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45-4 Service distribution

Table III Relationship of plant rooms and risers to building form

Plan Elevation Comments

Key to table:

15 m

Small building: One plant room, one riser. Location of riser not important due to
up to 4 storeys small building size, although central location preferred. Plant room
2
up to 2500 m must relate to riser.

150 m

Several plant rooms, no risers. Plant adjacent to areas served. Some


Large single storey building:
central plant, eg for gas intake, electrical intake and boilers may be
min 4000 m2
required.

40 m roof

Large tall building: Plant room floors at basement and/or roof levels. Intermediate plant

60 m
intermediate
min 15 storeys rooms may be required. Vertical distribution within the central core.

basement

60 m

Several plant rooms, several risers. Risers and air conditioning plant
L-shaped building
2 rooms related to vertical circulation routes. Separate energy plant
10003000 m
room located at ground/basement level. Riser spacing related to
3 to 10 storeys
16.21 m economic horizontal length.
radius

60 m

Atrium building: Four roof air-conditioning plant rooms on roof, one basement energy
typically 2000 m2 per floor plant room. Four risers related to vertical circulation routes. Basement
5 to 10 storeys plant room below atrium gives best connection to risers.

atrium
(typically 2000 m2
per floor)
(5-10 storeys)

Generally air-conditioning plant room on roof, energy plant in the


Specialised basement. Several local plant rooms and distribution may be
appropriate where areas have different services requirements.

space. The main plant areas which may be needed in all kinds of 3.04 Air ducts and plenums
buildings are: Table V summarizes the factors to be taken in account 45.6 to 45.8
illustrate the importance of good early planning.
Intake rooms, for water, gas, electricity, communications
Tank rooms forchambers
Transformer and switch rooms 3.05 Boiler and calorifier plant

Standby water and oil 45.9 illustrates a boiler room and the dimensions are given in Table

Boiler andgenerator rooms VI. 45.10 shows a calorifier installation with dimensions in Tables

Sewage pump rooms rooms


calorifier VII and VIII.

Lift motor rooms


handling and conditioning plant rooms and 3.06 Air handling and conditioning plant

Air Table IX summarises the different possible arrangements for air

Building management system control rooms handling units. 45.11 shows an air handling plant room. 45.12 is a
full air air-conditioning plant with dimensions in Table X.

3.02 The relationships of plant rooms and risers to the forms of 3.07 Fan coils
particular building types are summarized in Table III. Fan coil units are approximately 250 mm deep. Their lengths
depend on their ratings as follows:

3.03 Heating, ventilation and air conditioning 1.01.2 kW sensible cooling, 820 mm
Figures for estimating the amount of space to be allocated, to 1.22.4 kW, 1135 mm
HVAC plant are given in Table IV. The graphs in 45.1 to 45.5 2.43.0 kW, 1335 mm
indicate the space needed for HVAC risers. 3.04.4 kW, 1925 mm
1500 m2/floor
1000 m2/floor 2000 m2/floor
2
2
1000 m /floor 1500 m /floor 5.0
5.0 2000 m2/floor

HVAC riser space % of floor plate area


HVAC riser space % of floor plate area 4.5 3000 m2/floor
4.5

3000 m2 /floor 4.0


4.0
3.5 4000 m2/floor
3.5

4000 m2/floor 3.0


3.0
2.5
2.5 5000 m2/floor 5000 m2/floor
2.0
2.0
1.5
1.5
1.0
1.0
0.5
0.5
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
2000 HVAC riser space m2/floor
2000 HVAC riser space m2/floor
4000
4000

building size (gross floor area) m2


building size (gross floor area) m2

6000
6000
8000 max supply air vel = 15 m/s
8000
max supply air vel = 6 m/s
max supply air vel = 15 m/s 10000
10000
max supply air vel = 6 m/s 12000
12000
14000
14000
16000
16000
18000
18000

125 100 125 20000

5 storeys
10 storeys
75

2 storeys
5 storeys
2 storeys
20000
50 75 100 50
room sensible heat gain W/m2

45.2 HVAC riser space for VAV plus perimeter heating in buildings of five or more
storeys 45.3 HVAC riser space for four-pipe fan coil systems (primary air 3 ac/h)
1500 m2/floor 1000 m2/floor 1500 m2/floor
2
2000 m /floor
5.0
1000 m2/floor 2000 m2/floor
5.0 3000 m2/floor

HVAC riser space % of floor plate area


4.5
HVAC riser space % of floor plate area
4.5
4.0
3000 m2/floor
4.0
3.5 4000 m2/floor
3.5
4000 m2/floor 3.0
5000 m2/floor
3.0
2.5
2.5
5000 m2/floor 2.0
2.0 75000 m2/floor
2 1.5
75000 m /floor 10000 m2/floor
1.5
10000 m2/floor 1.0
1.0
0.5
0.5
0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 8 0 90 100 110 120
0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 HVAC riser space m2/floor
2000 HVAC riser space m2/floor
4000

building size (gross floor area) m2


4000
6000
building size (gross floor area) m2

6000
8000
8000 max supply air vel = 15 m/s
10000
10000 max supply air vel = 6 m/s
12000 max supply air vel = 15 m/s
12000
14000 max supply air vel = 6 m/s
14000
16000
16000
18000
18000
20000

5 storeys

2 storeys
10 storeys

2 storeys

10 storeys
5 storeys
20000
5 storeys

2 storeys
5 storeys
10 storeys

2 storeys
10 storeys

45.5 HVAC riser space for heating only and 6 ac/h mechanical ventilation
45.4 HVAC riser space for heating only and 3 ac/h mechanical ventilation
Service distribution 45-7

Table IV Floor area percentages occupied by HVAC plant Table IV Continued

System type Building size (m 2 ) System type


2
Building size (m )

2000 5000 10 000 20 000 2000 5000 10 000 20 000

OFFICES HOTELS, continued

Heating only, natural ventilation: Two pipe fan coils to bedrooms,


Central plant 1.11.4 0.70.8 VAV and terminal reheat to
Terminals: radiators 0.60.7 0.60.7 public rooms:
Central plant 2.53.0 1.62.1 1.21.3
Heating only, mechanical Air handling plant 5.86.6 3.94.5 3.24.2
ventilation: Heat rejection cooling towers 0.60.7 0.40.5 0.30.4
Central plant 1.11.4 0.70.8 Variations:
Air handling plant 4.66.4 3.65.1
Floor by floor AHU 2-storey 4.75.7 4.25.2 4.04.9
Terminals: radiators 0.40.5 0.40.5
Floor by floor AHU 5-storey 5.76.7 4.45.4 4.25.1
Heat rejection by air-cooled 2.02.6 1.52.0 1.52.0
Four-pipe fan coil system condenser
(3 ac/h primary air):
Central plant 3.84.2 2.02.3 1.11.5 0.81.2 PLACES OF ASSEMBLY
Air handling plant 4.6 2.7 1.6 1.6
Heat rejection cooling towers 1.21.4 0.60.8 0.40.6 0.30.5 VAV and terminal reheat:
Central plant 5.36.1 2.73.4
Variations: Air handling plant 7.811.4 6.53.4
Floor by floor AHU 5-storey 3.6 2.7 2.6 Heat rejection cooling towers 1.31.8 0.81.2
Floor by floor AHU 10-storey 5.4 3.5 2.6
Heat rejection by air-cooled 3.24.3 1.82.8 1.22.4 0.72.4 Variation:
condenser Heat rejection by air-cooled 4.25.9 2.73.7
Floor-mounted terminals 1.0 1.0 0.5 0.4 condenser

VAV and perimeter heating:


Central plant 3.84.2 2.02.3 1.11.5 0.81.2
Air handling plant 7.510.8 6.09.0 4.08.7 2.37.7
Heat rejection cooling towers 1.21.4 0.60.8 0.40.6 0.30.5
Terminals: radiators 0.40.5 0.40.5 0.40.5 0.40.5

Variations:
Floor by floor AHU 5-storey 6.012.0 4.810.4 3.79.2
Floor by floor AHU 10-storey 7.815.6 7.810.4 3.79.0
Heat rejection by air-cooled 3.24.3 1.82.8 1.22.4 0.72.4
condensers

RETAIL

Four-pipe fan coil system:


Central plant 2.52.8 1.52.1 1.01.3
Air handling plant 3.43.5 3.23.3 3.13.2
Heat rejection cooling towers 0.8l.0 0.50.7 0.50.7

Variations:
Floor by floor AHU 2-storey 6.012.0 3.1 3.0
Floor by floor AHU 5-storey 7.815.6 3.9 3.0
Heat rejection by air-cooled 3.24.3 1.82.8 2.03.7 1.93.3
condenser

VAV and terminal reheat: root plant


Central plant 2.52.8 1.52.1 1.01.3
vertical riser
Air handling plant 6.712.9 6.411.1 5.59.9
Heat rejection cooling towers 0.81.0 0.50.7 0.50.7

Variations:
Floor by floor AHU 2-storey 6.512.2 6.112.0 5.911.8
Floor by floor AHU 5-storey 7.813.8 7.111.8 5.911.8
Heat rejection by air-cooled 2.53.7 2.03.7 1.93.3
condenser

HOTELS

Heated only, mechanical


ventilation:
Central plant 2.53.0 1.62.1 1.21.3
Air handling plant 5.0 4.8 4.7
basement plant
Terminals: radiators 0.4 0.4 0.3
a c
Four-pipe fan coil system:
Central plant 2.53.0 1.62.1 1.21.3
Air handling plant 2.7 2.7 2.6
Heat rejection cooling towers 2.02.6 1.52.0 1.52.0

Variations:
Floor by floor AHU 2-storey 3.3 2.8 2.6
Floor by floor AHU 5-storey 3.3 2.6 2.6
Heat rejection by air-cooled 1.52.0 1.52.0 1.52.0
condenser

VAV and perimeter heating:


Central plant 2.53.0 1.62.1 1.21.3
Air handling plant 6.07.0 4.46.0 4.75.9
Heat rejection cooling towers 0.60.7 0.40.5 0.30.4

Variations: b d
Floor by floor AHU 2-storey 4.77.5 4.77.4 4.76.8
Floor by floor AHU 5-storey 5.08.4 5.07.2 4.66.5
Heat rejection by air-cooled 2.02.6 1.52.0 1.52.0
45.6 Examples of showing good connection of plant areas to
condensers vertical risers. a Section. b Plan. c Section. d Plan
45-8 Service distribution

duct duct
depth: depth:
600 600
main vertical riser occupies 500 500
horizontal service space due 400 400
to offset (or rotation of) core 300 300

18-21 m from 18-21 m from


vertical riser vertical riser

plant rooms remote from risers


result in transition zones required
to connect with vertical risers a b
45.7 Examples of poor distribution efficiency: avoid these 45.8 Effects of riser location on duct depths, a A building 40 m
square with air duct located at the corner. The longer the duct,
the deeper it must be where it joins the riser. This increases the
size of the suspended ceiling or raised floor zone, b With the
riser located centrally the duct runs are shorter and their depths
are reduced

access for
flue cleaning emergency exit
water
900 treatment
emergency exit divided flue
chimney plant

sink
1200 750

750
900

1350 1350 1500


750
pressure unit

walkway over boilers


750
W
sump
space for
floor trench for fuel oil circulating
pipework, electric power pumps
space for tube cleaning
and control cable
B and withdrawal or for
moving a boiler into or 750
alternative position out of room whichever
for main door is the greater personnel
door 750

control and oil pumping


instrumentation and filtering
unit

45.9 Plant room space using oil-fired, three boiler installation


Service distribution 45-9

Table V Builders work air ducts and plenums Table VII Calorifier capacity and dimensions

Notes on Use Capacity Dimensions Heater Dimensions


litres including insulation, battery Z
1 The use of builders work enclosures as air ducts and plenums should be very
mm withdrawal mm
carefully evaluated at the early stages of design. In many cases, they do not
(max)
represent a cheaper solution in terms of overall building costs. Sheet metal and
Diameter Height 8 mm
building materials should be compared in terms of costs, performance and
d h
construction aspects.

2 The use of builders work supply ducts should be generally avoided. Filtered 500 700 1800 800 750
and thermally treated air requires careful handling. If such ducts are used, the 650 800 1800 1000 750
expected standards of air tightness, insulation and moisture control are difficult 800 850 1900 1000 750
and costly to achieve. Standards of workmanship should be very high and 1000 950 1900 1150 750
require great care to enforce in practice. 1200 1000 2100 1150 750
1500 1150 2100 1300 850
Summary of technical considerations 2000 1150 2500 1300 850
Energy Increased fan power; friction coefficient increases for brick/block/ 2500 1300 2600 1450 950
implications concrete ducts when compared to sheet steel: 3000 1350 2700 1500 1050
4000 1450 3100 1600 1050
1.4 for fair-faced brickwork 5000 1600 3100 1750 1150
2.0 for rough-finished brickwork 6500 1700 3400 1850 1300
Fan power is directly proportional to friction coefficient.

Thermal Thermal losses increase; greater absorption of heating or cooling Dimension Z has been determined on the basis of angled withdrawal of the heater
losses/gains energy by thermally heavy containing walls. System time constants battery.
increase, can impose control problems. Duct lining to reduce If battery withdrawal normal to the wall is required, dimension W should be
losses, must be considered with care to avoid introducing fine increased by B-Z.
fibres into the air stream. Regular inspection and maintenance is Inspection holes should be easily accessible.
required. Vertical spindle glandless in-line pumps can be accommodated within the overall
space.
Leakage and Brick and blockwork is porous; settlement, expansion and When horizontal direct-driven pumps are required, dimension W should be
filtration contraction will result in significant leakage, particularly through increased by 300 to 600 mm depending on the make of pump. Dimensions are
mortar joints; not recommended without a generous allowance for based on conventional storage calorifiers.
leakage. Brick or blockwork must be rendered or plastered,
preferably both sides. Access for personnel is required to allow for Key to symbols used in Figure 45.10
resealing of the duct. Adverse effect on the standard of filtration. X Space at sides and rear of calorifiers, nominal allowance 750 mm with a
Full consideration should be given to differential pressures across minimum of 700 mm.
containing walls; if supply and extract ducts run adjacent, pressure Y Space between adjacent calorifiers, nominal allowance 600 mm with a minimum
differentials can be appreciable. of 550 mm.
Z Space for withdrawal of heater battery.
Construction Branches leaving large vertical risers can be problematic: (a) Detail R Minimum space above calorifier, dimensions allowed:
constrains of sheet steel duct connections is crucial. (b) Structurally, passing up to 1000 litres 750 mm
the branch through a highly stressed element of the building. 1200 to 3000 litres 1050 mm
Specification Involvement in the design of builders work ducts maybe outside 4000 to 6500 litres 1350 mm
the scope of the standard HVAC services, eg defined by ACE S Space for supporting feet or plinth, 100300 mm depending on method of
agreements. It is important to establish early in the design who will support.
take responsibility for design and site supervision.

Table VI Boiler and boiler room sizes

Total installed Clear dimensions of boiler Boiler Minimum dimensions of door


Boiler power room (mm) Boiler dimensions (mm) masses openings, (mm)
kW t
Length Width Height Length Width Height Width Width Height
L W H* l w h A B

9000 19500 12000 5400 6325 3175 3475 22 4200 3900 4200
7500 19200 11100 5100 5850 3125 3175 19 4200 3900 3900
6000 17400 10300 5100 6000 2700 3150 16 3600 3300 3900
4500 16800 10200 5100 5075 2650 3150 14 3600 3300 3900
3600 16200 9300 4500 4475 2450 2475 11 3300 3000 3000
3000 15600 9300 4500 5050 2375 2350 9 3300 3000 3000
2400 15300 9000 4500 4425 2300 2275 8 3300 3000 3000
1950 15000 8400 4200 4000 2275 2150 7 3300 3000 2700
1500 14400 7800 4200 3525 2000 1950 5 3000 2700 2700
1200 14400 7800 4200 3900 1950 2075 5 3000 2700 2700
900 14400 7800 3900 3750 1950 1975 4 3000 2700 2700
750 14100 7200 3900 2825 1800 1750 3 2700 2400 2400
600 14100 7200 3900 3075 1950 1975 3 3000 2700 2700
450 12900 6000 3900 2675 1500 1725 2 2400 2100 2400

*A nominal 2100 mm has been allowed between walkway and ceiling. This dimension may be reduced to 1500 mm locally under beams
Location depends on building design
Some boilers require additional space, eg rear access doors, tube cleaning and withdrawal
45-10 Service distribution

Table VIII Spaces for multiple calorifiers

Total storage capacity and dimensions of spaces for two For each additional Minimum width of
calorifiers calorifier add L door opening
mm mm
Capacity L W H (mm)
litres mm mm mm

1000 3600 2400 3000 1500 800


1300 3600 2400 3000 1500 900
1600 3900 2400 3000 1500 900
2000 3900 2700 3000 1500 1200
2400 4200 2700 3600 1800 1200
3000 4500 2700 3600 1800 1200
4000 4500 2700 3900 1800 1200
5000 4800 3000 3900 2100 1600
6000 4800 3300 4200 2100 1600
8000 5100 3300 4800 2100 1600
10000 5400 3600 4800 2400 1800
13 000 5700 3900 5100 2400 1800

possible
attenuators
R

exhaust
air riser
H air handling unit
(min)
h

outside
air riser
S
supply air
return air from
ceiling void
W
a toilet below
exhaust air

45.11 Plant room for floor-by-floor VAV AHU

L1

X Y

access
a
return air fan
B
withdrawal e
space attenuator
Y L
fresh air louvres

main filter

spray coil

X Z b
fan attenuator

reheater
X
withdrawal space 19 m 3/s
pre-heater d and above (40,000 ft3/min)
1m
b
b sump
45.12 Built-up single duct air-conditioning plant room. Space
45.10 Vertical storage calorifier space additional to this will be required for withdrawing the coils,
requirements. a Section, b Plan. See Tables VI depending on the size and position of the equipment.
and VII and key on p. 45-9 a Elevation, b Plan
Service distribution 45-11

Table IX Floor-by-floor AHU arrangements

Configuration Comments

Central fans serving main outdoor air and exhaust air risers.
Size of risers can be minimised if only minimum fresh air supplied.
Effectiveness of free cooling reduced.

Outdoor air and exhaust air shafts, no rooftop air handling plant.

Floor by floor air and exhaust air.


No rooftop air handling plant required and avoidance of risers within the building.
Improves nett to gross floor area ratio.
Problems could be experienced in siting outdoor air and exhaust air louvers on The building elevation.

Table X Air-conditioning plant sizes

Air Dimension (m) Plant room % of Building


volume at OA m3/min
2
m3/s a b c d e h Area Minimum access m per per m2
m2 m X m m3/s

9.438 9.40 3.12 2.55 2.85 1.15 3.50 49.60 2.00 X 2.00 5.25 3.50%
14.157 10.20 4.10 2.55 3.75 1.15 3.80 63.75 2.30 X 2.30 4.50 3.00%
18.875 10.60 4.10 3.20 1.90 1.40 4.20 68.80 2.60 X 2.60 3.65 2.40%
23.595 10.90 5.00 3.20 2.30 1.40 4.60 80.70 2.75 X 2.75 3.32 2.25%
28.314 11.20 5.00 3.80 2.30 1.70 5.10 86.20 3.10 X 3.10 3.05 2.00%

double door, double door,


louvred louvred
air vent

W1
LV
gate, with bund
wall if required

air vent
including space for future panels

including space for future panels


TX1

W3
HV

HV switchgear
LV switchgear
cable trench

cable trench

D1 W2
D2 D3
LV
gate, with bund
wall if required
TX2

air vent
HV

air vent 45.13 Electrical sub-station


plan door, louvred door, louvred space requirements
45-12 Service distribution

Table XI Percentage of gross floor area occupied by electrical plant

Installation Building size (m 2 )

2000 5000 10 000 20 000

GENERAL-PURPOSE OFFICE

Electrical load (kVA) 40110 100280 200560 4001100

1 Transformer
Liquid 1 0.25 0.120.15
2 0.25
Cast resin 1 0.22 0.100.14
2 0.17

2 HV switchroom
RMU 1 0.28 0.14
2 0.21
Panels 1 0.33 0.17
2 0.22

3 LV switchroom
rear access 1.67 0.67 0.33 0.170.18
front access 1.20 0.48 0.24 0.120.13

4 Packaged substation (1000 kVA) 0.69 0.350.42

GENERAL-PURPOSE OFFICE WITH AIR CONDITIONING

Electrical load (kVA) 80280 200700 4001400 8302800

1 Transformer
Liquid 1 0.50 0.240.33 0.140.17
2 0.50 0.220.30
Cast resin 1 0.44 0.200.27 0.120.15
2 0.34 0.140.21

2 HV switchroom
RMU 1 0.56 0.28 0.14
2 0.42 0.21
Panels 1 0.46 0.33 0.17
2 0.44 0.22

3 LV switchroom
rear access 1.67 0.67 0.37 0.25
front access 1.20 0.48 0.27 0.19

4 Packaged substation(s) (1000 kVA) 1.46 0.60.91 0.370.82 (2 no)

HIGH-TECH OFFICE

Electrical load (kVA) 190460 7301600 14003300 29006500


1 Transformer
Liquid 1 0.550.66 0.33
2 1.10 0.550.60 0.30
3 1.00 1.001.05
Cast resin 1 0.490.54 0.270.30
2 0.76 0.340.41 0.210.23
3 0.68 0.340.40

2 HV switchroom
RMU 1 0.56 0.28 0.14
2 0.42 0.21
3 0.56 0.28
Panels 1 0.66 0.33 0.17
2 0.44 0.22
3 0.55 0.28
3 LV switchroom
rear access 1.65 0.74 0.51 0.46
front access 1.20 0.54 0.38 0.32
4 Packaged substation(s) (1000 kVA) 1.461.61 0.801.64 (2 no) 0.82 (2 no) 1.48 (4 no)

RETAIL

Electrical load (kVA) 400650 10001700 20003200 40006500

1 Transformer
Liquid 1 1.40 0.610.66 0.33
2 1.10 0.440.60 0.30
3 1.00 0.500.52
Cast resin 1 1.10 0.540.60 0.30
2 0.67 0.380.41 0.45
3 0.68 0.360.41

2 HV switchroom
RMU 1 1.40 0.56 0.28
2 0.42 0.21
3 0.56 0.28
Panels 1 1.70 0.66 0.33
2 0.88 0.44 0.22
3 0.55 0.28

3 LV switchroom
rear access 1.65 0.74 0.51 0.46
front access 1.20 0.54 0.38 0.32
4 Packaged substation(s) (1000 kVA) 3.51 1.461.61 0.89 1.64 (2 no) 1.08 (4 no) 1.48 (6 no)
Service distribution 45-13

Table XI Continued

Installation Building size (m 2 )

2000 5000 10 000 20 000

HOTEL

Electrical load (kVA) 250 700 1500 3000

1 Transformer
Liquid 1 0.55 0.33 0.17
2 0.30
Cast resin 1 0.49 0.27 0.15
2 0.19

2 HV switchroom
RMU 1 0.56 0.28 0.14
2 0.42 0.21
Panels 1 0.66 0.33 0.17
2 0.44 0.22

3 LV switchroom
rear access 1.67 0.73 0.51 0.46
front access 1.20 0.53 0.38 0.32

4 Packaged substation(2) (1000 kVA) 1.46 0.91 0.82 (2 no)

Table XII Percentage of gross floor area occupied by standby electrical plant Table XV Switchgear, air circuit breaker, space requirements

2
Electrical load (kVA) Space required (m ) Current Dimensions (m) Area Weight
rating m2 kg
200 500 1250 A D2 W2 H2

1 Generator single machine, water 33 46 600 3.65 0.65 2.25 2.40 438
cooled 15 dBA enclosure 800 3.65 0.65 2.25 2.40 438
1200 3.85 0.70 2.30 2.70 535
2 U P S : ( a ) static 17 25
1600 3.85 0.75 2.30 2.90 463
(b) rotary 56 71
2400 3.85 0.95 2.30 3.65 590
(c) battery 13 22

Table XIII Riser space for power distribution

Allowance Comments Table XVI HV switchgear, oil circuit breaker, space requirements
Building type

Max s/c Current Dimensions (m) Area Weight


Speculative office 0.230.29 This includes provision for Landlord riser
rating rating m2 kg
High tech, 0.250.29 Applies where local PDUs are in use MVA A W2 H2
D2
dealing office

0.500.55 Applies where duplicate UPS distribution system 250/350 400 4.20 0.65 2.95 2.75 680
is installed alongside a normal power distribution 800 4.20 0.60 2.25 2.55 680
system 1200 4.20 0.65 2.95 2.75 680
For prestige high star-rated hotels, it is recommended that 1600 4.65 0.95 2.30 4.45 1190
Hotels
each room has its own separate lighting and power circuits. 2000 4.65 0.95 2.30 4.45 1220
This will influence distribution board sizes and consequently
riser space. Transformer height H1 includes necessary height clearance, H2 and H3 exclude
clearances
Two cable trays should be installed per riser: one to support
sub-mains distribution and the other to carry the numerous
telecommunications cable, video, PA and other services found
in a modern hotel. The latter tray should be sized at 300 mm
per 150 bedrooms

Table XVII Cross-sectional zones

Table XIV 116 V/433 V oil-filled transformer space requirements Zone Letter Comment

Transformer Dimensions (m) Area Weight Structural A Specified by structural engineer


rating m2 kg Services B 50 mm deflection and tolerance
kVA D1 W1 H1 Approximately 500 mm HVAC duct or terminal device
C
D 50 mm support and tolerance
300 3.35 2.90 3.10 9.75 1439 E 50150 mm sprinkler sub-zone
500 3.50 3.00 3.30 10.50 2245 F 150 mm lighting and ceiling sub-zone
750 3.55 3.05 3.25 10.85 2910
Headroom G Specified by client and architect
1000 3.80 3.20 3.45 12.25 3590
1500 4.00 3.50 3.70 14.00 5180 Raised floor H Data, communications, small power
45-14 Service distribution

dealers duct leaving riser/core


min norm space below deep beams consider universal
structural final terminal conn. only columns as beams
A
zone vav terminal box
B

services C 700 A
750
zone D 850/
E B

500
1000 C
F 400 D
E
F

headroom G
main duct run-outs
below normal
max beam size G

raised floor H 200 250


450+
FFL
H
45.14 Typical cross-section for structure and services
Key for 45.14 to 45.18 is given in Table VII 45.15 Horizontal service distribution with universal steel beams

primary duct zone


secondary duct zone vav terminal box primary service zone elevation

A structural
C zone
D B
E
F

FFL
H

45.16 Horizontal service distribution with tapered beams

elevation
vav terminal box
structural zone

A
primary service zone
B
E
F

primary service zone

FFL

45.17 Horizontal service distribution with haunched tapered beams


Service distribution 45-15

balanced
A flue
B domestic
room hot water
C D combi
E thermostat
boiler
F (inc.
extract duct pump)

gas flow

G
return

floor box floor outlet


rising water
main
H
45.21 Domestic central heating and hot water system using
cable tray supply duct/ pipework gas-fired combination boiler
vav terminal box/
fan coil unit

45.18 Horizontal service distribution with floor supply system

10

8 11

hot cold
main cold water
hot

supply tank 9
heating system-
header tank

7
rising domestic hot
flue
main water draw off
(water) 6 cold
hot water tank
(calorifier)
controls radiators

flow

boiler return

gas motorised valve


pump
hot

45.19 Domestic central heating system using conventional gas cold


boiler, small bore pumped supply to radiators on two-pipe
system, and gravity circulation to heat domestic hot water hot

1 2 3 4 5

45.22 Combination boiler

Key:
1 Gas inlet
2 Domestic hot water supply
3 Water inlet
4 Heating water flow
water out 5 Heating water return
hot gases from 6 Combination gas valve
combustion 7 Heating circulating pump
water in
gas 8 Heating element
9 Hot water coil
45.20 Diagrammatic representation of a water boiler, in this 10 Balanced flue
case using gas 11 Expansion vessel
45-16 Service distribution

draw-off A transformer and associated switchgear chamber is shown in


45.13, the dimensions for which are given in Tables XIV, XV and
XVI.
immersed
electric element 3.09 Suspended ceilings and raised floors
water supply 405.14 to 45.18 show spaces required for horizontal distribution
with explanation in Table XVII.
45.23 Diagram of electric immersion heater in hot water
cylinder

4 DOMESTIC HEATING AND HOT WATER


3.08 Electrical equipment 45.19 is a diagrammatic representation of a traditional domestic
Table XI gives information enabling the allocation of space water-borne heating and stored hot water system. A diagram of the
required for general electrical services, while Table XII covers the workings of this gas-fired boiler is shown in 45.20. A more modern
provision of stand-by plant that might be required in buildings system using a combination boiler, which generates the hot water
such as hospitals. The space required for the electrical risers is on demand, is shown in 45.21, and the boiler in 45.22. A domestic
given in Table XIII. electric hot water storage heater is shown in 45.23.
46 Materials
CI/Sfb: Ya
Uniclass: V

KEY POINTS: of water pipes and fittings mentioned below.


Changes are occurring all the time, always refer to The editor would be particularly grateful for notification of any
manufacturers changes that need to be made in this chapter in subsequent
Not all materials are, or perhaps ever will be, totally reprintings.
metricated

2 STEEL
Contents
1 Introduction 2.01 General
2 Steel BS 6722: 1986 lays down the preferred metric dimensions to size
3 Timber all kinds of metal wires, bars and flat products, both ferrous and
4 Bricks and blocks non-ferrous. These preferred dimensions are as below, with the
5 Precast concrete first preferences in ordinary type and the second in italics.
6 Aluminium The preferences (in mm) for bars and the thickness of flat
7 Roofing products are:
8 Glass
0.10, 0.11, 0.12, 0.14, 0.16, 0.18, 0.20, 0.22, 0.25, 0.28, 0.30,
9 Windows and doors
0.35, 0.40, 0.45, 0.50, 0.55, 0.60, 0.70, 0.80, 0.90.
10 Pipes for plumbing and drainage
11 Materials for electricity supply and distribution 1.0, 1.1, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8, 2.0, 2.2, 2.5, 2.8, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5,
5.0, 5.5, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, 9.0.

10.0, 11.0, 12.0, 14.0, 16.0, 18.0, 20.0, 22.0, 25.0, 28.0, 30.0,
1 INTRODUCTION
35.0, 40.0, 45.0, 50.0, 55.0, 60.0, 70.0, 80.0, 90.0.
In the very first edition of this handbook, this chapter gave
information about the metrication of materials which up until then 100.0, 110.0, 120.0, 140.0, 160.0, 180.0, 200.0, 220.0, 250.0,
had always been supplied to imperial dimensions, quantities and 280.0, 300.0.
weights. Now that the metrication process has almost been
The preferences for the widths and lengths of flat products are:
completed (with exceptions noted below), this chapter is intended
to give information about the dimensions of materials which may 400, 500, 600, 800, 1000, 1200, 1250, 1500, 2000, 2500,
affect the planning of a building. Of necessity it is neither totally 3000, 4000, 5000, 6000, 8000, 10 000.
complete, nor can it always be completely up to date.
It has now become evident that some materials, mainly those 2.02 Plate, strip and bars
with a long history behind them and possibly a phasing-out in the The tables of commonly available sizes from the previous edition
future, will not be metricated; although their parameters may be are here reprinted: Table I for steel plates, Table II for hot-rolled
expressed in metric units. Attention may also be drawn to the case flats and Tables III to V for rounds, squares and hexagons.

Table I Mild steel plate sizes

Thickness 2000 2500 3000 4000 4000 4000 4000 5000 5000 5000 6000 6000 6000 8000 8000 8000 10 000 10 000

1000 1250 l500 1500 1750 2000 2500 1500 2000 2500 1500 2000 2500 1500 2000 2500 2000 2500

6
8
10
12.5

15
20
25
30

35
40
45
50

60
65
70
75

80
90
100
110

130
150

46-1
46-2 Materials

Table II Hot rolled flats

Width Standard thickness (mm)


(mm)
3 5 6 8 10 12 15 18 20 25 30 32 35 40 45 50 60 65

25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
180
200
220
250
275
300
325
350
375
400
425
450
475
500
525
550
575
600

Table III Rounds for all purposes

Diameter Mass/ Diameter Mass/ Diameter Mass/ Diameter Mass/


Standard length Standard length Standard length Standard length
mm kg/m mm kg/m mm kg/m mm kg/m

5.5 0.187 20.5 2.59 58.5 21.1 170.0 178


6.0 0.222 21.0 2.72 60.0 22.2 175.0 189
6.5 0.260 21.5 2.85 62.0 23.7 180.0 200
7.0 0.302 22.0 2.98 65.0 26.0 185.0 211
7.5 0.347 23.0 3.26 67.0 27.7 190.0 223
8.0 0.395 23.5 3.40 68.0 28.5 195.0 229
8.5 0.445 24.0 3.55 70.0 30.2 200.0 247
9.0 0.499 25.0 3.85 71.5 31.5 210.0 272
9.5 0.556 25.5 4.01 75.0 34.7 220.0 298
10.0 0.617 26.0 4.17 78.0 37.5 230.0 326
10.5 0.680 26.5 4.33 80.0 39.5 240.0 356
11.0 0.746 27.0 4.49 85.0 44.5 250.0 385
11.5 0.815 28.5 5.01 90.0 49.9 260.0 417
12.0 0.888 32.0 6.31 95.0 55.6 270.0 449
12.5 0.963 35.0 7.55 100.0 61.7 280.0 483
13.0 1.04 38.0 8.90 105.0 68.0 290.0 518
13.5 1.12 40.0 9.86 110.0 74.6 300.0 555
14.0 1.21 42.0 10.9 115.0 81.5 320.0 631
14.5 1.30 43.0 11.4 120.0 88.0 330.0 672
15.0 1.39 45.0 12.5 125.0 96.3
16.0 1.58 46.0 13.1 130.0 104
16.5 1.68 50.0 15.4 135.0 112
17.0 1.78 51.0 16.0 140.0 121
17.5 1.88 52.0 16.7 145.0 130
18.0 2.00 52.5 17.0 150.0 139
18.5 2.11 55.0 18.7 155.0 148
19.0 2.23 55.5 19.0 160.0 158
20.0 2.47 57.0 20.0 165.0 168
Materials 46-3

Table IV Squares Table V Hexagons Table VI British Standard structural steel sections to BS4: Part 1: 1993

Nominal size Available masses per m run

Side Standard Mss/length A/F Standard Mass/length


Universal beams
mm kg/m mm kg/m

7.0 0.385 9.5 0.61 914 419 388, 343


8.0 0.502 11.0 0.82 914 305 289, 253, 224, 201
10.0 0.785 12.5 1.06 838 292 226, 194, 176
12.0 1.13 14.5 1.43 762 267 197, 173, 147, 134
686 254 170, 152, 140, 125
13.0 1.33 15.0 1.53
610 305 238, 179, 149
15.0 1.77 16. 1.85
610 229 140, 125, 113, 101
20.0 3.14 20.5 2.86
533 210 122, 109, 101, 92, 82
25.0 4.91
457 191 98, 89, 82, 74, 67
30.0 7.07 457 152 82, 74, 67, 60, 52
35.0 9.62 406 178 74, 67, 60, 54
40.0 12.6 406 140 46, 39
356 171 67, 57, 51, 45
356 127 39, 33
305 165 54, 46, 40
305 127 48, 42, 37
305 102 33, 28, 2 5
254 146 43, 37, 31
254 102 28, 25, 2 2
203 133 30, 25
2.03 Structural steel sections 203 102 23
Most steel sections of British origin are still based on the old 178 102 19
152 89 16
Imperial sizes although sized in metric dimensions and billed in
127 76 13
kilograms or tonnes. Table VI summarises the dimensions
available.
However, some are made in metric co-ordinated sizes, and these B
are also available from the Continent, as they have been ever since
steel construction started at the end of the nineteenth century.
D
Some of these are listed in Table VII.

2.04 Steel reinforcement for concrete


For details of sizes of these refer to Chapter 41, Structure. Universal columns

356 406 634, 551, 467, 393, 340, 287, 235


356 368 202, 177, 153, 129
3 TIMBER 305 305 283, 240, 198, 158, 137, 118, 97
254 254 167, 132, 107, 89
3.01 Timber used in building is either softwood or hardwood, 203 203 86, 71, 60, 52, 46
depending on species; each may be supplied sawn or finished. 152 152 37, 30, 23

Sizes are usually quoted ex, meaning the sawn size, and Table
VIII gives the normal reductions to find the finished size. B

3.02 Softwood D
Standard sizes for sawn softwood have been agreed to cover all
European countries, but with provision for some special sizes for
each country. These are summarised in Table IX. Joists
To the figures given in the tables a tolerance of 0.5 mm should
be allowed. Joinery standard allows for a high degree of 254 203 82
straightness, and both back and front are finished. Trim standard 254 114 37
203 152 52
allows for the back to be rough as concealed, and a lower
152 127 37
requirement for straightness. 127 114 29, 27
Standard softwood and hardwood profiles are available in a 127 76 16
114 114 27
number of varieties, of which tongue-and-groove floorboarding is 23
102 102
the commonest. Table X gives the standard dimensions of these. 102 44 7
Wood is normally supplied in lengths varying from 1.8 m in 89 89 19
76 76 15, 13
increments of 0.3 m up to a maximum of 6.3 m. The maxima vary
for different species and size of section.
Universal bearing piles

3.03 Hardwood
Hardwood is normally supplied in planks of specified thickness 356 368 174, 152, 133, 109
305 305 223, 186, 149, 126, 110, 95, 88, 7 9
but arbitrary width and length, depending on species and thickness.
254 254 85, 71, 63
The standard thicknesses are: 19, 25, 32, 36, 38, 44, 50, 63, 75, 203 203 54, 45
100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 mm.
46-4 Materials

Table VI Continued Table VI Continued

Nominal size Available masses per m run Nominal size Available masses per m run

Rectangular hollow sections, continued


D

400 150 128, 102, 83, 67, 53


400 120 96, 78, 63, 50
350 250 141, 112, 90, 73
t 350 150 115, 92, 75, 60, 48
300 250 128, 102, 83, 67, 53
300 200 115, 92, 75, 60, 48
Circular hollow sections 300 100 90, 72, 59, 48, 38
260 140 90, 72, 59, 48, 38
250 150 90, 72, 59, 48, 38, 30
660 dia 752, 612, 496, 392, 216
250 100 78, 63, 51, 41, 33
610 691, 562, 456, 361, 291
200 150 78, 63, 51, 41, 33, 27
559 628, 512, 416, 329, 266
200 120 70, 57, 46, 38, 30, 24
508 565, 462, 376, 298, 241, 194, 153, 123, 99, 78
200 100 65, 53, 43, 35, 28, 23
457 411, 335, 266, 216, 174, 137, 110, 89, 70
160 80 41, 34, 28, 22, 18, 14
406.4 295, 235, 191, 154, 121, 98, 79, 62
150 100 43, 35, 29, 23, 19, 15
355.6 204, 166, 134, 106, 85, 69, 54
120 80 27, 23, 18, 15
323.9 184, 150, 121, 96, 77, 62, 49, 39
120 60 20, 16, 13, 10
273 153, 125, 101, 80, 65, 52, 41, 33
100 60 18, 14, 12, 8.5, 7.2
244.5 135, 111, 90, 72, 58, 47, 37, 30
100 50 16, 13, 11, 8.8, 7.1, 6.7
219.1 98, 80, 64, 52, 42, 33, 26, 24
90 50 15, 12, 10, 7.4, 6.2
193.7 70, 56, 45, 37, 29, 23
80 40 13, 10, 8.4, 6.9, 5.6, 5.3
168.3 48, 39, 32, 25, 20
60 40 8.3, 6.9, 5.6, 4.6, 4.4, 3.7
139.7 32, 26, 21, 17
50 30 5.3, 4.4, 3.6, 3.4, 2.9
114.3 17, 14, 10
88.9 10, 8, 7
76.1 8.8, 7.1, 5.8
60.3 6.8, 5.6, 4.5 B
48.3 5.3, 4.4, 3.6
42.4 3.8, 3.1, 2.6
33.7 2.9, 2.4, 2.0 D
26.9 1.9
21.3 1.4

Channels
D
432 102 66
381 102 55
305 102 46
D 305 89 42
t 254 89 36
254 76 28
229 89 33
Square hollow sections 229 76 26
203 89 30
203 76 24
600 600 671, 611, 550, 487, 439 178 89 27
550 550 608, 555, 500, 443, 399, 355, 309, 263 178 76 21
500 500 498, 450, 399, 360, 320, 280, 238, 181 152 89 24
450 450 399, 355, 321, 286, 250, 213, 162 152 76 18
400 400 282, 251, 235, 191, 151, 122, 98 127 64 15
350 350 242, 217, 190, 166, 131, 106, 85 102 51 10.4
300 300 141, 112, 90, 73, 58 76 38 6.7
260 260 96, 78, 63, 50
250 250 115, 92, 75, 60, 48
200 200 90, 72, 59, 48, 38, 30
180 180 80, 64, 53, 43, 34, 27 A
160 160 70, 57, 46, 38, 30, 24
150 150 65, 53, 43, 35, 28, 23
t
140 140 49, 40, 33, 26, 21 A
120 120 41, 34, 28, 22, 18, 14
Equal angles
100 100 27, 23, 18, 15, 12
90 90 20, 16, 13, 10
80 80 18, 14, 12, 9, 7 250 250 128, 118, 104, 94
70 70 15, 12, 10, 7.4, 6.2 200 200 71, 60, 54, 49
60 60 12.5, 10.3, 8.4, 6.9, 5.6, 5.3 150 150 40, 34, 27, 23
50 50 8.3, 6.9, 5.6, 4.6, 4.4, 3.7 120 120 27, 22, 18, 15
40 40 5.3, 4.4, 3.6, 3.4, 2.9 100 100 22, 18, 15, 12
90 90 16, 13, 11, 9.6, 8.3
80 80 12, 9.6, 7.3
B

A
D
t
t
B
Unequal angles
Rectangular hollow sections

200 150 47, 40, 32


500 300 235, 191, 151, 122 200 100 34, 27, 23
500 200 166, 131, 106, 85 150 90 27, 22, 18
450 250 166, 131, 106, 85 150 75 25, 20, 17
400 300 166, 131, 106, 85 137 102 17, 15, 12
400 200 141, 112, 90, 73, 58 125 75 18, 15, 12, 10
Materials 46-5

Table VI Continued Table VII Metric steel structural sections


Sizes may be slightly larger or smaller than listed, varying for the different masses
given. For details see British Steel publication: Structural sections in accordance
Nominal size Available masses per m run
with European specifications

Unequal angles, continued Nominal size Mass (kg/m run) approximate

100 75 15, 13, 11 Beams with parallel flanges to Euronorm 1957


100 65 12, 10, 8.8
750 265 222, 210, 196, 185, 173, 160, 147, 137
80 60 8.3, 7.4, 6.4
600 225 184, 154, 144, 122, 108
75 50 7.4, 5.7
550 210 159, 134, 123, 106, 92
65 50 6.8, 5.2, 4.4
500 200 129, 111, 107, 91, 79
60 30 4.0, 3.4
450 190 104, 95, 92, 78, 67
40 25 1.9
400 180 84, 82, 76, 66, 57
360 170 70, 66, 57, 50
Parallel flange channels 330 160 60, 57, 49, 43
300 150 52, 49, 42, 37
270 135 44, 42, 36, 31
430 100 64 240 120 37, 34, 31, 26
380 100 54 220 110 32, 29, 26, 22
300 100 46 200 100 27, 25, 22, 18
300 90 41 180 90 22, 21, 19, 15
260 90 35 164 80 18, 16, 13
260 75 28 140 75 14, 13, 11
230 90 32 120 65 10, 8.7
230 75 26 100 55 8.1, 6.9
200 90 30
200 75 23 Parallel wide flange beams to Euronorm 5362
180 90 26
1000 300 349, 314, 272, 222
180 75 20
900 300 333, 291, 252, 198
150 90 24
800 300 317, 262, 224, 172
150 75 18
700 300 301, 241, 204, 166, 150
125 65 15
650 300 293, 225, 190, 138
100 50 10
600 300 285, 212, 178, 174, 151, 137, 129
550 300 278, 199, 166, 120
500 300 270, 187, 155, 107
450 300 263, 171, 140, 123, 100
400 300 256, 155, 125, 107, 92
360 300 250, 142, 112, 84
4 BRICKS AND BLOCKS
340 300 248, 134, 105, 79
320 300 245, 127, 98, 74
4.01 Bricks
300 300 238, 177, 117, 88, 70
The work size of the standard clay brick is 215 102.5 65 (co- 280 280 189, 103, 76, 61
ordinating size 225 112.5 75), and this brick is supplied in an 260 260 172, 93, 68, 54
240 240 157, 83, 60, 47
enormous variety of face colours and textures, strengths and other 220 220 117, 72, 51, 40
properties. Other brick sizes are made, mostly as specials in 200 200 103, 61, 42, 35
limited selections. Metric modular sizes have not achieved the 180 180 89, 51, 36, 29
160 160 76, 43, 30, 24
popularity envisaged in the previous edition. 140 140 34, 25, 18
Concrete bricks are covered in BS 6073:Part 2: 1981; the 120 120 27, 20, 15
100 100 20, 17, 12
following standard work sizes are given:
Equal angles to Euronorm 5677 and DIN 1028
(L H t) 290 90 90,
200 200 71, 60, 54, 49
215 65 103, 180 180 54, 51, 49, 46, 44, 41, 38, 36
160 160 45, 43, 41, 38, 36, 34
190 90 90 and 150 150 40, 34, 32, 27
130 130 28, 24, 20
190 65 90. 120 120 27, 22, 20, 18, 15
110 110 20, 17, 14
100 100 18, 15, 12, 9.3
4.02 Building blocks 90 90 21, 16, 12, 9.6
The standard sizes of blocks are laid down in BS 6073 Part 2: 1981
Unequal angles to Euronorm 5778 and DIN 1029
and given in Table XI. However, manufacturers should be
200 100 32, 27, 23
contacted to establish whether blocks of the size, quality and price 150 100 33, 29, 24
desired can be readily obtained. 150 90 27, 22, 18
150 75 22, 19, 15
125 75 19, 16, 14, 12
120 80 18, 15, 12
5 PRECAST CONCRETE 100 75 15, 14, 13, 12, 11, 9.3
100 65 13, 12, 11, 10, 8.8
5.01 Paving flags
These are manufactured to the requirements of BS 7263 Part 1:
1994 in the dimensions given in Table XII. Tactile flags are used
in the pedestrian pavement adjacent to pedestrian crossings to
indicate their presence to people who are visually impaired and Table VIII Reduction from basic size to finished size of sawn softwoods

their dimensions are shown in Table XIII. 46.1 shows details of


For sawn sizes of width or thickness (mm)
their construction. Purpose

15 Over 22 Over 35 Over 100 Over


5.02 Concrete kerbs and edgings to and to and to and to and 150
inc 22 inc 35 inc 100 inc 150
46.2 shows the now-standard kerbs and channels from BS 7263:
Part 1: 1994 which supersede those unmetricated sizes given in the
Trim 5 5 7 7 9
previous edition. 46.3 shows edgings and quadrants from the same Joinery and cabinet w o r k 7 7 9 11 13
standard.
46-6 Materials

Table IX Standard sizes of softwood

Thickness 50 60 63 75 80 90 100 115 120 125 138 140 150 160 175 180 200 220 225 240 250 260 275 300

35 e e e e e e e e e
38 h f fnu * fu * u * fhinsuw fhinuw fhinuw hu uw
uw
40 g
44 eh ehsw ehsw ehw ew e
47 uw uw uw uw uw uw uw uw w uw
50 h h ehuw a * f a * a * af * a * a * a u a u
58 i i i i
60 g a ag ag ag ag g g
63 efhi i * * * fh * ehinswu ehiswu h h
75 fhw i efhw ehiw * * * * ehw w
h
80 ag ag acg acg g acg acg g
95 h h h
100 a acfghuw acg h c huw ac fw ac * c huw a huw u cuw
115 f
120 cg c cg c c
125 f
140 a a ac a c c c
150 fu u u
160 a a a acg a a cg
250 fu
300 fu

Key: *Eurostandard preferred sizes


Additional sizes in the following countries:
a Austria, c Switzerland, e Ireland, f France, g Germany, h Netherlands, i Italy, n Norway, s Finland, u United Kingdom, w Sweden.

Table X Floor boards in mm from BS 1297: 1987

65 90 113 137
16

19

21

28

Table XI Standard sizes of building blocks from BS 6073: Part 2: 1981

Work thickness 60 75 90 100 115 125 140 150 175 190 200 215 220 225 250

Face size: L H
5 9 0 215 * * * * * * * * * * * *
5 9 0 190 * * * * * * * * *
5 9 0 140 * * * * * * * * *
440 290 * * * * * * * * *
4 4 0 215 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
4 4 0 190 * * * * * * * * *
4 4 0 140 * * * * * * * * *
3 9 0 190 * * * * * * * * *

Table XII Sizes and types of paving flags from BS 7263: Part 1: 1994 Table XIII Tactile slab dimensions for 46.1

Flag type Nominal (co-ordinating) size Work size Thicknesses Type of tactile Dimension (mm)
crossing tolerance 2 mm
flagstone
A plain 600 450 598 448 50, 63
X Y
B plain 600 600 598 598 50, 63

C plain 600 750 598 748 50, 63 TA/E 64 33


TA/F 66.8 33
D plain 600 900 598 898 50, 63
TAG 75 37.5
E plain
450 450 448 448 50, 70
TA/E tactile

F
400 400 398 398 50, 65
TA/F tactile

G
300 300 298 298 50, 60
TA/G tactile

When ordering use type letter(s) and thickness, eg A 50


Materials 46-7

X X X X X 6 ALUMINIUM
Y Y 6.01 Aluminium bars and flats
Aluminium bars are now made to the requirements of BS 6722:

Y
1986, for details of which see para 2.01 above. Tables XIV to XVI
are reprinted from the previous edition to indicate the commonly

X
available sizes.

X
6.02 Aluminium structural sections
Table XVII based on BS-1161: 1977 gives the sizes of available
sections, but does not cover lipped or bulbed sections, for which

X
refer to the BS.

X
7 ROOFING

7.01 Aluminium sheet for roofing

X
The standard for aluminium for roofing (CP143 Part 15: 1973) has
Y not changed since the previous edition. Sheeting comes to site in
a
coils 457 mm wide, and are passed through a machine to run up the
edges to form seams when applied in situ. Because of the supply
25
in coils it is not usually necessary to form joints transverse to the
5
standing seams. The material is available in thicknesses of 0.71
50 min

and 0.91 mm, and the seams will be at 365 mm centres.


b
7.02 Copper
46.1 Construction of tactile paving slabs. For X and Y Copper is now covered by BS EN 1172: 1996. Standard
dimensions see Table XIII thicknesses are 0.5, 0.6, 07, 0.8 and 1.0 mm. Widths less than or
a Plan. b Elevation equal to 1250 are supplied in lengths of 2 or 3 metres.

75
75

R16 to 19
255
150

a 125 b 125

R16 to 19

R16 to 19
12
to 15
12
to 15 R16 to 19
305

255
205

12
155

150

to 15
50

c 150 d 125 e 125

46.2 Precast concrete kerbs and


25 25
205 channels to BS7263 Part 1: 1994
25 a Bullnose kerb type BN. b 45
splayed kerb type SP. c Half battered
kerb type HB1. d Half battered kerb
125

125
125

type HB2. e Half battered kerb type


HB3. f Channel square type CS1. g
Channel square type CS2. h Channel
f 255 g 150 h 255 dished type CD
46-8 Materials

Table XVI Aluminium flat bars

Width Thickness (mm)


mm
1.6 2.5 3 4 6 10 12 16 25

X
X

10 X X
12 X X X X X
16 X X X X X
20 X X X X
25 X X X X X X X X
a 50 50 50 30 X X X X X X
b c
40 X X X X X X
50 X X X X X X
60 X X X X
80 X X X X X
100 X X X X X X
120 X X X
160 X X
200 X X
250 X X
150
255
or

305 or 455 305 or 455


d e
Two methods of copper roofing are available: traditional and
305 305 long-strip. Fully annealed copper strip conforming to BS 2870:
1980 C101, C102, or preferably C104 or C106 is used in
125
125

traditional roofing as detailed in Table XVIII. For long-strip


305

305

roofing the material used is 1/8 to 1/4 hard temper copper strip,
f h also in conformity with the above specification, and as shown in
Table XIX.
255

255
155
155

7.03 Lead
Sizes of milled lead sheet and strip are laid down in BS 1178:
1982, summarised in Table XX. The Code of Practice for roof
g 125 i 125 covering is BS 6915: 1988.
46.3 Edgings quadrants and angle kerbs to BS 7263: Part 1:
1994. a Round top edging type ER. b Flat top edging type EF. c
Bullnose edging type EBN. d Quadrants may have different 7.04 Zinc
profiles to match kerb types: types QBN, QHB or GSP plan. e Zinc is now covered by BS EN 988: 1997. It is available in metric
Elevation of quadrant. f Internal angle kerb type IA, plan. g thicknesses of 0.6, 0.65, 0.7, 0.8 and 10 mm, but as the old
Internal angle kerb type IA, elevation. h External angle kerb traditional gauge may still be encountered Table XXI from the
type XA, plan. i External angle kerb type XA, elevation previous edition is reprinted here.

8 GLASS
Table XIV Recommended metric sizes for aluminium and aluminium alloy Since our previous edition there has been something of a
round bars
revolution in the use of glass. This is due partly to Building
Diameter (mm)
Regulations and their influence on energy conservation which
makes the use of solar control and similar glasses virtually
3.0 12.0 30.0 65.0 130.0 mandatory in many situations. In addition, health and safety
4.0 14.0 32.0 70.0 140.0 legislation and regulation requires the use of safety glasses in
5.0 16.0 35.0 75.0 160.0
18.0 40.0 80.0
many places where ordinary glazing has been used in the past.
6.0 180.0
7.0 20.0 45.0 90.0 200.0 The complexities of this situation means that a full description
8.0 22.0 50.0 100.0 of each type (as in the previous edition) is now beyond the scope
9.0 25.0 55.0 110.0
10.0 28.0 60.0 120.0
of this handbook. There is really only one general glass
manufacturer in Britain, and their literature should be consulted for
details.
A summary of the different functions is given in Table XXII,
and the different types of glass related to these functions is covered
Table XV Recommended metric sizes for aluminium and aluminium alloy
by Table XXIII. Many of the types have proprietary names which
square bars
will be found in the trade literature, particularly Glass from
Side (mm) Pilkington United Kingdom Limited.
A general point on this table relates to the maximum sizes given.
3.0 8.0 20.0 50.0 120.0 It should not be assumed that panes of these sizes would
4.0 10.0 25.0 60.0 160.0 necessarily be safe. A procedure for determining the safe thickness
5.0 12.0 30.0 80.0 200.0
6.0 16.0 40.0 100.0 of glass for a specific pane size is given in BS 6262: 1982, Code
of practice for glazing for buildings.
Materials 46-9

Table XVII Aluminium structural sections to BS 1161: 1977 Table XVII Continued

Nominal size Thickness Mass (kg/m) Nominal size Thickness Mass (kg/m)

Web Flange

A B

A
A
Channels
Equal angles
240 100 9 13 12.5
120 120 10 6.47 200 80 8 12 9.19
7 4.68 180 75 8 11 8.06
160 70 7 10 6.58
100 100 8 4.31 140 60 7 10 5.66
6 3.34 120 50 6 9 4.19
80 80 6 2.59 100 40 6 8 3.20
80 35 5 7 2.29
5 2.23
60 30 5 6 6.69
60 60 3.5 1.17

50 50 5 1.62
3 0.836

40 40 3 0.647

30 30 2.5 0.404 D

B
I-section
A
160 80 7 11 7.64
140 70 7 10 6.33
120 60 6 9 4.77
B
100 50 6 8 3.72
Unequal angles 80 40 5 7 2.54
60 30 4 6 1.59

140 105 11 7.26


8.5 5.83 A
120 9 0 10 5.65
7 4.11 B
100 75 8 3.77
6 2.94
Tees
80 60 6 2.26
5 1.96
120 90 10 5.68
6 0 45 5 1.41
100 75 8 3.79
3.5 1.03
80 60 6 2.27
5 0 38 4 0.947 60 45 5 1.42
3 0.738 50 38 4 0.952

Table XVIII Thicknesses and sizes of copper sheet for traditional roofing Table XIX Maximum widths and lengths of copper strip for the long strip
system

Thickness Bay width Roll Standard Length of Mass


2
mm Standing mm width of sheet each sheet kg/m Thickness Width of Centres of Length of
seam to form bay m mm strip standing seams each panel
mm mm mm mm m

0.45 525 500 600 1.8 4.0 Normal conditions 0.6 600 525 8.5
0.60 525 500 600 1.8 5.4 Exposed conditions 0.6 450 375 8.5
0.70 675 650 750 1.8 6.3

9 WINDOWS AND DOORS imperial rounded dimensions, although they may be expressed in
millimetres. Co-ordinated dimensions do exist for new construc-
9.01 Windows and door frames are generally available in four tion, and the drawings in the previous edition are here reproduced
materials: as Tables XXIV to XXVI.

Wood
9.02 Doors
Steel
Although doors of steel and of aluminium construction are
Aluminium
manufactured for mainly external use, these are usually classified
Unplasticised vinyl chloride (UPVC)
as windows, and will be found in that section. Doors of basically
As much work of the industry is in the field of replacements for timber construction are available in old imperial sizes for
deteriorated existing windows and doors, it has tended to retain replacement purposes. Metrically co-ordinated sizes are shown in
46-10 Materials

Table XX Milled lead sheet and strip sizes to BS 1178: 1982 Table XXI Traditional Zinc gauges

BS Code no. Thickness Average weight Colour Gauge Thickness Mass


(mm) (kg/m 2 ) marking mm k g / m2

3 1.32 14.97 green 1 0.102 0.73


4 1.80 20.41 blue 2 0.152 1.10
5 2.24 25.40 red 3 0.178 1.28
6 2.65 30.06 black 4 0.203 1.16
7 3.15 35.72 white 5 0.254 1.83
8 3.55 40.26 orange 6 0.279 2.01
7 0.330 2.38
8 0.3811 2.74
9 0.432 3.11
10 0.483 3.48
11 0.559 4.02
Tables XXVII to XXVIII. Standard door leaf thicknesses are 40 or 12 0.635 4.57
44 mm, and heights 2040 mm internally, 1994 mm for external 13 0.711 5.12
14* 0.787 5.67
situations. 15* 0.914 6.58
Doors come in a variety of patterns, principally those shown in l6* 1.041 7.50
17 1.168 8.41
46.4 and 46.5. The different ways that these are used are covered
18 1.295 9.33
in Tables XXIX and XXX. 19 1.448 10.43
20 1.600 11.52
21 1.778 12.80
9.03 Disabled people
When specifying or designing doors and windows, consideration * Normal gauges for external building
should be given to the needs of disabled people. For wheelchair work nos 14, 15 and 16

Table XXII Functions of glazing from Pilkington United Kingdom Limited

Orientation of Principal Primary function


glazing requirement
Environmental control Fire Safety and Privacy and Structural
resistance security appearance strength
Solar Thermal Acoustic
control insulation insulation

Factor A B C D E F G

Vertical Curtain walling * * * *


Window * * * * *
Door * * *
Barrier * *
Partition * * * * *
Vision panel * * *

Horizontal or Sloping wall * * * *


sloping Roof glazing * * * *
* * *
Canopy
Floor * * *

110 110 110 110 110 110 110

110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110


110 110 110 110 240 240

400 600 1000 1500 400 400 600

46.4 Standard glazing in flush doors to BS 4787

users clear door openings should never be less than 750 mm, and
80
should preferably be 800 mm or greater, particularly when the
80 80 wheelchair may need to turn into the opening. It will be seen from
Tables XXVII and XXVIII that internal door sets of 900 mm with
single leaf, and external door sets of 1000 mm are minimum
requirements. Narrower doors should only be used for cupboards
or service spaces into which wheelchairs will not ever be required
46.5 Standard glazing in panelled doors to BS 4787 to enter.
Materials 46-11

Table XXIII Types of glass and glazing from Pilkington United Kingdom Limited

No. Type Functions (see Thicknesses Maximum size Minimum size when
Table XXII) (mm) (mm) supplied toughened
(mm)

1 Clear float glass 4 1500 2200 300 500


5, 6, 8, 10, 12 2000 4200
15 1700 4200
19 1500 4200

2 Insulating units B C various check with manufacturer

3 Low emissivity (<0.2) glass B 4 1500 2 2 0 9 300 500


6 2000 4200

4 Clear float glass with low E coating B 6, 10 2000 3500 300 750

5 Tinted float glass with very low E coating A B 6 2000 3 5 0 0 300 750

6 Tinted float glass with very low external reflection A 6 1500 2 2 0 0 300 750
2000 3500

7 High-performance reflective solar control coated float glass A 6 1500 2 2 0 0 300 750
2 0 0 0 3500

8 Medium-performance reflective solar control coated float A 6 2000 4200 300 500
glass

9 Medium-performance silver/bronze reflective solar control A 4 1500 2 2 0 0 300 500


coated clear float glass 5, 6 1800 3 3 0 0

10 Low/medium solar control body tinted glass A 4 (bronze, grey, green) 1500 2200 300 500
5, 6, 8, 10, 12 (bronze, grey) 2000 4200
6 (blue) 2000 300
6, 10 (green) 2000 4200

11 Spandrel panel of toughened glass with coloured ceramic A B 6, 8 10, 12 1500 3 0 0 0 300 500
coating

12 Spandrel panel of solar control glass of one of the above A B 6, 10 1500 2 6 0 0 300 750
types treated with a silicone opacifier

13 Laminated glass with a special acoustic cast-in-place (CIP) C 7, 9, 11, 13 and 17 2100 3500 300 300
resin interlayer

14 Clear glass with a 13 mm square electrically welded, D G 6 1985 3300


chemically treated steel wire mesh sandwiched in the centre
during the continuous rolling manufacturing process

15 As 14 but with a stronger and thicker steel mesh D E G 6 1985 3 3 0 0

16 As 14 but with using a textured glass D G 7 1985 3 5 0 0

17 As 15 using a textured glass D E G 7 1985 3 5 0 0

18 A product with three glass layers, an intumescent interlayer D 10 1400 2 0 0 0 (as tested)
and an ultraviolet interlayer giving Class B impact
performance to BS 6206 and 30 min fire integrity

19 As 18, but with four glass layers and two intumescent layers D 13 1400 2000 (as tested)
giving Class A impact performance and 60 min fire integrity

20 A product with four glass layers and three intumescent D 15 1600 2 6 0 0 (as tested)
interlayers for internal use

21 As 20 but with five glass layers and four intumescent layers D 21 1600 2 2 0 0 (as tested)

22 Combinations of 20/21 or 21/21 with an 8 mm cavity between D 44, 50 1400 2 0 0 0 (as tested)

23 A range of products as 20 to 22 but with additional glass D 18 1600 2 6 0 0 (as tested)


layers incorporating a UV filter layer. These are for external 27 1600 2 2 0 0 (as tested)
use where sunlight may degrade the intumescent interlayers 47, 56 1400 2 0 0 0 (as tested)

24 Toughened glass: a range of glass products manufactured by E G Details in the various types
subjecting final size edgeworked panes to a heating and
cooling treatment

25 Laminated glass: a range of products made by combining two C E F G 6.4 3210 2500
or more glass sheets with one or more plastic interlayers,
which may be of polyvinalbutyral (PVB) or of resin CIP. See
Table XXII

26 A product specifically for shop doors and windows using E


laminated anti-bandit glass permanently bonded to steel
beading to be internally fixed to conventional openings

27 A series of glasses having specially formulated coatings E various 1300 2400 (laminated)
which resist the transmission of electromagnetic radiation 2000 3500 (insulating)
using the Faraday cage principle. These are for use where
interference with computer or communication equipment must
be avoided

28 One-way glass having a partial mirror coating which allows E 6 mm annealed or 2100 3210
vision only from a dark side to a light one 6.4 mm laminated

29 One-way glass with vertical mirror stripes for where lighting E 4 1220 1840
levels are similar on each side

30 A frame containing two striped panes and an internal louvred E 400 400
glass allowing adjustment for vision or obscuration. only size available

31 Textured glass in a variey of patterns F 3 (not available toughened) 1200 1200 300 500
4 and 6

32 Acid etched glass F 4 and 6 1320 1840

33 Sand blasted glass F various


46-12 Materials

Table XXIII Continued

No. Type Functions (see Thicknesses Maximum size Minimum size when
Table XXII) (mm) (mm) supplied toughened
(mm)

34 Float glass printed with a ceramic ink design and F 415 1500 2 7 0 0 200 350
subsequently fired and toughened

35 Two sheets of float glass with a CIP resin layer formulated to A 8 2100 3500 300 500
reduce ultraviolet transmittance (three grades available)

36 An on-line pyrolitically coated float glass with a very high F 3, 4 and 6 2240 3300
reflectance and a low light transmittance. This, depending on
the lighting conditions will act either as a mirror or as a
viewing mirror

37 Silvered float glass for mirrors F various as for float

38 As 37 but decorated for advertisement purposes F various as for float

39 Stained glass F bespoke

40 Glass with self-adhesive coloured film F various

41 Glass with fired-on transfer F 412 1000 1500

42 Leaded glass: small individual pieces joined using lead cames. F 4 or less 2000 3500
The glass can be float or more commony textured

43 Bevelled glass F 4 or more 1200 1800 100 100

44 Brilliant cut glass F 412 1400 2500

45 Shaped cut glasses, panes with non-rectangular and curved F


sides

46 A total system combining superior engineering, fittings and G 10, 12


glass.

47 Another high performance cladding system with a flush G


all-glass exterior surface

48 Thick float glass C G 1025

transom height
chosen to allow
a view through
window
no transom
between 900
and 1200 mm
above floor
level

wall or safety
glazing complying
with BS 6180

46.6 Height of window opening to allow a view from a


wheelchair or a chair

Windows also need to be carefully designed so that a transom 10 PIPES FOR PLUMBING AND DRAINAGE
interrupting vision for a seated person should not be between 900
and 1200 mm from the floor, 46.6 Safety considerations also 10.01 Pipes for the conveyance of liquids and gases vary widely
dictate that no opening in a window (other than a french window) in material, quality, size and jointing methods. Many types are still
should be less than 800 mm from the floor; also it is desirable that based on inch measures and Whitworth screw threads, particularly
all glazing below this level should be of a safety type. The height as these were and are widely used not just in the United Kingdom
for window controls to be used by people in wheelchairs should be but also in continental Europe. Even where pipe sizes are
between 800 and 1000 mm from the floor, and no window control metricated, they do not always conform to the recommended series
should be above 1650 mm from the floor. of dimensions. This series requires the outside diameter of a pipe
Materials 46-13

Table XXIV Co-ordinating sizes of timber windows

450 600 900 1200

600

750

900

1050

1200

1350

1500

1800

600

750

900

1050

1200

1350

1500

2400
600

750

900

1050

1200

1350

1500

to be one of the following (in mm): 2.5, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, Stainless steel
20, 25, 32, 40, 50, 63, 75, 90, 110, 125, 140, 160, 180, 200, 225, Cast iron
250, 280, 315, 355, 400, 450, 500, 560, 630, 710, 800, 900, 1000, Plastics
1200, 1400, 1600, 1800 or 2000. Glass (for specialist laboratories, etc)
10.02 Pipe materials Vitrified clay.
Pipes are made of the following materials:

Steel Steel and copper are used in thick- and thin-walled versions,
Copper depending on the system of connection.
46-14 Materials

Table XXV Co-ordinating sizes of steel windows

600 800 900 1200


200 also 500 200
300

500

600

700

900

1100

1300

1500

2100
doors & panel

panel also 300 & 500 wide

W20 range (heavier duty) + module 100 range

1500 1800
200
300

500

600

700

900

1100

1300

1500

2100
doors & panel

panel also 300 & 500 wide

W20 range (heavier duty) + module 100 range