 35.86 35.95 36.05 36.14
390 36.23 36.33 36.42 36.51 36.60 36.70 36.79 36.88 36.98 37.07

400 37.16 37.25 37.35 37.44 37.53 37.63 37.72 37.81 37.90 38.00
410 38.09 38.18 38.28 38.37 38.46 38.55 38.65 38.74 38.83 38.93
420 39.02 39.11 39.21 39.30 39.39 39.48 39.58 39.67 39.76 39.86
430 39.95 40.04 40.13 40.23 40.32 40.41 40.51 40.60 40.69 40.78
440 40.88 40.97 41.06 41.16 41.25 41.34 41.43 41.53 41.62 41.71

450 41.81 41.90 41.99 42.09 42.18 42.27 42.36 42.46 42.55 42.64
460 42.74 42.83 42.92 43.01 43.11 43.20 43.29 43.39 43.48 43.57
470 43.66 43.76 43.85 43.94 44.04 44.13 44.22 44.31 44.41 44.50
480 44.59 44.69 44.78 44.87 44.97 45.06 45.15 45.24 45.34 45.43
490 45.52 45.62 45.71 45.80 45.89 45.99 46.08 46.17 46.27 46.36

500 46.45

Table VII Cubic feet (up to 100 ft 3 ) to cubic metres (to two places of decimals)

Cubic 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
feet
3
Cubic metres (m )

0 0.03 0.06 0.08 0.11 0.14 0.17 0.20 0.23 0.25


10 0.28 0.31 0.34 0.37 0.40 0.42 0.45 0.48 0.51 0.54
20 0.57 0.59 0.62 0.65 0.68 0.71 0.73 0.76 0.79 0.82
30 0.85 0.88 0.91 0.93 0.96 0.99 1.02 1.05 1.08 1.10
40 1.13 1.16 1.19 1.22 1.25 1.27 1.30 1.33 1.36 1.39

50 1.42 1.44 1.47 1.50 1.53 1.56 1.59 1.61 1.64 1.67
60 1.70 1.73 1.76 1.78 1.81 1.84 1.87 1.90 1.93 1.95
70 1.98 2.01 2.04 2.07 2.10 2.12 2.15 2.18 2.21 2.24
80 2.27 2.29 2.32 2.35 2.38 2.41 2.44 2.46 2.49 2.52
90 2.55 2.58 2.61 2.63 2.66 2.69 2.72 2.75 2.78 2.80

100 2.83
Appendix B Conversion factors and tables B-5

Table VIII Pounds (up to 500 lb) to kilograms (to two places of decimals)

Pounds 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Kilogrammes (kg)

0 0.45 0.91 1.36 1.81 2.27 2.72 3.18 3.63 4.08


10 4.54 4.99 5.44 5.90 6.35 6.80 7.26 7.71 8.16 8.62
20 9.07 9.53 9.98 10.43 10.89 11.34 11.79 12.25 12.70 13.15
30 13.61 14.06 14.52 14.97 15.42 15.88 16.33 16.78 17.24 17.69
40 18.14 18.60 19.05 19.50 19.96 20.41 20.87 21.32 21.77 22.23

50 22.68 23.13 23.59 24.04 24.49 24.95 25.40 25.85 26.31 26.76
60 27.22 27.67 28.12 28.58 29.03 29.48 29.94 30.39 30.84 31.30
70 31.75 32.21 32.66 33.11 33.57 34.02 34.47 34.93 35.38 35.83
80 36.29 36.74 37.19 37.65 38.10 38.56 39.01 39.46 39.92 40.37
90 40.82 41.28 41.73 42.18 42.64 43.09 43.54 44.00 44.45 44.91

100 45.36 45.81 46.27 46.72 47.17 47.63 48.08 48.53 48.99 49.44
110 49.90 50.35 50.80 51.26 51.71 52.16 52.62 53.07 53.52 53.98
120 54.43 54.88 55.34 55.79 56.25 56.70 57.15 57.61 58.06 58.51
130 58.97 59.42 59.87 60.33 60.78 61.24 61.69 62.14 62.60 63.05
140 63.50 63.96 64.41 64.86 65.32 65.77 66.22 66.68 67.13 67.59

150 68.04 68.49 68.95 69.40 69.85 70.31 70.76 71.21 71.67 72.12
160 72.57 73.03 73.48 73.94 74.39 74.84 75.30 75.75 76.20 76.66
170 77.11 77.56 78.02 78.47 78.93 79.38 79.83 80.29 80.74 81.19
180 81.65 82.10 82.55 83.01 83.46 83.91 84.37 84.82 85.28 85.73
190 86.18 86.64 87.09 87.54 88.00 88.45 88.90 89.36 89.81 90.26

200 90.72 91.17 91.63 92.08 92.53 92.99 93.44 93.89 94.35 94.80
210 95.25 95.71 96.16 96.62 97.07 97.52 97.98 98.43 98.88 99.34
220 99.79 100.24 100.70 101.15 101.61 102.06 102.51 102.97 103.42 103.87
230 104.33 104.78 105.23 105.69 106.14 106.59 107.05 107.50 107.96 108.41
240 108.86 109.32 109.77 110.22 110.68 111.13 111.58 112.04 112.49 112.95

250 113.40 113.85 114.31 114.76 115.21 115.67 116.12 116.57 117.03 117.48
260 117.93 118.39 118.84 119.30 119.75 120.20 120.66 121.11 121.56 122.02
270 122.47 122.92 123.38 123.83 124.28 124.74 125.19 125.65 126.10 126.55
280 127.01 127.46 127.91 128.37 128.82 129.27 129.73 130.18 130.64 131.09
290 131.54 132.00 132.45 132.90 133.36 133.81 134.26 134.72 135.17 135.62

300 136.08 136.53 136.99 137.44 137.89 138.35 138.80 139.25 139.71 140.16
310 140.61 141.07 141.52 141.97 142.43 142.88 143.34 143.79 144.24 144.70
320 145.15 145.60 146.06 146.51 146.96 147.42 147.87 148.33 148.78 149.23
330 149.69 150.14 150.59 151.05 151.50 151.95 152.41 152.86 153.31 153.77
340 154.22 154.68 155.13 155.58 156.04 156.49 156.94 157.40 157.85 158.30

350 158.76 159.21 159.67 160.12 160.57 161.03 161.48 161.93 162.39 162.84
360 163.29 163.75 164.20 164.65 165.11 165.56 166.02 166.47 166.92 167.38
370 167.83 168.28 168.74 169.10 169.64 170.10 170.55 171.00 171.46 171.91
380 172.37 172.82 173.27 173.73 174.18 174.63 175.09 175.54 175.99 176.45
390 176.90 177.36 177.81 178.26 178.72 179.17 179.62 180.08 180.53 180.98

400 181.44 181.89 183.34 182.80 183.25 183.71 184.16 184.61 185.07 185.52
410 185.97 186.43 186.88 187.33 187.79 188.24 188.69 189.15 189.60 190.06
420 190.51 190.96 191.42 191.87 192.32 192.78 193.23 193.68 194.14 194.59
430 195.05 195.50 195.95 196.41 196.86 197.31 197.77 198.22 198.67 199.13
440 199.58 200.03 200.49 200.94 201.40 201.85 202.30 202.76 203.21 203.66

450 204.12 204.57 205.02 205.48 205.93 206.39 206.84 207.29 207.75 208.20
460 208.65 209.11 209.56 210.01 210.47 210.92 211.37 211.83 212.28 212.74
470 213.19 213.64 214.10 214.55 215.00 215.46 215.91 216.36 216.82 217.27
480 217.72 218.18 218.63 219.09 219.54 219.99 220.45 220.90 221.35 221.81
490 222.26 222.71 223.17 223.62 224.08 224.53 224.98 225.44 225.89 226.34

500 226.80

Table IX Pounds per cubic foot to kilogrammes per cubic metre (to one place of decimals)

P o u n d s per 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
cubic foot
Kilogrammes per cubic metre (kg/m 3 )

0 16.0 32.0 48.1 64.1 80.1 96.1 112.1 128.1 144.2


10 160.2 176.2 192.2 208.2 224.3 240.3 256.3 272.3 288.3 304.4
20 320.4 336.4 352.4 368.4 384.4 400.5 416.5 432.5 448.5 464.5
30 480.6 496.6 512.6 528.6 544.6 560.6 576.7 592.7 608.7 624.7
40 640.7 656.8 672.8 688.8 704.8 720.8 736.8 752.9 768.9 784.9

50 800.9 816.9 833.0 849.0 865.0 881.0 897.0 913.1 929.1 945.1
60 961.1 977.1 993.1 1009.2 1025.2 1041.2 1057.2 1073.2 1089.3 1105.3
70 1121.3 1137.3 1153.3 1169.4 1185.4 1201.4 1217.4 1233.4 1249.4 1265.5
80 1281.5 1297.5 1313.5 1329.5 1345.6 1361.6 1377.6 1393.6 1409.6 1425.6
90 1441.7 1457.7 1473.7 1489.7 1505.7 1521.8 1537.8 1553.8 1569.8 1585.8

100 1601.9
B-6 Appendix B Conversion factors and tables

Table X UK gallons (up to 100 galls) to litres (to two places of decimals)

U K gallons 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Litres

0 4.55 9.09 13.64 18.18 22.73 27.28 31.82 36.37 40.91


10 45.46 50.01 54.55 59.10 63.64 68.19 72.74 77.28 81.83 86.37
20 90.92 95.47 100.01 104.56 109.10 113.65 118.20 122.74 127.29 131.83
30 136.38 140.93 145.47 150.02 154.56 159.11 163.66 168.20 172.75 177.29
40 181.84 186.38 190.93 195.48 200.02 204.57 209.11 213.66 218.21 222.75

50 227.30 231.84 236.39 240.94 245.48 250.03 254.57 259.12 263.67 268.21
60 272.16 277.30 281.85 286.40 290.94 295.49 300.03 304.58 309.13 313.67
70 318.22 322.76 327.31 331.86 336.40 340.95 345.49 350.04 354.59 359.13
80 363.68 368.22 372.77 377.32 381.86 386.41 390.95 395.50 400.04 404.59
90 409.14 413.68 418.23 422.77 427.32 431.87 436.41 440.96 445.50 450.05

100 454.60

Table XI Acres (up to 1000 acres) to hectares (to two places of decimals)

Acres 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Hectares

0.40 0.81 1.21 1.62 2.02 2.43 2.83 3.24 3.64

Acres 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

Hectares

0 4.05 8.09 12.14 16.19 20.23 24.28 28.33 32.37 36.42


100 40.47 44.52 48.56 52.61 56.66 60.70 64.75 68.80 72.84 76.89
200 80.94 84.98 89.03 93.08 97.12 101.17 105.22 109.27 113.31 117.36
300 121.41 125.45 129.50 133.55 137.59 141.64 145.69 149.73 153.78 157.83
400 161.87 165.92 169.97 174.02 178.06 182.11 186.16 190.20 194.25 198.30

500 202.34 206.39 210.44 214.48 218.53 222.58 226.62 230.67 234.72 238.77
600 242.81 246.86 250.91 254.95 259.00 263.05 267.09 271.14 275.19 279.23
700 283.28 287.33 291.37 295.42 299.47 303.51 307.56 311.61 315.66 319.70
800 323.75 327.80 331.84 335.89 339.94 343.98 348.03 352.08 356.12 360.17
900 364.22 368.26 372.31 376.36 380.41 384.45 388.50 392.55 396.59 400.64

1000 404.69

Table XII Miles per hour (up to 100 mph) to metres per second (to two places of decimals)

M i l e s per 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
hour
Metres per second

0 0.45 0.89 1.34 1.79 2.24 2.68 3.13 3.58 4.02


10 4.47 4.92 5.36 5.81 6.26 6.71 7.15 7.60 8.05 8.49
20 8.94 9.39 9.83 10.28 10.73 11.18 11.62 12.07 12.52 12.96
30 13.41 13.86 14.31 14.75 15.20 15.65 16.09 16.54 16.99 17.43
40 17.88 18.33 18.78 19.22 19.67 20.12 20.56 21.01 21.46 21.91

50 22.35 22.80 23.25 23.69 24.14 24.59 25.03 25.48 25.93 26.38
60 26.82 27.27 27.72 28.16 28.61 29.06 29.50 29.95 30.40 30.85
70 31.29 31.74 32.19 32.63 33.08 33.53 33.98 34.42 34.87 35.32
80 35.76 36.21 36.66 37.10 37.55 38.00 38.45 38.89 39.34 39.79
90 40.23 40.68 41.13 41.57 42.02 42.47 42.92 43.36 43.81 44.26

100 44.70
Appendix B Conversion factors and tables B-7

Table XIII Pressure and stress. Pounds-force per square inch to kilonewtons per square metre (to two places of decimals)

Ibf per 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
sq in
2
kN/m or kPa

0 6.90 13.79 20.68 27.58 34.48 41.37 48.26 55.16 62.06


10 68.95 75.84 82.74 89.64 96.53 103.42 110.32 117.22 124.11 131.00
20 137.90 144.80 151.69 158.58 165.48 172.38 179.27 186.16 193.06 199.96
30 206.85 213.74 220.64 227.54 234.43 241.32 248.22 255.12 262.01 268.90
40 275.80 282.70 289.59 296.48 303.38 310.28 317.17 324.06 330.96 337.86
50 344.75 351.64 358.54 365.44 372.33 379.22 386.12 393.02 399.91 406.80
60 413.70 420.60 427.49 434.38 441.28 448.18 455.07 461.96 468.86 475.76
70 482.65 489.54 496.44 503.34 510.23 517.12 524.02 530.92 537.81 544.70
80 551.60 558.50 565.39 572.28 579.18 586.08 592.97 599.86 606.76 613.66
90 620.55 627.44 634.34 641.24 648.13 655.02 661.92 668.82 675.71 682.60

100 689.50

2
Note: the same table will convert kipf per.sq in to MN/m or Mpa

Table XIV British thermal units per hour to watts

B t u per h r 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 0.29 0.59 0.88 1.17 1.47 1.76 2.05 2.34 2.64


10 2.93 3.22 3.52 3.81 4.10 4.40 4.69 4.98 5.28 5.51
20 5.86 6.16 6.45 6.74 7.03 7.33 7.62 7.91 8.21 8.50
30 8.79 9.09 9.38 9.67 9.97 10.26 10.55 10.84 11.14 11.43
40 11.72 12.02 12.31 12.60 12.90 13.19 13.48 13.78 14.07 14.36
50 14.66 14.95 15.24 15.53 15.83 16.12 16.41 16.71 17.00 17.29
60 17.59 17.88 18.17 18.47 18.76 19.05 19.34 19.64 19.93 20.22
70 20.52 20.81 21.10 21.40 21.69 21.98 22.28 22.57 22.86 23.15
80 23.45 23.74 24.03 24.33 24.62 24.91 25.21 25.50 25.79 26.09
90 26.38 26.67 26.97 27.26 27.55 27.84 28.14 28.43 28.72 29.02

100 29.31

Table XV U value: British thermal units per square foot per hour per degree Fahrenheit to watts per square metre per kelvin

Btu per sq ft 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09
hr F
2
W/(m K)

0 0.057 0.114 0.170 0.227 0.284 0.341 0.397 0.454 0.511


0.1 0.568 0.624 0.681 0.738 0.795 0.852 0.908 0.965 1.022 1.079
0.2 1.136 1.192 1.249 1.306 1.363 1.420 1.476 1.533 1.590 1.647
0.3 1.703 1.760 1.817 1.874 1.931 1.987 2.044 2.101 2.158 2.214
0.4 2.271 2.328 2.385 2.442 2.498 2.555 2.612 2.669 2.725 2.782
0.5 2.839 2.896 2.953 3.009 3.066 3.123 3.180 3.236 3.293 3.350
0.6 3.407 3.464 3.520 3.577 3.634 3.691 3.747 3.804 3.861 3.918
0.7 3.975 4.031 4.088 4.145 4.202 4.258 4.315 4.372 4.429 4.486
0.8 4.542 4.599 4.656 4.713 4.770 4.826 4.883 4.940 4.997 5.053
0.9 5.110 5.167 5.224 5.281 5.337 5.394 5.451 5.508 5.564 5.621

1.0 5.678
B-8 Appendix B Conversion factors and tables

Table XVI Feet and inches (up to 100 ft) to metres and millimetres (to nearest millimetre)

Feet Inches

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Metres and millimetres

0 0.025 0.051 0.076 0.102 0.127 0.152 0.178 0.203 0.229 0.254 0.279
1 0.305 0.330 0.356 0.381 0.406 0.432 0.457 0.483 0.508 0.533 0.559 0.584
2 0.610 0.635 0.660 0.686 0.711 0.737 0.762 0.787 0.813 0.838 0.864 0.889
3 0.914 0.940 0.965 0.991 1.016 1.041 1.067 1.092 1.118 1.143 1.168 1.194
4 1.219 1.245 1.270 1.295 1.321 1.346 1.372 1.397 1.422 1.448 1.473 1.499

5 1.524 1.549 1.575 1.600 1.626 1.651 1.676 1.702 1.727 1.753 1.778 1.803
6 1.829 1.854 1.880 1.905 1.930 1.956 1.981 2.007 2.032 2.057 2.083 2.108
7 2.134 2.159 2.184 2.210 2.235 2.261 2.286 2.311 2.337 2.362 2.388 2.413
8 2.438 2.464 2.489 2.515 2.540 2.565 2.591 2.616 2.642 2.667 2.692 2.718
9 2.743 2.769 2.794 2.819 2.845 2.870 2.896 2.921 2.946 2.972 2.997 3.023

10 3.048 3.073 3.099 3.124 3.150 3.175 3.200 3.226 3.251 3.277 3.302 3.327
11 3.353 3.378 3.404 3.429 3.454 3.480 3.505 3.531 3.556 3.581 3.607 3.632
12 3.658 3.683 3.708 3.734 3.759 3.785 3.810 3.835 3.861 3.886 3.912 3.937
13 3.962 3.988 4.013 4.039 4.064 4.089 4.115 4.140 4.166 4.191 4.216 4.242
14 4.267 4.293 4.318 4.343 4.369 4.394 4.420 4.445 4.470 4.496 4.521 4.547

15 4.572 4.597 4.623 4.648 4.674 4.699 4.724 4.750 4.775 4.801 4.826 4.851
16 4.877 4.902 4.928 4.953 4.978 5.004 5.029 5.055 5.080 5.105 5.131 5.156
17 5.182 5.207 5.232 5.258 5.283 5.309 5.334 5.359 5.385 5.410 5.436 5.461
18 5.486 5.512 5.537 5.563 5.588 5.613 5.639 5.664 5.690 5.715 5.740 5.766
19 5.791 5.817 5.842 5.867 5.893 5.918 5.944 5.969 5.994 6.020 6.045 6.071

20 6.096 6.121 6.147 6.172 6.198 6.223 6.248 6.274 6.299 6.325 6.350 6.375
21 6.401 6.426 6.452 6.477 6.502 6.528 6.553 6.579 6.604 6.629 6.655 6.680
22 6.706 6.731 6.756 6.782 6.807 6.833 6.858 6.883 6.909 6.934 6.960 6.985
23 7.010 7.036 7.061 7.087 7.112 7.137 7.163 7.188 7.214 7.239 7.264 7.290
24 7.315 7.341 7.366 7.391 7.417 7.442 7.468 7.493 7.518 7.544 7.569 7.595

25 7.620 7.645 7.671 7.696 7.722 7.747 7.772 7.798 7.823 7.849 7.874 7.899
26 7.925 7.950 7.976 8.001 8.026 8.052 8.077 8.103 8.128 8.153 8.179 8.204
27 8.230 8.255 8.280 8.306 8.331 8.357 8.382 8.407 8.433 8.458 8.484 8.509
28 8.534 8.560 8.585 8.611 8.636 8.661 8.687 8.712 8.738 8.763 8.788 8.814
29 8.839 8.865 8.890 8.915 8.941 8.966 8.992 9.017 9.042 9.068 9.093 9.119

30 9.144 9.169 9.195 9.220 9.246 9.271 9.296 9.322 9.347 9.373 9.398 9.423
31 9.449 9.474 9.500 9.525 9.550 9.576 9.601 9.627 9.652 9.677 9.703 9.728
32 9.754 9.779 9.804 9.830 9.855 9.881 9.906 9.931 9.957 9.982 10.008 10.033
33 10.058 10.084 10.109 10.135 10.160 10.185 10.211 10.236 10.262 10.287 10.312 10.338
34 10.363 10.389 10.414 10.439 10.465 10.490 10.516 10.541 10.566 10.592 10.617 10.643

35 10.668 10.693 10.719 10.744 10.770 10.795 10.820 10.846 10.871 10.897 10.922 10.947
36 10.973 10.998 11.024 11.049 11.074 11.100 11.125 11.151 11.176 11.201 11.227 11.252
37 11.278 11.303 11.328 11.354 11.379 11.405 11.430 11.455 11.481 11.506 11.532 11.557
38 11.582 11.608 11.633 11.659 11.684 11.709 11.735 11.760 11.786 11.811 11.836 11.862
39 11.887 11.913 11.938 11.963 11.989 12.014 12.040 12.065 12.090 12.116 12.141 12.167

40 12.192 12.217 12.243 12.268 12.294 12.319 12.344 12.370 12.395 12.421 12.446 12.471
41 12.497 12.522 12.548 12.573 12.598 12.624 12.649 12.675 12.700 12.725 12.751 12.776
42 12.802 12.827 12.852 12.878 12.903 12.929 12.954 12.979 13.005 13.030 13.056 13.081
43 13.106 13.132 13.157 13.183 13.208 13.233 13.259 13.284 13.310 13.335 13.360 13.386
44 13.411 13.437 13.462 13.487 13.513 13.538 13.564 13.589 13.614 13.640 13.665 13.691

45 13.716 13.741 13.767 13.792 13.818 13.843 13.868 13.894 13.919 13.945 13.970 13.995
46 14.021 14.046 14.072 14.097 14.122 14.148 14.173 14.199 14.224 14.249 14.275 14.300
47 14.326 14.351 14.376 14.402 14.427 14.453 14.478 14.503 14.529 14.554 14.580 14.605
48 14.630 14.656 14.681 14.707 14.732 14.757 14.783 14.808 14.834 14.859 14.884 14.910
49 14.935 14.961 14.986 15.011 15.037 15.062 15.088 15.113 15.138 15.164 15.189 15.215

50 15.240 15.265 15.291 15.316 15.342 15.367 15.392 15.418 18.443 15.469 15.494 15.519
51 15.545 15.570 15.596 15.621 15.646 15.672 15.697 15.723 15.748 15.773 15.799 15.824
52 15.850 15.875 15.900 15.926 15.951 15.977 16.002 16.027 16.053 16.078 16.104 16.129
53 16.154 16.180 16.205 16.231 16.256 16.281 16.307 16.332 16.358 16.383 16.408 16.434
54 16.459 16.485 16.510 16.535 16.561 16.586 16.612 16.637 16.662 16.688 16.713 16.739

55 16.764 16.789 16.815 16.840 16.866 16.891 16.916 16.942 16.967 16.993 17.018 17.043
56 17.069 17.094 17.120 17.145 17.170 17.196 17.221 17.247 17.272 17.297 17.323 17.348
57 17.374 17.399 17.424 17.450 17.475 17.501 17.526 17.551 17.577 17.602 17.628 17.653
58 17.678 17.704 17.729 17.755 17.780 17.805 17.830 17.856 17.882 17.907 17.932 17.958
59 17.983 18.009 18.034 18.059 18.085 18.110 18.136 18.161 18.186 18.212 18.237 18.263

60 18.288 18.313 18.339 18.364 18.390 18.415 18.440 18.466 18.491 18.517 18.542 18.567
61 18.593 18.618 18.644 18.669 18.694 18.720 18.745 18.771 18.796 18.821 18.847 18.872
62 18.898 18.923 18.948 18.974 18.999 19.025 19.050 19.075 19.101 19.126 19.152 19.177
63 19.202 19.228 19.253 19.279 19.304 19.329 19.355 19.380 19.406 19.431 19.456 19.482
64 19.507 19.533 19.558 19.583 19.609 19.634 19.660 19.685 19.710 19.736 19.761 19.787

65 19.812 19.837 19.863 19.888 19.914 19.939 19.964 19.990 20.015 20.041 20.066 20.091
66 20.117 20.142 20.168 20.193 20.218 20.244 20.269 20.295 20.320 20.345 20.371 20.396
67 20.422 20.447 20.472 20.498 20.523 20.549 20.574 20.599 20.625 20.650 20.676 20.701
68 20.726 20.752 20.777 20.803 20.828 20.853 20.879 20.904 20.930 20.955 20.980 21.006
69 21.031 21.057 21.082 21.107 21.133 21.158 21.184 21.209 21.234 21.260 21.285 21.311
Appendix C
Contributors

Chapter 3, Sanitary installations Chapter 11, Offices


Alan Tye Design specialise in product design, including archi- DEGW International Consultants and Architects specialise in the
tectural components and environments, office work stations, call field of office planning and design. They are part of the Twynstra
centres and so on. Management Consultancy, and can be contacted at:
Over the last eight years ATD have developed a unique design
Porters North
process: Healthy Industrial Design HIDTM as it became clear that
8 Crinan Street
conventional design and ergonomics have missing factors. Work
London N1 9SQ
includes architectural hardware of all kinds (the Modric Range),
sanitary ware (Ideal Standard), toilet cubicles (Bushboard), home Tel: 0171 239 7777
office and call centre furniture. Over 30 design awards for products Fax: 0171 278 3613
sold worldwide.
ATD gladly work with architectural firms who wish to develop
products which result in added revenue (royalties). They may be Chapter 12, Law courts
contacted at: Napper Architects can be contacted at:

Alan Tye Design 17 Carliol Square


Great West Plantation Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 6UQ
Tring Tel: 0191 261 0491
Herts HP23 6DA Fax: 0191 261 4830
Tel: 01442 825 353 E-mail: nappers@compuserve.com
Fax: 01442 827 723
E-mail: atd@alantyedesign.ndirect.co.uk
Chapter 13, Retail trading, Chapter 18, Eating and
Chapter 36, Hotels
Chapter 6, External and landscape EurIng Dr F R Lawson is Visiting Professor of Service Industries,
Michael Littlewood FLI FSDG can be contacted at: University of Bournemouth, and an international consultant and
author of several books on planning and design. He is also Series
Troutwells
Editor of the current Planning and Design Series from Archi-
Higher Hayne, Roadwater
tectural Press. He can be contacted at:
Watchet
Somerset TA23 0RN 1 Firs Lane
Shamley Green
Tel and fax: 01984 641 330
Guildford
Surrey GU5 0UT
Chapter 7, Terminal and transport interchanges
Chris Blow is a director of Scott Brownrigg & Turner Ltd with Tel: 01483 898 259
reponsibility for airport design and quality systems. He is author of Fax: 01484 894 817
Airport Terminal published by Butterworth-Heinemann 1996, and
writes and lectures extensively on airports.
Chapter 14, Payment offices and Chapter 15, Public service
His projects include the design management of Heathrow
buildings
Terminal 4, Bahrein International Airport redevelopment
Derek Montefiore AADipl RIBA FArb can be contacted at:
(198595), Birmingham Eurohub for British Airways (1988),
Manchester Airport Terminal 2 (opened 1993), facilities for Cathay MHM Architects Ltd
Pacific Airways at Hong Kongs new airport and the development Marlborough House
of Terminal 2 at Lyon Satolas Airport (199297), as well as many Tower Street
airport consultancies and design competitions. Covent Garden
London WC2H 9LN
Chapter 8, Factories and Chapter 9, Industrial storage Tel: 0171 240 3506
Jolyon Drury RIBA, consultant architect on the design of Fax: 0171 240 3498
production, distribution and storage systems and facilities, can be
contacted at:
Chapter 16, Primary health care
Jolyon Drury Consultancy
Ann Noble can be contacted at:
Regent House
190A Three Bridges Road Health facility planning and architecture
Crawley 105 Euston Street
West Sussex RH10 1LN London NW1 2EW

Tel: 01293 510 515 Tel: 0171 387 7811


Fax: 01293 541 525 Fax: 0171 387 2320
E-mail: jolyon@j-d-c.co.uk E-mail: 106537.3212@compuserve.com
C-2 Appendix C Contributors

Chapter 17, Hospitals Chapter 21, Community centres


MARU (Medical Architecture Research Unit) is now accommo- Jim Tanner DipArch RIBA FRAIA can be contacted at:
dated at:
Tanner and Partners
South Bank University 107 Camberwell Grove
Erlang House London SE5 8JH
128 Blackfriars Road
Tel: 0171 278 6884
London SE1 8EQ
Fax: 0171 278 6387
Tel: 0171 815 8395

Chapter 22, Swimming


Chapter 18, Drinking and Chapter 26, Equestrian design
Gerald Perrin RIBA DipTP MRTPI can be contacted at:
Frank Bradbeer RIBA is now semi-retired. He is still prepared to
give advice but is reluctant to undertake further full projects, Perrin Consult Ltd
despite the success of recent ones. He can be contacted at: 38 Churchgate Street
Old Harlow
Ivy Cottage
Essex CM17 0JT
High Street
Hunstanton Tel: 01279 429 222
Norfolk PE36 6LY Fax: 01279 835 029

Tel: 01485 26235

Chapter 26, Equestrian design


Chapter 19, Studios and Chapter 40, Sound Rod Sheard DipArch RIBA ARIA can be contacted at:
David Binns AADipl RIBA has now retired. Neil Spring BSc
Hok + Lobb
ARCS MInstP CEng MIEE FIOA can be contacted at:
Blades Court
Sandy Brown Associates Deodar Road
1 Coleridge Gardens London SW15 2NU
London NW6 3QH
Tel: 0181 874 7666
Tel: 0171 624 6033 Fax: 0181 874 7470
Fax: 0171 625 6688

Chapter 27, Buildings for religion


Chapter 20, Auditoria
Leslie Fairweather RIBA was for many years the editor of the
Dr Ian Appleton PhD DArch DipCD RIBA FRIA is an architect
Architects Journal. He is an international expert in the archi-
and partner in the Edinburgh-based firm of the Appleton
tectural design of both churches and prisons. He can be contacted
Partnership. He was the architect for the West Yorkshire Playhouse
at:
in Leeds, among other theatres and building types. He has had
experience of demand studies, feasibility and other aspects of the Honeywood House
design and develpment of buildings for the performing arts, as well Deanland Road
as wider involvement in urban, building and interior designs. He is Haywards Heath
also involved in teaching, research and writing on architecture. West Sussex RH17 6PJ
Tel: 01444 811 532
The Appleton Partnership: Architects
Forth Gallery Atba Al-Samarraie BEng(Hons) MIStructE MIHT MIEI can be
Forth Street contacted at Bullen Consultants Bradford office or at:
Edinburgh EH1 3JX
6 Coppice View
Tel: 0131 557 8151 Idle
Fax: 0131 557 8145 Bradford BD10 8UF

Joe Aveline is a theatre consultant and lectures widely on the Tel (home): 01274 619 519
development of theatre and theatre equipment. He can be Tel (office): 01274 370 410
contacted at: E-mail: alsam@globalnet.co.uk

Tel: 0171 328 6174 & +356 561 269 (Malta)


Fax: 0171 328 5035
E-mail: aveline@sumack.freeserve.co.uk Chapter 28, Schools
Guy Hawkins MA(Arch)(Lond) RIBA is an architect and a school
building consultant. He worked previously in the the Architects
Chapter 18, Eating and Chapter 23, Boating and Building Branch of the then Department of Education and
John Rawson RIBA is an architect and journalist, and can be found Science (now the DfEE), and in the Property Services Department
at: of Essex County Council. He can be contacted at:

3 Downshire Hill 13 South Primrose Hill


London NW3 1NR Chelmsford
Essex CM1 2RF
Tel: 0171 794 4002
Fax: 0171 431 3017 Tel: 01245 260 867
Appendix C Contributors C-3

Chapter 30, Laboratories Chapter 35, Homes with care


The Laboratories Investigation Unit (LIU) was previously part of Ian Smith RIBA has designed a number of old peoples homes,
the UK Governments Department of Education and Science. With mainly for Methodist Homes for the Aged. He is now retired, but
that departments agreement, it was re-established in 1994 as a might give advice if requested. He can be contacted at:
private company by leading members of the Unit. Auditing,
Y Wern
planning and design services for buildings and facilities used for
Dyffryn Crawnon
teaching, research and routine analytical applications of science
Llangynidr
and technology are availabe from the Unit. It can be contacted
Powys NP8 1NU
through Tony Branton DiplArch RIBA who is a co-director of the
LIU whose address is: Tel & fax: 01874 730 946

Laboratories Investigation Unit Ltd


Micheldever Road
London SE12 8LX
Chapter 38, Thermal environment
Tel & fax: 0181 852 0337 Professor Phil Jones can be contacted at:

Welsh School of Architecture


Chapter 31, Museums, art galleries and small exhibition Bute Building
spaces King Edward VII Avenue
Dr Geoffrey Matthews BA PhD FRSA is an independent museum Cardiff CFl 3AP
and exhibition consultant. He is a researcher and author on Tel: 01222 874 078
museums, their organisation and design, and also a senior lecturer Fax: 01222 874 623
in the Hull School of Architecture, University of Lincolnshire and E-mail: jonesp@cardiff.ac.uk
Humberside. Contact him at:

115 Westcott Street


Holderness Road
Hull HU8 8LZ Chapter 39, Lighting
Joe Lynes can be contacted at:
Tel & fax: 01482 703 275
E-mail: gmatthews@humber.ac.uk 4 Aigburth Avenue
St Georges Road
Hull HU3 3QA
Chapter 33, Houses and flats
Tel & fax: 01482 216 792
Ian Chown MA DiplArch RIBA was trained at Cambridge
University School of Architecture, and has had twenty-five years
experience of designing housing in Greater London. His com-
pleted projects include the comprehensive refurbishment of Lea
Chapter 42, Fire
View House with the full participation of the tenants. He also
Beryl Menzies MBEng MIBC can be contacted at:
designed the Mothers Square (winner of an RIBA Architecture
Award) and Schonfeld Square; all three projects with Hunt The Menzies Partnership
Thompson Associates in Hackney. 10 Brockwell Lane
In 1994 he joined PRP Architects, one of the largest multi- Kelvedon
disciplinary firms involved in housing. PRPs work encompasses Essex CO5 9BB
all sectors of social and private housing, including all types of
Tel & fax: 01376 571 534
Special Needs, refurbishment and new-build projects. At PRP, Ian
E-mail: menzies.pts@virgin.net
Chown has designed large projects for Waltham Forest Housing
Action Trust in Leytonstone, for Fortunegate Community Housing
at Church End, Brent, and for Stepney Housing and Development
Agency in Central Stepney. He can be contacted at:
The Editor
PRP Architects EurIng David Adler BSc DIC CEng MICE took his first degree at
Cowcross Court the then Queen Mary College, University of London. His post-
77 Cowcross Street graduate qualification in Concrete Technology came from City and
London EClM 6BP Guilds College. After National Service in the Royal Engineers he
worked for such prestigious firms as F J Samuely, Trollope and
Tel: 0171 251 5101
Colls, Building Design Partnership and Robert Matthew, Johnson-
Fax: 0171 251 5102
Marshall and Partners. For some years he was Chief Structural
E-mail: cc.prp@dial.pipex.com
Engineer for the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham.
Now retired from salaried employment, he divides his time
Chapter 34, Student housing between the Metric Handbook and the British Standards Institu-
Liz Pride RIBA is an associate of MacCormac-Jamieson- tion, where he chairs a technical committee.
Prichard who can be contacted at: David Adler would be grateful to receive comments about the
Handbook (and its associated CD-rom). He can be contacted at:
9 Heneage Street
Spitalsfields 38 Church Crescent
London El 5LJ Muswell Hill
London N1O 3NE
Tel: 0171 377 9262
Fax: 0171 247 7854 Tel & fax: 0181 444 6000
E-mail: mjp@mjparchitects.co.uk E-mail: David_Adler@compuserve.com
Index

Absorptance, 38.4 Audience participation studios, boats and waterbody needs, Changing facilities:
Access: 19.1 23.24 schools, 28.7, 28.1011, 28.15
access roads, 4.67 Audio cassette storage, libraries, canoeing, 23.3 swimming pools, 22.9l1
boating, 23.2 32.8 power boats, 23.4 See also Dressing rooms
eating and drinking Audiovisual facilities, conference rowing, 23.23 Chapels, 27.21
establishments, 18.9 halls, 20.302 sailing, 23.34 Children:
for disabled people, 2.813 Auditoria, 20.140 on-shore facilities, 23.46 anthropometrics, 2.3
for firefighters, 42.45 design, 20.313 rowing, 23.45 hospital accommodation,
shopping centres, 13.12 legislation, 20.40 sailing dinghies, 23.56 17.16
for maintenance, 2.68, 44.17 multi-purpose auditoria, 20.37 yachts and power boats, Childrens play equipment,
external access, 44.46 sanitary installations, 3.2 23.6 6.1516
internal access, 44.24 seating, 20.13 water resources, 23.12 Chiropody, 16.6, 16.7
roof suspension systems, support facilities, 20.3840 Boiler rooms, 45.89 Choirs, places of worship,
44.67 See also Cinemas; Concert Boilers, 38.245 27.1314
hotels, 36.1213 halls; Conference halls; Bollards, 6.8, 6.9 Church of England, 27.12
housing, 33.45, 33.8 Theatres Border controls, 7.1 Churches, See Places of worship
student housing, 34.4 Australian football, 24.9 Bowling, 24.11, 25.12, 25.14 Cinemas, 20.326
schools, 28.8, 28.11 Automatic teller machines Boxing, 25.11 acoustics, 20.33
Accident and emergency (ATMs), 14.1, 14.67, 14.9 Bricks, 46.5 auditorium design, 20.32
departments, 17.1112, 17.19 Broadcasting studios, See Studios projection methods, 20.32,
Acoustics, 40.12 Building blocks, 46.5, 46.6 20.33, 20.34
acoustical test data, 40.6 Baby changing facilities, 3.17 Building energy models, 38.31 projection suite, 20.356
auditoria, 20.4, 20.12 Background noise levels, studios, Building regulations, 33.6 screens, 20.335
cinemas, 20.33 19.3 house conversions, 33.1415 viewing conditions, 20.32
courtrooms, 12.3 Badminton, 25.8 noise, 40.712 See also Auditoria
frequency, 40.12 Baggage handling, airport statutory fire precautions, Circulation, 2.1318
museums, art galleries and terminals, 7.6, 7.7, 7.9, 7.10 42.223 auditoria, 20.9
exhibitions, 31.6 Banks, 14.1, 14.23, 14.4 student housing, 34.26 corridors, 2.13, 2.1416
reverberation time, 40.2 counselling, 14.9 See also Housing hotels, 36.2, 36.3
room shape and, 40.2 counters, 14.79 Building Research Establishment primary health care centres,
SI units A.4 disabled facilities, 14.9 (BRE) site planning aids, 16.3
sound power level, 40.1 Barriers, 6.812 39.3 shopping centres, 13.14
sound pressure level, 40.1 Bars, 18.30 Building societies, 14.1, 14.3, stairways, 2.1318
studios, 19.34 sanitary installations, 3.2 14.4 Cleaning, 44.1
See also Noise Baseball, 24.9 counselling, 14.9 See also Maintenance
Aikido, 25.10 Basketball, 25.8 counters, 14.79 Climate, 38.813
Air conditioning, 38.9, 38.28, Bathrooms, 3.1314, 33.11 disabled facilities, 14.9 climatic zones, 37.12
45.18, 45.1011 for elderly people, 35.3 Bus stations, 7.1118 Clinics, 16.1
hospitals, 17.8 student housing, 34.7, 34.8 Buses, 7.11, 7.1314 See also Primary health care
offices, 11.7 See also Sanitary installations Cloakrooms, 3.1820
studios, 19.3 Baths, 3.1314 Cluster flats, 33.15
tropical design, 37.7, 37.8 Beams, 41.14, 41.1518 Cafeterias, 18.22 Coach stations, 7.1118
Air infiltration, 38.21 bending moments, 41.14 Camogie, 24.9 Coaches, 7.11, 7.1314
Air movement, 37.6, 38.7, bending stresses, 41.20 Campus types, 29.12 Coanda effect, 38.28
38.1213 deflection, 41.20 Canadian football, 24.10 Colleges of further education,
ventilation and air flow models, shear, 41.20 Canoeing, 23.3 29.8
38.313 Bedrooms, 33.3 Canteens, See Catering facilities Committee rooms, 15.1
wind effect, 38.23 hotels, 36.59 Car parking, See Parking Communion tables, 27.7, 27.9
wind speed, 37.6, 38.12 study bedrooms, 34.68 Car washes, 4.25 Community centres, 21.14
See also Ventilation Beef cattle and calf housing, 10.2, Carbon dioxide emissions, 38.26 Community Health Council
Air pollution, museums, art 10.6-7 Carriageways, See Roads (CHC) offices, 14.1, 14.2,
galleries and exhibitions, Bench marks, 1.3 Cast iron pipes, 46.16, 46.17 14.4, 14.5, 14.6
31.5 Bending, 41.1314 Catering facilities, 18.131 counselling, 14.9
Air temperature, 38.6, 38.11 bending moments, 41.13, 41.14 Crown Courts, 12.5 Competition pools, 22.2
Airport passenger terminals, See bending stresses, 41.20 factories, 8.10 Compression members, 41.13
Terminals and transport Benefit Agency offices, 14.2, hospitals, 17.27 Computational fluid dynamics
interchanges 14.5, 14.6 police stations, 15.13 (CFD) models, 38.313
Altar, 27.67, 27.89 counselling, 14.9 shopping centres, 13.12 Computer work stations, 2.6
Aluminium, 41.43, 46.7, 46.89 counters, 14.8, 14.9 transport catering, 18.224 Concert halls, 20.246
Ambulance stations, 15.810 Bicycle polo, 24.9 See also Eating and drinking See also Auditoria
American football, 24.9 Bikeways, 4.1112 establishments Concrete, 41.269, 41.3243,
Anthropometrics, 2.14 Billiards, 25.14 Cattle housing, 10.2, 10.47 46.5, 46.67
children and adolescents, 2.3 Bima, 27.15 CD-ROM storage. libraries, 32.2, composition, 41.26. 41.33
elderly people, 2.3 Boating, 23.111 32.8 deflection, 41.29
normal distribution, 2.13 access and transport to the Ceilings: design, 41.28
other nationalities, 2.3 water, 23.2 auditoria, 20.13 fire effects on, 42.20
Archery, 24.8, 25.12 boat storage, 23.611 housing, 33.67 kerbs, 46.5, 46.7
Art galleries, See Museums, art boat parks, 23.910 Cell design, 15.15 reinforcement, 41.289, 41.34
galleries and exhibitions dry-berthing, 23.10-11 Chain barriers, 6.9 specification, 41.27
Assembly halls, 15.3 marinas, 23.6-9 Chain measures, 1.58 Condensation, 38.1821
Athletics, 24.3-9, 25.13, 25.14 moorings, 23.6 Change of use, 1.13 Conduction, 38.23, 42.1
I-1
I-2 Index

Conference halls, 20.2632 student housing, 34.4, 34.7, housing, 33.4 student housing, 34.2
audience facilities, 20.28 34.8 laboratories, 30.11 supermarkets, 13.8
audiovisual facilities, 20.302 large people, 2.13 museums, art galleries and Fire stations, 15.38
formats, 20.267 payment offices, 14.9 exhibitions, 31.46 appliance areas, 15.4
functional requirements, 20.27 people on crutches, 2.12 offices, 11.78 drill tower, 15.8
lectern, 20.28 ramps, 2.8, 2.10 primary health care centres, drill yard, 15.8
platform, 20.289 sanitary installations, 3.911, 16.3 station building, 15.57
translators booths, 20.2930 3.13, 3.14, 3.16 schools, 28.6 training facilities, 15.78
See also Auditoria schools, 28.46 shops, 13.56 Five-a-side football, 24.9, 25.8
Confessional, 27.13, 27.14 swimming pools, 22.11 Equestrian design, 26.15 Flats, 33.1314
Conservation areas, 1.13 wheelchairs, 2.8, 2.912 stabling and care of horse, cluster flats, 33.15
Consulting rooms, 16.5 windows, 46.1012 26.35 fire escapes, 42.1012
Control rooms: Discount stores, 13.9 Equipment areas, studios, 19.2 lifts, 5.5-7
studios, 19.2 Discus throwing, 24.7, 24.8 Ergonomics, 2.47 See also Housing
theatres, 20.21, 20.22 Dishwashing, 18.17, 18.18 computer work stations, 2.6 Flipcharts, 20.30
Convection, 38.3, 42.1 Display lighting, 39.1213 maintenance, 2.68, 44.2 Floors, 41.23, 41.26, 41.36, 41.48
Conversion factors and tables Diving pools, 22.34, 22.5, 22.6 serveries, 2.5 auditoria, 20.11
B.l8 Doors, 46.912, 46.1617 sink heights, 2.5 floor joists, 41.25, 41.32
Cooking equipment, 18.10l7 disabled access, 2.1112, storage, 2.6 sound insulation, 40.5, 40.912
Cooling systems, 38.2330 46.1012 worktops, 2.56 FIytower, 20.1516, 20.1718
Copper, 46.78, 46.9 fire resistance, 42.21 Escalators, 5.911 Font, 27.10, 27.11
pipes, 46.16, 46.17 security, 43.1 Escape routes: Football, 24.910
Corridors, 2.13, 2.1416 WCs, 3.8 auditoria, 20.9 Footpaths, 6.13
wheelchair access, 2.8 Drawing boards, 1.2 community centres, 21.23 Force units, 41.2
Council chambers, 15.1 Drawings, 1.35 fire escapes, 42.719 Foundations, 41.3549
Counselling, payment offices, 14.9 dimensional coordination, 1.10 hospitals, 17.78 bearing pressure, 41.49
Counters, 14.79 scales, 1.45 shopping centres, 13.12 end-bearing piles, 41.58
Courtrooms, 12.13 Dressage, 26.4 Estate modemisation, 33.1920 nature of, 41.35
environment, 12.3 Dressing rooms: Evaporation, 38.45 pad and strip foundations,
Covered markets, 13.4 studios, 19.2 Examination rooms, 16.5, 17.234 41.4954
Credence table, 27.7 theatres, 20.22, 20.23 Exercise yards, 15.15 skin-friction piles, 41.58
Crematoria, 27.202 See also Changing facilities Exhibitions, See Museums, art soil, 41.35, 41.57
Crib walls, 6.1213 Drilling machines, 8.6 galleries and exhibitions Fume cupboards, 30.4, 30.5
Cricket, 24.11 Dry-berthing, 23.1011 Exits: Fun pools, 22.5
practice nets, 25.13 auditoria, 20.9 Furniture, 2.201
Crime, 43.1, 43.2 tire escapes, 42.719 hotels, 36.79
See also Security Earthquake hazards, tropics, 37.10 sports grounds, 24.3 housing, 33.3, 33.6
Crop storage, 10.8, 10.1416 Eating and drinking for elderly people, 35.4
Croquet, 24.12 establishments: study bedrooms, 34.67
Crown Court Office, 12.4 cafeterias, 18.22 Fabric, 41.35, 41.567 laboratories, 30.26
Crutches users, 2.12 kitchens, 18.217 Factories, 8.110 libraries. 32.67
See also Disabled facilities cooking equipment, 18.1017 adaptability, 8.45 schools, 28.34, 28.56
Curling, 24.12 dishwashing, 18.17, 18.18 classification of, 8.14 street furniture, 6.8
Custody suite, 15.13 planning, 18.12 machine sizes, 8.67
Cycle parking, 4.13 public areas, 18.2, 18.38 non-production accommodation,
Cycle paths, 4.1112 public houses, 18.2431 8.10 Gabion walls, 6.13
Cycle racing, 24.12, 25.14 restaurants, 18.202 outline specification, 8.710 Gaelic football, 24.10
serveries, 18.1720 working methods, 8.57 Gangways, auditoria, 20.4
take-aways, 18.22 Fans, 37.67, 38.27, 45.11 Garages, 4.14, 4.17
Dairy cattle housing, 10.2, 10.46 transport catering, 18.224 Farm buildings, 10.116 Gardens, of dwellings, 33.9
Daylight, See Lighting types of, 18.1 crop storage, 10.8, 10.1416 Gates, 6.1314
Decimal marker, 1.1 See also Catering facilities farm animals, 10.2, 10.3 General practitioners premises,
Deflection, 41.20 Elderly people: beef cattle and calf housing, 16.1, 16.2
concrete, 41.29 anthropometrics, 2.3 10.2, 10.67 See also Primary health care
Dental facilities, 16.7 bathrooms, 3.14, 35.3 dairy cattle housing, 10.2, Glare index, 39.1011, 39.15
See also Primary health care furniture, 35.4 10.46 Glass, 46.8, 46.1012
Department of Social Security hospital accommodation, 17.17 pig housing, 10.811 fire effects on, 42.201
offices, 14.2 housing, 33.4, 35.14 poultry housing, 10.8, Glazing, 38.18
Department stores, 13.8 lifts, 5.78 10.1113 Golf practice, 25.13
Detention suites, 15.1315 sheltered housing, 33.1619 sheep housing, 10.7, 10.8 Goods lifts, 5.89
Dimensional coordination, 1.813 Electricity supply, 45.1113 farm machinery, 10.2, 10.3 Grinding machines, 8.6
aims of, 1.9 materials, 46.1820 legislation, 10.16 Gross external area (GEA), 11.4
boundary conditions, 1.11 SI units A.3 Fences, 6.910 Gross leasable area (GLA), 13.1
dimensionally co-ordinated tropics, 37.9 Fencing, 25.11 Guardrails, 6.9
products, 1.13 Elevators, See Lifts Film storage, libraries, 32.8 Gymnastics, 25.8-9, 25.15
drawings, 1.10 Emissivity, 38.4 Fire, 42.24
elements of, 1.9 End-bearing piles, 41.58 components of, 42.1
locating components by grid, Energy efficiency: spread of, 42.2, 42.4, 42.5 Ha-has, 6.12
1.1011 hospitals, 17.8 Fire protection, 42.124 Hammer throwing, 24.7, 24.8
size of components, 1.11 housing, 33.5 appliances and installations, Handball, 24.10. 25.9
Dining rooms: Entrances: 42.212 Handrails, 2.18, 6.67
hotels, 36.10 auditoria, 20.910, 20.38 auditoria, 20.12-13 auditoria, 20.1011
student accommodation, 34.8 community centres, 21.34 hospitals, 17.12 Hardwood, 46.3
Disabled facilities, 2.813 hospitals, 17.910, 17.27 hotels, 36.3 Hazards, tropics, 37.1011
auditoria, 20.89, 20.40 hotels, 36.9 legislation, 42.23 Health centres, 16.1
community centres, 21.3 places of worship, 27.12 materials, 42.1921 See also Primary health care
corridor widths, 2.8, 2.10 primary health care centres, means of escape, 42.719 Heat transfer mechanisms, See
doorways, 2.1112, 46.1012 16.4 disabled people, 42.1819 Thermal environment
fire escapes, 42.1819 schools, 28.8 principles of, 42.27 Heating systems, 38.2330,
housing, 33.12, 33.45, Environment: schools, 28.7 45.18, 45.1516
33.78 courtrooms, 12.3 shopping centres, 13.12 boiler rooms, 45.89
lifetime homes, 33.89 hospitals, 17.278 stables, 26.5 Heavy industries, 8.34
lifts, 5.78 hotels, 36.2 statutory requirements, 42.223 High jump, 24.7
Index I-3

Higher education, 29.18 Hybrid pools, 22.7 seating, 6.7-8 light output ratio, 39.9
colleges of further education, Hydrotherapy pools, 22.3 steps, 6.4-5 maintenance category, 39.10
29.8 Hydrotherapy spa baths, 3.18 street furniture, 6.8 spacing-to-height ratio
laboratories, 30.9 Hypermarkets, 13.9 walkways, 6.13 (SHR), 39.10
teaching spaces, 29.7-8 walls, 6.1013 utilization factors, 39.10
universities, 29.17 Large people, 2.13 museums, art galleries and
See also Schools; Student Ice hockey, 25.15 Laundry facilities, student exhibitions, 31.56
housing Illumination, See Lighting housing, 34.9 planning a lighting system,
Hindu temples, 27.1920 Industrial storage buildings, 9.111 Lavatories, See Sanitary 39.1112
Hockey, 24.10, 25.9 handling equipment, 9.911 installations; WCs police cells, 15.15
Holy Ark, 27.15 height, area and handling Law courts, 12.15 SI units A.4
Horse riding, 26.15 system, 9.12, 9.56 court system, 12.1 solar illumination, 39.15
stabling and care of horse, outline specification, 9.69 courtroom, 12.13 in the tropics, 37.89
26.35 racking disposition, 9.5 environment, 12.3 solar geometry, 39.34
Hospitals, 17.128 security, 2.9 outside the courtroom, 12.35 use of models, 39.45
accident and emergency storage method, 9.26 Lawn tennis, 24.12 studios, 19.23
department, 17.1112, types of, 9.1 Lead, 46.8, 46.10 visual display terminals,
17.19 Information technology, hospitals, Learner pools, 22.3 39.1314
conceptual design choices, 17.1, 17.12 Learning difficulties, 28.1617 window design, 39.67
17.89 Ingress Protection (IP) Lectern: Limit state, 41.1
determinants of hospital form, classification, 39.9, 39.15 conference halls, 20.28 Linear assembly, 8.57
17.58 Insulation: places of worship, 27.7, 27.9 Listed buildings, 1.13
diagnostic and treatment electrical cables. 46.18, 46.19 Lecture theatres, 29.8 Litter bins, 6.8
departments, 17.1925 pipes, 46.16 Legislation: Loadbearing, 42.19
environment, 17.278 sound, 40.46, 40.13 auditoria, 20.40 Loading and unloading, 4.19
in-patient service, 17.1319 thermal, 38.1416 community centres, 21.3 Loads, 41.1, 41.26, 41.1213
interdepartmental relationships, glazing, 38.1718 farm buildings, 10.16 Lobbies, 14.67
17.1011 installation of, 38.17 fire precautions, 42.23 Lockers, 3.20
internal organisation, 17.911 transparent insulation laboratories, 30.1314 fire stations, 15.6
operating facilities, 17.12, material (TIM), 38.18 noise, 40.6 Loft conversions, 33.15
17.212, 17.24 Interstitial condensation, 38.20 passenger terminals, 7.1 Long jump, 24.7
out-patient department, Leisure centres, See Sports centres Lumen method, 39.1112
17.1112, 17.201 and halls Luminaire maintenance factor
pathology department, 17.235 Javelin, 24.7, 24.8 Leisure pools, 22.58 (LMF), 39.15
rehabilitation department, 17.25 Joseph Rowntree Foundation, dryside facilities, 22.7 Luminaires, See Lighting
support services, 17.267 33.89 Levelling staffs, 1.8 Luminous flux, 39.15
types of building, 17.14 Judo, 25.11 Libraries, 32.19 Luminous intensity, 39.15
X-ray department, 17.223, area allowances, 32.3
17.25 book storage capacity, 32.36
Hostels, 5.8, 34.2 Karate, 25.11 control counters, 32.89 Machine sizes, 8.67
Hotels, 36.113 Kendo, 25.11 design, 32.13 Maintenance, access for, 2.68,
access and car parking, Kerbs, 46.5, 46.7 catalogue, 32.2 44.17
36.1213 Kitchens: CD-ROM, 32.2 external access, 44.46
bedrooms, 36.59 community centres, 21.4 networking facilities, 32.23 internal access, 44.24
classification of, 36.1 eating establishments, 18.217 note-taking, 32.3 roof suspension systems,
general considerations, 36.14 cooking equipment, 18.1017 viewing facilities, 32.2 44.67
lifts, 5.8, 36.2 dishwashing, 18.17, 18.18 readers facilities, 32.67 Maintenance factor (MF), 39.15
public areas, 36.910 housing, 33.3, 33.7 schools, 28.15 Major incident room, 15.12
sanitary installations, 3.5, 36.12 student housing, 34.8 storage for other media, 32.8 Marinas, 23.69
service areas, 36.11 schools, 28.15 Lifetime homes, 33.8-9 Markets, 13.24
Houses in Multiple Occupation Korfball, 24.10, 25.9 Lifts, 5.18, 33.13 Masonry, 41.223, 41.24
(HMOs), 34.46 goods lifts, 5.89 Mass, 41.2, 41.69, 41.1011
Local Authority requirements, passenger lifts, 5.28 Materials, 46.120
34.6 Laboratories, 30.114 elderly and disabled people, aluminium, 46.7, 46.89
Housing, 33.120 areas, 30.13 5.78 bending, 41.1314
design, 33.69 furniture and equipment hotels, 5.8, 36.2 bricks and blocks, 46.5, 46.67
estate modemisation, 33.1920 dimensions, 30.27 offices, 5.35 concrete, 41.269, 41.3243,
for disabled users, 33.12, layouts, 30.710, 30.12 social housing, 5.58 46.5, 46.67
33.45, 33.78 analytical laboratories, 30.10 service lifts and hoists, 5.9 densities of, 41.26
lifetime homes, 33.89 research laboratories, wheelchair and stair lifts, 5.8 doors, 46.912
for elderly people, 33.4, 30.910 Light industries, 8.13 electricity supply and
33.1619. 35.14 schools, 28.14, 30.8 Lighting, 39.117 distribution, 46.1820
for single people, 33.1516 university and college auditoria, 20.12 fabric, 41.35, 41.567
garages, 4.14, 4.17 laboratories, 30.9 studio theatres, 20.24 glass, 46.8, 46.1012
gardens, 33.9 legislation and standards, theatres, 20.19 21 masonry, 41.223, 41.24
house conversions, 33.1415 30.1314 controls, 39.14 masses and weights, 41.69,
public and private sector service requirements, 30.10 courtrooms, 12.3 41.1011
housing, 33.1 services distribution, 30.1112 daylight indoors, 39.56 pipes, 46.1218
purpose-built flats, 33.1314 structural and environmental daylight factors, 39.5, 39.6, plastics, 41.35, 41.556
sanitary installations, 3.45, requirements, 30.1011 39.14 roofing; 46.79
3.11, 33.3, 33.11 types of, 30.1 use of models, 39.56 steel, 41.2935, 41.4354,
sheltered housing, 33.1619 Lacrosse, 24.11, 25.10 display lighting, 39.1213 46.15
single family houses, 33.913 Lakes, 23.1 electric lamps, 39.78 structural materials, 41.201
standards, 33.1, 33.26 Lamps, 39.7-8, 39.15 tire escapes, 42.18 timber, 41.2232, 46.3, 46.56
tropical design, 37.9 See also Lighting glossary, 39.1417 windows, 46.912
See also Student housing Landscape design, 6.116 hospitals, 17.28 Maternity departments, 17.12,
Housing Associations (HAS ), 33.1 barriers, 6.813 hotels, 36.2, 36.12 17.1719
Housing Corporation (HC), 33.1, childrens play equipment, laboratories, 30.11 Matrix glazing systems, 38.18
33.16 6.1516 luminaires, 39.811 Measuring instruments, 1.58
standards, 33.35, 33.6 gates and doors, 6.1314 flux fraction ratio, 39.910 chains, 1.58
Humidity, See Relative humidity handrails, 6.67 glare index, 39.1011, 39.15 levelling staffs, 1.8
Hurling, 24.10 hospitals, 17.28 intensity distribution, 39.10 ranging rods, 1.8
Hurricane hazards, tropics, 37.10 ramps, 6.56 IP classification, 39.9 tape rules, 1.5
I-4 Index

Medium industries, 8.3 time-based nature of office Plant rooms, 45.116 Relative humidity, 38.7, 38.11
Metabolic activity, 38.56 environment, 11.56 Plastics, 41.35, 41.556 museums, art galleries and
Metals, See Aluminium; Steel town hall, 15.3 fire effects on, 42.201 exhibitions, 31.45
Methodist Church, 27.5 Open markets, 13.2 pipes, 46.16, 46.18 Reservation of the sacrament,
Microform storage, libraries, 32.8 Operating facilities, 17.12, Platform design: 27.1012
Middle schools, 28.11 17.212, 17.24 concert halls, 20.25 Reservoirs, 23.2
Milking parlour systems, 10.56 minor surgery, 16.7 conference halls, 20.289 Residential homes, sanitary
Ministry of Housing and Local Orchestra pit, 20.18 Salvation Army halls, 27.4 installations, 3.5
Government (MHLG) Ordnance Survey maps, 1.23 Playgrounds, 6.1516 Restaurants, 18.202
standards, 33.1, 33.3 Organs, places of worship, Playing field sports, 24.912 ethnic restaurants, 18.201
Moorings, 23.6 27.1314 Playing fields, schools, 28.8, sanitary installations, 3.2
Mosques, 27.1719 Out-patient departments, 28.11 self-service restaurants, 18.212
Mosquitoes, 37.10 17.1112, 17.201 Pole vault, 24.7 See also Catering facilities;
Movement aids, 5.111 Police stations, 15.1015 Eating and drinking
escalators and passenger found property, 15.11 establishments
conveyors, 5.9l1 Pad and strip foundations, Polo, 26.5 Retail trading:
See also Lifts 41.4954 Pop lacrosse, 25.10 markets, 13.24
Multi-storey car parks, 4.18 Paper sizes, 1.2 Post offices, 14.1, 14.4, 14.5 regional centres, 13.14
Museums, art galleries and Parker Morris Standards, 33.1, counters, 14.79 retail parks, 13.14
exhibitions, 31.16 33.2, 33.3 Poultry housing, 10.8, 10.1113 shopping centres, 13.1014
ancillary accommodation, 31.4 Parking, 4.1419 Power boats, 23.4, 23.6 terminology, 13.12
areas, 31.12 bicycles, 4.13 Pressure coefficients, 38.12 See also Shops
environment and conservation, domestic garages, 4.14, 4.17 Primary health care, 16.18 Retirement homes, 33.19
31.46 hotels, 36.12 brief, 16.2 Reverberation time, 40.2
exhibition and collection housing, 33.6 clinics, 16.1 studios, 19.3
storage, 31.23 student housing, 34.9 design principles, 16.3 Rivers, 23.2
interpretation, communication multi-storey car parks, 4.18 functional content, 16.23 Roads, 4.611
and display, 31.34 primary health care centres, GP premises, 16.1, 16.2 design details, 4.9-11
planning, 31.2 16.34 health centres, 16.1 corners, 4.11
security, 31.6 schools, 28.8 new building types, 16.2 curves, 4.9, 4.10
services, 31.6 Passenger conveyors, 5.911 new directions, 16.12 gradients, 4.11
types of, 31.1 Passenger terminals, See spaces, 16.38 stopping distances, 4.9
Terminals and transport Primary schools, 28.811 turn-round areas, 4.11
interchanges Projection: verges, 4.11
National Curriculum, 28.1, 28.8, Pastoral centres, 27.56 cinemas, 20.32, 20.33, 20.34 visibility, 4.9
28.11 Pathology department, 17.235 projection suite, 20.356 industrial parks, 4.9
National Health Service (NHS), Paving flags, 46.5, 46.67 conference halls, 20.302 residential areas, 4.69
17.1 Payment offices, See Banks; Proscenium, 20.1415 Roller hockey, 24.12
National House Building Council Building societies; Post Public conveniences, 3.1517 Roman Catholic Church, 27.2
standards, 33.5, 33.6 offices See also Sanitary installations Roof suspension systems, 44.67
Net Internal Area (NIA), 11.45 Pedestrian routes, 6.13 Public houses, 18.2431 Roofing materials, 46.79
Net office area (NOA), 11.5 Permitted development, 1.1314 bars, 18.30 Roofs, 41.2324, 41.278,
Net sales area (NSA), 13.1 Petanque, 24.11 cooling, 18.30 41.378, 41.4950, 41.56,
Netball, 24.11, 25.9 Petrol stations, See Service drink delivery, 18.24 41.57
Network models, 38.31 stations drink dispensing, 18.2930 roof trusses, 41.25, 41.31
Noise, 40.24 Pharmacies, hospitals, 17.26 drink storage, 18.259 Room Index (K), 39.16
community centres, 21.3 Pig housing, 10.811 sanitary installations, 3.2 Room surface maintenance factor
external noise sources, 40.4 Pin-jointed frames, 41.13 See also Eating and drinking (RSMF), 39.16
hotels, 36.23 Pipes, 46.1218 establishments Rounders, 24.11
internal noise sources, 40.3 Places of worship, 27.122 Public offices, 14.12 Rowing, 23.23
laboratories, 30.11 Christian denominations, Public service buildings, 15.115 on-shore facilities, 23.45
legislation, 40.6 27.16 ambulance stations, 15.810 Rugby, 24.10
noise criteria, 40.23 Church of England, 27.12 fire stations, 15.38 fives, 25.15
sound insulation, 40.46, 40.13 Methodist church, 27.5 police stations, 15.1015 Running tracks, 24.57, 25.13
standards and codes of practice, pastoral centres, 27.56 town halls, 15.13
40.6 Roman Catholic Church, 27.2 Pulpit, 27.10
student housing, 34.4 Salvation Army, 27.35 synagogues, 27.15 Sacristies, 27.1213
See also Acoustics Society of Friends, 27.5 Safety curtain, 20.16
Normal distribution, 2.13 United Reform Church, Sailing, 23.34
Notation, 1.12 27.23 Rackets, 25.15 on-shore facilities, 23.56
decimal marker, 1.1 crematoria, 27.202 Radiant temperature, 38.7 Salvation Army, 27.35
symbols, 1.12 design, 27.614 Radiation: Sanctuary furniture, 27.710
Nursery schools and classes, altar or communion table, heat, 38.34, 42.1 Sanitary installations, 3.117
28.78 27.67, 27.89 solar radiation, 37.35, 38.10 appliances, 3.617
Nursing homes, sanitary confessional, 27.13, 27.14 Railway stations, 7.1819 baby changing, 3.17
installations, 3.5 congregational and choir Rainfall, 38.11 baths and bathrooms,
seating, 27.12 Ramps, 2.8, 2.10, 6.56 3.1214
entrance areas, 27.12 Ranging rods, 1.8 cleaning considerations, 3.17
Offices, 11.116 font, 27.10, 27.11 Real tennis, 25.15 public conveniences, 3.1517
building measurement, standard organ and choir, 27.1314 Reception area: showers, 3.1415
method, 11.45 reservation of the sacrament, hotels, 3 6 . 9 1 0 taps, 3.14
building services, 11.78 27.1012 primary health care centres, urinals, 3.12
factories, 8.10 sanctuary furniture and 16.4 washbasins, 3.1213
hospitals, 17.27 pulpit, 27.710 Refrigeration, 38.29, 38.30 WCs, 3.611
lifts, 5.35 vestries and sacristies, Refuse, 2.24, 33.12, 33.1314 auditoria, 3.2
matching supply and demand, 27.1213 hotels, 36.13 community centres, 21.4
11.34 non-Christian places of litter bins, 6.8 crematoria, 27.21
office shell, 11.67 worship, 27.1420 student housing, 34.9 disabled users, 3.911, 3.13,
planning and design, 11.13 Hindu temples, 27.1920 Regional centres, 13.14 3.14, 3.16
primary health care centres, 16.4 mosques, 27.1719 Rehabilitation departments, 17.25 early planning, 3.16
sanitary installations, 3.2 Sikh gurdwara, 27.20 Rehearsal spaces: ducts, 3.6
scenery and setting options, synagogues, 27.1417 auditoria, 20.39 fire stations, 15.6
11.816 Planning, 1.1314 studios, 19.2 hotels, 3.5, 36.12
Index I-5

housing, 3.45, 3.11, 33.3, 33.11 Services: Standards: Studios, 19.14


installation standards, 3.1 Church of England, 27.1 fire precautions, 42.234 acoustics, 19.34
number of appliances required, Roman Catholic Church, 27.2 housing, 33.1, 33.26 planning, 19.2
3.1, 3.26 United Reform Church, 27.3 student housing, 34.26 services, 19.23
offices, 3.2 Sewerage, tropics, 37.9 tropical design, 37.9 statutory requirements, 19.4
police stations, 15.12, 15.1314 Shear, 41.20 laboratories, 30.1314 types of, 19.2
public houses/bars, 3.2 Sheep housing, 10.7, 10.8 noise, 40.6 Sub-aqua diving, 22.5, 22.7
restaurants/cafs, 3.2 Sheet music storage, libraries, 32.8 passenger terminals, 7.1 Sunlight, 39.2
Salvation Army halls, 27.4 Sheltered housing, 33.1619 sanitary installations, 3.1 solar geometry, 39.34
schools, 3.4, 28.7, 28.10, 28.15 sanitary installations, 3.5 shops, 13.56 sun on ground indicator, 39.17
shopping centres, 13.14 Shinty, 24.11 Steel, 41.2935, 41.4354, 46.15 sunlight availability indicator,
shops, 3.2 Shooting ranges, 25.13 fire effects on, 42.20 39.17
stadia, 3.3 Shopping centres, 13.1014 grades of, 41.34 sunpath indictor, 39.17
swimming pools, 3.2 Shops, 13.410 handbooks, 41.34 use of models, 39.45
types of, 3.1 department stores, 13.8 pipes, 46.16, 46.17 See also Lighting; Solar
Saunas, 3.1718 discount stores, 13.9 StefanBoltzmann law, 38.4 radiation
Scales, 1.45 hypermarkets, 13.9 Steps, 6.45 Supermarkets, 13.9
Scenery workshops, 20.3940 locations, 13.4 handrails, 6.67 Superstores, 13.9
Schools, 28.117 range of, 13.4 See also Stairways Surface condensation, 38.1820
building of, 28.23 sanitary installations, 3.2 Sterile services, 17.267 Surface water drainage, tropics,
community use, 28.3, 28.8, shop fittings, 13.46 Stone walls, 6.12 37.9
28.12 small shops, 13.68 Stopping distances, 4.9 Surgery, See Operating facilities
detailed design considerations, supermarkets, 13.9 Storage, 2.214 Swimming, 22.111
28.37 superstores, 13.9 community centres, 21.4 changing facilities, 22.911
construction and variety stores, 13.89 crop storage, 10.8, 10.1416 competition, learner, training
environment, 28.6 See also Retail trading drink storage, public houses, and diving pools, 22.24,
disabled facilities, 28.46 Shot putting, 24.7 18.259 22.5, 22.6
fire precautions, 28.7 Showers, 3.1415 eating and drinking disabled facilities, 22.11
furniture, 28.34, 28.56 for elderly people, 3.14, 35.3 establishments, 18.9 leisure pools, 22.58
sanitary installations, 3.4, SI units A.14 ergonomics, 2.6 movable floor pools, 22.8
28.7, 28.10, 28.15 Sick building syndrome, 38.8 housing, 33.1112 pool capacity analysis, 22.11
security, 28.7, 28.8 Sikh gurdwara, 27.20 student housing, 34.9 pool details, 22.89, 22.10
services, 28.6 Sink heights, 2.5 laboratories, 30.3, 30.78 sanitary installations, 3.2
laboratories, 28.14, 30.8 laboratories, 30.23 libraries, 32.8 water activities, 22.45, 22.67
middle schools, 28.11 Skin-friction piles, 41.58 petrol tanks, 4.214 Symbols, 1.12
nursery schools and classes, Sky factor, 39.16 primary health care centres, Synagogues, 27.1417
28.78 Skylight indicator, 39.16 16.4, 16.8 Synchronised swimming, 22.5
primary schools, 28.811 Slipways, 23.2 Salvation Army halls, 27.5
secondary schools, 28.1115 Smoke, 42.1, 42.3 See also Industrial storage
special needs provision, control system, 42.18 buildings Table tennis, 25.11, 25.12
28.1517 Snack bars, 18.2 Stores, See Shops Take-aways, 18.22
types of, 28.1 Snooker, 25.14 Street furniture, 6.8 Tape rules, 1.5
See also Higher education Soccer, 24.9 Stress and strain, 41.613 Taps, 3.14
Screens, cinemas, 30.2235 Society of Friends, 27.5 units of stress, 41.913 for elderly people, 35.23
Sea, 23.2 Softwood, 46.3, 46.56 Structure, 41.159 Team technology, 8.7
Seating: Soil, 41.35, 41.57 fabric, 41.35, 41.567 Telephones:
auditoria, 20.13, 20.4 Sol air temperature, 37.23, 38.11 foundations, 41.3549 hotels, 36.4
cinemas, 20.32 Solar declination, 39.16 masonry, 41.223, 41.24 student housing, 34.9
eating and drinking Solar gain indicator, 39.1617 metals, 41.2935, 41.4354 Television studios, See Studios
establishments, 18.7 Solar geometry, 39.34 plastics, 41.35, 41.556 Temperature, 38.68, 38.9, 38.11,
outdoor, 6.78 Solar heat factor, 37.3 reinforced concrete, 41.269, 38.25
places of worship, 27.10, 27.12 Solar radiation, 37.35. 38.10 41.3243 air temperature, 38.6, 38.11
synagogues, 27.1516 See also Lighting structural materials, 41.201 museums, art galleries and
sports ground and stadia, Sound, See Acoustics; Noise structural theory, 41.120 exhibitions. 31.45
24.23 Sound studios, 19.1 beams, 41.14, 41.1518 radiant temperature, 38.7
Secondary schools, 28.1115 See also Studios bending, 41.1314, 41.20 sol air temperature, 37.23,
Security, 43.12 Special educational needs compression members, 41.13 38.11
community centres, 21.3 provision, 28.1517 deflection, 41.20 See also Thermal environment
eating and drinking Speech therapy rooms, 16.7 force units, 41.2 Temporary bench mark (TBM),
establishments, 18.69 Sports centres and halls, 25.115 limit state, 41.1 1.3
hotels, 36.34 ancillary halls, 25.811 loads, 41.1, 41.26, 41.1213 Tennis, 24.12, 25.10, 25.15
housing, 33.5 dimensions, 25.18 mass and weight, 41.2, Tension members, 14.13
student housing, 34.9 projectile halls, 25.1112 41.69, 41.1011 Terminals and transport
libraries, 32.9 use of facilities, 25.1 pin-jointed frames, 41.13 interchanges, 7.119
museums, art galleries and Sports grounds, 24.13 shear, 41.20 airport passenger terminals,
exhibitions, 31.6 athletics, 24.39 stress and strain, 41.613 7.210
passenger terminals, 7.1 playing field sports, 24.912 structural elements, 41.6 aircraft and apron
payment offices, 14.7 Sprinklers, 42.21 tension members, 41.13 requirements, 7.1012
primary health care centres, 16.3 Squash, 25.15 timber, 41.2232 airside functions, 7.810
schools, 28.7, 28.8 Stables, 26.15 Student housing, 34.19 capacity and size, 7.23
warehouses, 9.9 Stack effect, 38.223 building form, 34.2 centralised versus
Self-service restaurants, 18.212 Stadia, 24.13 conference use, 34.9 decentralised, 7.46
Selling methods, 13.1 athletics, 24.39 disabled facilities, 34.4, 34.7, constraints on building form,
Serveries, 2.5, 18.1720 playing field sports, 24.912 34.8 7.3
Service distribution, 45.116 sanitary installations, 3.3 kitchen/dining rooms, 34.8 hub terminals, 7.6
domestic heating and hot water, Stage, 20.1517 standards and regulations, landside functions, 7.68
45.1516 stage machinery, 20.17 34.26 level organisation, 7.4, 7.5
Service lifts, 5.9 Stair lifts, 5.8 houses in multiple occupation ownership of, 7.4
Service stations, 4.1925 Stairways, 2.1318, 33.7, 33.12, (HMOs), 34.46 planning, 7.2
petrol pumps, 4.1921 33.13 study bedrooms, 34.68 type of traffic, 7.4
petrol storage, 4.214 handrails and balustrades, 2.18, types of accommodation, bus and coach stations, 7.1118
types of, 4.19 6.67 34.12 catering facilities, 18.224
vehicle servicing, 4.245 hotels, 36.2 Studio theatres, 20.24 railway stations, 7.1819
I-6 Index

Termites, 37.10 Thermographic surveys, 38.33 Universities, 29.17 Wards, hospitals, 17.1317
Theatres, 20.1324 Timber, 41.2232, 46.3, 46.56 laboratories, 30.9 Warehouses, See Industrial storage
flytower, 20.1516, 20.1718 advantages of, 41.23 See also Student housing buildings
lighting, 20.1921 design methods, 41.25 Urinals, 3.12 Washbasins, 3.1213
open-stage formats, 20.1819 fire effects on, 42.20 See also Sanitary installations Water activities, 22.45, 22.67
orchestra pit, 20.18 retaining walls, 6.13 Utilisation factor (UF), 39.17 sub-aqua diving, 22.5, 22.7
proscenium, 20.1415 Toilets, See Sanitary installations synchronised swimming, 22.5
stage, 20.1517 Town halls, 15.13 water polo, 22.45, 22.67
stage machinery, 20.17 Traffic calming measures, Vapour pressure, 38.201 Water supply, tropics, 37.9
studio theatres, 20.24 4.79 Vapour resistance, 38.20 WCs, 3.611
types of, 20.1314 Training pools, 22.3 Variety stores, 13.89 for disabled people, 3.911
See also Auditoria Trampoline, 25.10 Vehicles, 4.16 police stations, 15.13
Thermal environment, 38.133 Translators booths, 20.2930 dimensions, 4.15 primary health care centres, 16.7
building fabric, 38.1418 Transparent insulation material loading and unloading, 4.19 See also Sanitary installations
glazing, 38.1718 (TIM), 38.18 servicing, 4.245 Weight, 41.2, 41.69, 41.1011
thermal bridging, 38.16 Transport catering, 18.224 turning circles, 4.56 Wheelchair lifts, 5.8
thermal insulation, 38.1416, Transport interchanges, See See also Parking; Roads; Wheelchair ramps, 2.8, 2.10
38.17 Terminals and transport Service stations Wheelchair users, See Disabled
U values, 38.14, 38.15 interchanges Ventilation, 38.8, 38.9, 38.213, facilities
condensation, 38.1821 Treatment rooms, 16.5, 16.6 45.18 Wind, See Air movement
heat transfer mechanisms, Triple jump, 24.7 courtrooms, 12.3 Wind shadow, 37.6
38.25, 42.1 Tropical design, 37.111 fire and, 42.4, 42.18 Wind tunnel modelling, 38.33
conduction, 38.23, 42.1 air movement and ventilation, laboratories, 30.11 Windows, 46.9, 46.1315
convection, 38.3, 42.1 37.6 mechanical ventilation, 38.267 for disabled people, 46.1012
evaporation, 38.45 climatic zones, 37.12 offices, 11.7 glazing, 38.18
radiation, 38.34, 42.1 comfort requirements, 37.2 police cells, 15.15 lighting and, 39.67
thermal capacity, 38.5 mechanical aids, 37.68 sanitary installations, 3.3 security, 43.1
heating and cooling systems, hazards, 37.1011 student housing, 34.4 sound insulation, 40.5
38.2330, 45.18, housing standards, 37.9 tropical design, 37.6 tropical design, 37.8
45.1516 illumination from sun and sky ventilation and air flow models, types of, 44.24
infiltration and ventilation, in the tropics, 37.89 38.313 Wood, See Timber
38.213 public utilities in the tropics, Vestries, 27.1213 Worktops, 2.56
prediction and measurement, 37.9 Vibration, studios, 19.3 Wrestling, 25.11
38.313 shading and glazing, 37.56 Video cassette storage, libraries, Writing surfaces, 20.3, 20.30
SI units A.3 solar radiation, 37.45 32.8
site and climate, 38.813 thermal performance Visual display terminals, 39.1314
thermal comfort, 37.2, 38.58 requirements, 37.24 Volleyball, 25.10 X-ray department, 17.223, 17.25
Thermal performance Tropical diseases, 37.1011
requirements, tropics, 37.24 Tug-of-war, 25.10
sol air temperature, 37.23 Walkways, 6.13 Yachts, See Sailing
solar heat factor, 37.3 Walls, 6.1013, 41.24, 41.29,
solar radiation, 37.34 U values, 38.14, 38.15 41.389
time lag, 37.4 United Reform Church, 27.23 retaining walls, 6.1213 Zinc, 46.8, 46.10
METRIC HANDBOOK
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