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~:~~~~:~:i::~ hind throUlJh the

's and paintings that Ieprl!Sl!nt her work,

but the beauty of her Illustrations has obscured the fact thai she Is an architect who bullds. In addition to her electrifying linages, thIS publkabon .ncludes hundreds of sketches, plans and models that offer a complete _MeW of both her programmabc and aosthebe a.ncerns TOlIIs wonen by tile architect and her office reveal specific concerns and solutions to each project

On the I!W! ol1he millennium, It IS firung that the wcd< of one thewctld" most radkal architects mould be _ted In ns entirely. Perfectly captured In

tJu, remarl<able book. laha Had,d's "".on ..,11 dazzle. entertain and a!ilound.

01 *attAlt ... LtdJCt!l'llft._~,

Ml.**"-1tom1Cp "'~IeIW!""*'~IWttft) fhIwINn:MII.~ V4r1fn~, WH r'!--.

..... ,..,.~~,..jII\1.~(shiIo,.oNIWlll'fhlll ~JQ"""~'IIIdurtl.~


Zaha Hadid

Zaha Hadid

The Complete Buildings and Projects

Essay by Aaron Belsky

With 428 illustrations, 3:28 in colour


Thames and Hudson

Any cop}' of ,til'S 0001( ISSUed ~ the plibhsher as a papethao:. IS sold ~ubJect to the cond~lIon 10;)[ It Soha.1! nOI by way of t',ad~ or ctherwue be !enl, resold, rwed out or athewse oro::ulat-ed WIthout the puMs~ers pnor consenlln any form of Dlnd rig Of (over other than thal In wh cO it JS pUbflShed and WIthout a SImilar coodoon Including these YlOrds being Imposed 001.a subseQu~nl pur<.h.aser

o 1998 and Hudson lId, London T~ and Images C 1998 Zaha Hadld IntrooLJctJon 0 1998 Aaron Setsl(y

All Rights Reserved No P<Jrt of thl~ publtC8ltQll may be rep,odLJ(ed or tronmlltted In a.ny form or by arTy means, electtOf'lIt or mernanrcal. Including phQ.tocopy. re(Otdmg Of any other Infonnallon Slorag~ and retneval "SyStem, WIthout Prior pelml5SiOn 111 Wfltrng hom the publtmel

BnlJsh Library Catalogumg-IIl·PubllCallO!1 Data

A C".aI.a~ogl.Je rKord to{ thiS book I:' av-allable from the 9rrl15h Library

ISBN 0-500-18084-3

800~ u(I1lgn by Adam Hay,london PMI-ed "-md bound lf1lt.1ty



The Camplete 6:u.1d nqs lind PtQjK:1<.

16 MALEVICH'S nKTONIK london, 1916-11

17 MUSEUM OF 1H'e ,.,INE1'tiNnt CENTURY lond<Jp.. 1977-78 11 DUTCH PARLIAM'iNT EXftNSION Th· H<l9Ue_ 197&-J9

1S IRl.!iH PRIMEMIN.ISl'ER'S .UlOENC£ Outfl,".191940

19 !.9 EATON PLACE: LOI'KIM. 1\)81....e.2

19 PARe DE LA VILLlTTI P.3~.s., 1982..$3

20 THf pfAX Hong Xong. 1982-83-

14 I11f wOltl0 (89 DfGREES) 19B)

.25 GJjI.o\ND a.tnibiNGS london, 1985

.28 HAJJON pLACE lonoon, 1985

28 MlLlUU COURt london,1985

Z9 Tl8I'S AND CIIIU'AJIVS M,lan, tsas

29 KYOTO IHSlALLAnONs, I<~to, 1985

3D ~4 CAtHCART ROAD london. 19a5-6G 32 HAMBUIitG DOCKl,;l.ND5 Ha.mburg 1956

33 NEW ro~, MANHAttAN-: A NEW CAWGFlAFHY 0': PLAN 1986 34 KURrURSTENOAMM 70 8eft,1'l. 1986

39 11M HOUSING (Jefl/n. '986-93

42 AZABU-JYUb:AN Tc~ t'926

43 IOMIGAYA To.;yo, '1986

44 WfST HOllYWOOD crYle C(NTRE Los M9l!'1e<.. 1987 4S Al wA,Ub ..... sPOars C£Nf1i:.£ Abu Ol'labt~ 198$

46 MEJROPOUS london. 1988

"7 1!'fWN 1000 \988

49 YICTORIA CtTY AREAL a~t1U\. 1'988 50 A IUW BARCIlONA 1939

51 1"01(\'0 "ORUM TClIt;VO. 1989

52: HAfEN511tA$$E D:E.VEL'OPMENT Homburg. 19.&9 56 MOONSOON SllppQIO.UlPlIn.. 1989-90-

60 'OUT,J Ch.Jl.L'98~

G I WCESTtR 5OUAR£ loOOQI'l. 1990

61 VrrRA WIRE 5TAnON W~I.lm fl.hell"l, GE"rlN1't)'. 1990-94

6S ART AND M'DlA CfNlRll Ou"<,("ldo~. 19B9.....g.]

n MUSIC:: VID(O P-A.Y~UOH GrO'llll'lgC1t. The NelhefiJl.nd1, 1m 74 HOrtL AND RUIDIiNTlIlL COMPUX Abu Dha~, t990

75 INTlIUUM 91 GfWllfIdori, GelfJ\ilrty, 1990

76 LONDON .7(1.M 199.

7B nu HAGUI VlUA.5 Tnt Hagu!'. 1991 eo 7Hf GRIAT IIrOP~A r..!~Ycw". 1992 84 vl$ION rOIll MADRID ''991

&6 euur ST1I'AUS5 AIitT HonL Il.ibr-m. Ge-rmany, 1992 e7 (ONCeR' HAU C01WI'lMgefl_ 19924)

sa RHflNAUHAnN A!£OEVI:LOPMENT Co!oorn!'. 1992 93 CAANUNTU", V~n~. 1993

96 spml.IAU vtA.Dl"lcy.s \/If'OtW-, 1994- 101 5pmALMA'R.KT e:l'.rrln. 1995

104 lYCrr FUN~IS CHAR.W DI GAUUf lDndol"j.199'5 lOS. PANCIlAs.tANI l.Of'ldon,I996 1064::1NOSOUfTHonL N~York.199S

110 B .. uePRINT PAVILION ltfl'n.lf1gll.un. Enqlaoo. '99-5 I 16 PRADO MUSIUM IXTENSION MOOtwj. '996

118 CA'RDIFI BAY OPERA HOUSE C<1(otff. Wales. 1<)94.-96

)i4 aOIlf:t:tHOUU O:TlNS!ON, VICTORIA AND ALBIRT MUSEU,.., LOl"IOOn 1996 130 WISl-t MA~I:I.INEl Wc;)ALO INVENTION VtefU'la, 1996

133 PAPER AItT Dur~. Gf«fl""'I. 199&

133 MAStER'S SEC1ION Vtnl«(" BIfMiII@. V.tI'llCe, 199Q HIS HA9.ITA!U !lRIOO! l.ondon. T~6

I~O lA FENIe.E vee-ce. '9%

143 PHILHARMONIC HAU LU1;tmbotJrg, 1997

151 LANDt$OARUNSCKJ,U 1999 we'll am RM n, Gtml-a'ny. 1997- 156 MUSEUM O'~ ISLAMI( Am OolJd. Qatar, 1997

1tiJ. HACKN[J EMPIR.E lOnOoo •• 991

164 CAMPUS CENTRE U"f'lOIi Lns1Jtule of lechnd.ogi. Ch'aqo, ~9'98 168 (:ON~POU.JrY ARTS CINTRI ClOOnnat1. 1998-

170 rURNJ1UR,[ AND Q5JfCT~

\72 Pro)e<tlnfofTJ'),4bOi'1

1711 EAh1b1iJoos

175 ~bl~!1QI\S



BEYOND 89 DEGREES Aaron Belsky

The (jim, 00 the- one haoo e",tnd1 our comprehe~StOtI or tl't. necewnes which luit' DOt lives, on ce ather hand. '; manage'll 10 eacre ioi of an Im~me dnd unescectcd ft(!rd 01 a('tlOI"o Our t.a'ot:fr'li 41"1<1 oor meltopoiltaJ1 ureets, ou olfl(~ .md fumtlthed loom~ "tiT sa lrNd UittO"1.atid our taeteees ..rp~CJIt'd ~Q 11();"'e '13 1(K"'cd lip r.~~uty Th~n u~thefllm.aQd buf$11hl~PlLSOfI'WDrfd Mundtr by~ d)'Ollmlt:-ol tile Ienth of a ~.~ tl1at no-v. L~thol!'

m list DI.lS f a ·.flung rc.ns .. nd debt.~. Wf' (91mb' (loG id'.1!fllUtOtlsfr 9'[) uctvelllO'g With the dOSC-lJP, ssece F!XPII"ds, with skh ... mcuoo. moo.etner1t IS ~endrd The l-nl<lrgen'leOl of a "napshOl does oot5Jmply fMdl?f motE:' pt(,OSl! WM\ In.any case ~v;K ~ble, lhou9h unclear ~t rL.'~fal! (>f'I11f~ ne\.,strual1r~' fOl'ma\1OnJ of th~ ~Ub,Kt So, too, skM n'tOljQ.n IlOt on eresenu fum' at QUA nutS 01 f'lO\Itmtnl bul Iew.>al, m OtefTI entirely Uf'lKnoYtn ooe ·""tllch, far 1rom )ool;u'H) I se ret<Jldt'd tap.d 1N'.'t!1fll!'tlt.s, g( me elfe.ct 01 ~ ngllt"ttr gl dJ/l9. ilooang, SUPE'fMtU(al mobOO~' E.Vldently a d!{rt1en1 nature epers I'uel:f ~o the cemea than OGlen5 10 the na~~ eye If an"" b€<dlM

an uncom,CI~ptnet~;jledlp.Ke i'SsubflluttdfOf a ~ (onSClOl.J\!ye'lGploredbtmM-'

The Explc:;ion of Il Tenlh of a So<ond

Z.ilha Hadid IS a greoar cnematoqrapher She SCI!S hk.e,a cemera She perceves the oty In .. 10\,/ rreuce, If'! p.lru., 5\'IOOp5 and cr~,~, in Jump<ulS and narr.llM! rhythmS' A!. she dra:\~ the wodd afovfld he!, she Ota\'ir,> out 115 unconSCIOUS spaces Sbe find .. ~'Ih.1t rs latent In the constructions of our modem world and storyboards them mtc I,Itoplas She boI'dfy explores, she slows down and eeeeteates the 'hythms of ~ryd3y life, and she subJe<u her el'\'11- rcnmem 10 the suu):<i!1 expos.Illo-n (If erchrtecurre as a fOlm 01 repreeentaucn SM bUild s the exp!cs on of a tenth of a sc-tond

t'ht$ does nOI mean tbat she IS not an arrfutect aha Hadld c1lms to bUlld( and her 1fN9e5 ale part 01 the process thall'TlO'le5 towa~d,. COflSlruCbon She does not. hOWE'lo'!' propose I05('rllng an clulonomovs object mte a blan SIte rnneec, her buildings are InH~n'!.lflcat.ons that It-ad to extensons She cernoreees et the- enel91e5 1h~1 cau~'~ to appear, from lIS programme to Its techno! ,"'r.lSlf\K1Ule Her buddmg5 are tree 10 re..tcn out from ttus. de-nSity to create spaces lhat .are 'ref! of encumbrances Where there was orxe Ithe pctenual for) prwate a<tMt'(, ~/~Hs and p pes. then" aft> oo, v shards and P'.artCi ItUtl ~hce Lhrough the lafld:Scape to open up e space we d,d not \.;now could e.x.n

Hadllj h3S consttucted her career If! ;;l1cl1 tecune In a simlla' maoner She has fold£<.! the tMmones ot 01 youth spent On \ .. 'th'en urpels In!O a uiMmg a, london 5 Arch!tectur31 Awx;uuon She has used the forms of early tv.-enb' eth·cemury emsts as Ihe bUIlding blocks gut of w h she has erected her palaces of abstracted merocnes She ha~ dr dwn the e-n£'f9 es 01 the <4ty ano the he.N)l (01'1101..115 of the landSGJ,FJe around he' Id(C iJ dOd!::, and then used .hat force as (he starling pomt 101' e ... plor.atlons In10 an un .. nO\ .... n terfJIol)' to..'V"'rd~ ..... hld' ber .ang~lal 101m!. POint


One ITlight Sc.l)' that Zaha HaEild 15 a modernet, dQSlgnlng lofn tied to lfChnotoglcal (ores as a c.erebrauon of the- new HadlQ has no tnxk \'VIlh typolo. gle5., appll~d orders, Imphe-d assumptiOns Of gravity she behe ... es that '''IE! could and 5-ho:old buad a bener 'NQrld. one marked by freedom, above a else We 'fvou!d be liberated from 1he past. from the conStralnu of sooal conowenbOs'l, fram pll)'Slc.1lla\'>'S, and hee of our bodlC:S Architecture. lor mod· crnsts such as Had.d. IS the dl\va)$ fragmenMry consuucnon of such II wodd

The Three Modes of Moderni:im

TJ.adrtJOOaUy, there are three aspects to lOCh modeuusm Flm, Iii adhere"ts beleve "'I new structures fly" ~rn~lng technology, a good modernISt pos..u. 1M!: can use our resou,(~ (Including oufs.c.lvcsl more e(fl.clentl'r' 10 creata the maJ.lmum amo .. m, of surphn, whether of sp.ace Or of value nhS 'too much 15 that .. \Ih~ch Ii the nerec reality oJ Ihe a Na~ new, the future, the utQ~I!ln 111.5- 'hill \\!tHen has no )Mpe and comes ebout by redu,u'tg form to ns minimum Se(ond, the mool!rnlst beneves In oesv ways of 5eE'lng Pethdps the !"vo.r1d 15 alr~dy new, but \w IUS1 don't r«og-mze It as SUch. We see Of"Ity w+tat we have bN'o ba,ned to perceNt If only Wf! (an look In Ires" w.a)'$ .... ve <:,911 change the wedd by 1iJ$.1 thai act We need [0 open (lUI eye:s. our Mrs dod I)Uf mfi"ld!. to the H!cJ!11 0 Clf OVI eJUStlYKe Then .. ve 'MIl already be rree Th rd thl! modem st \v.shes to- represent th(l reality of modernity Fusmg the f rs.t \\\10 CljPl'Cts. she Of he transforms our new perccpltons (n10 r@prl~i'mtiJtlOl'l~ for the forms we ba .... e Ul;!iHOO Such s.h.apes ere the prototypes iot a fi?<lhty which things bdve become reafranged .md dt5s.(1tved 10 the po rrt thut all blJt I~ new Ol5.}ppears By 'Epr~lmg new things In new W;)~, ~ ... '(' ~n bIJ Id " new worfd ,)nd mhabllll, " OfIly I.Vllh our eyE'5

It IS !.hI!. third aspect that c:hiJracatlzes Zahd Hat)Jd Sh(> does not rod I

eew founs 01 C()r1':;;lrutt OIl or tt!<hnoto<]Y. w Vlows US a \'o'orld n new W~'JS by 'fP((,'S(,111 ng t n (!I Toe1.hcal manner She flr.d~ ll'le (OO~ of modere-sm n the d,1'SOlobon of both $U~eCl and OQje<:1 and driho,,-s them out onto the stageal the modern ~n£k;c:clpe wh ch she leshape:s as a ptace In which we ceo ee d1y go ~'0'3ndelm9

the moo:e- s. (or such modem ~ go bao. at leall to u-e .s~'HOQue, when ~uble(l iJnd object Inst IOS1 l!-jell Lll1qLJE!itloned .authority lo~{ecld of the t'luman boOy, whICh 510Qd bel ore Gad o e \wlld of Sin there \',3, on the cent nurty of thp real IntO ~\~ (h the sell became folded

~&tl(" ihIJ5 GO!'') tll'l ml"'LleIy ~0lA. .5pO-"qy, m ("J\1,_>m~ texurre Wlt~1 ("rnpl e\'Io C,j,\.1?'! ..... fOnd ~$ '{ ccnte "tit! 1"1 oteer ()VLf"W, no I1>611f'!' n(h', ~ oN'" boII!-,. (!)fIt,,"\ a ~'d}.ld fl;e-Cl-d WIU'Ilftt"l}uW! p.1'i.Y!)" jl,ff1(Nl"ld ~ and ~I'IClr.aled "'I M'llf'Kfe.a""9y ,dDOlrfD\J~ '11;d tnc ior~~ QI the- Ufl 'o't"W u."5l'mblft) pond 0' ~If "'\ ... ,II tnere ev.1 .. o !!".",mlto., oJ<"Id "",,itn!> Il~bnll)

Af(hlte<t~(e ,memplS 10 make th,s flo.v Or cne,9)' p'esen,- to (dUh It 11'1 Its m)'lld(:lfOlIm

Tt\t- B¥O<i)fL rh1"fll~ u-e .flf ... «e ...o<r... Of ptiX6~ Tht~ prob'1:m ~ not h(w.o !Q '11$h d fold,!lvl!"-.ow 10 (D' fir> 1 to I'l.~o« {90 Ih'ovq" I"" H oq. NJw 10 br- 9 I (0 ..,1 " toy Jtt-t 1()IId] d('I(-'mn~ ,N,l rn,)fl'f'a'''':ei FoI"m I' pee dvc.~ • IlJ'"m 01 1",pr(,s\.LOf'l "GE!'I-l~ 11.>1')11 t"' 'p.'f'pl ((.j~1 01' .ft' n 1(0 1'10(' 01 nll«!\Q" oN ruM w>th.! uroque \,!f

fhe ndllstnal tE'Y'O utiOO Of ecorse bu h !.U< a world 0' cbecs. removlf'cg me.llling Q' .... at ... e Ircm t'a(h oQJ€'C1 Of !.I)d Vl{3uill dnd j~(ltng 1 Into the flO'oV of cap;ul As OJ result erchnecture n(f~a'Yn9'Y dl!l'Smv(!(j Into fie-Ids QI g~~, steet dnd concrete. flO'WlOC) escund Ih-e- last lIe-~lIgP~ of Icem ,)nd burYlng them behlnQ ue dccUmUldhoos of (.onsumel goods It I~ tbeie 111'JW5 Ihat laha ~iad'a bu Ids

BTinging the OUlSidelr) in

Yet Hdct Cf'$ .. '.m Oa.cs nOl hlllJ(· onl.,. the W~tern roots ClSJocl,)led wIth mod~rMY Born 1f'l1(.Jq, Sh(> SfX'J"S of hfr f.n.cmdtlOn wllh the Pe~ en carpets of her youth. the IWitl1'C'art" j')o1UE.'r'n<; 1~1 dl"r(',)I€'d cornpfeohen ... o« ant.! embod ed thp co'IdbcM'atJw efforts oj hand .. If.lMfOfmmq reilily Inlo J ~'WJO~ '!.url<l(p Slfflpl(1 soeces 1,'110 lu~t1 one$ Note, cOlncldentlV. Ihal was cbc

\V(XTW:!" S ~...a["

[nthe I\6rralf\t(!!d,nl) of H~ Cr'l. worl: 00(1 ceo atso dMW' ii CQOllpa'L'ioOO 10 Chir'LlJ'~ Ilrid Jd~f'lt"'Sf' soc I """lrltjflg~ Mooern sm p.ropowc. Ihdt ~"I(' ,onSIIuct seose Otlt of ue Il((rt'bofl of ._,.erydi!y .i)(.lmtl(,S lhiIl (.Of)IonWlly C.nan9(! 00' It,?oillity. ri~th,(I1 than h.l(Jog .3 pJIIi-(u1.)r ofdf'"f onto ~h ng~ Thl~ I~ a method of W("""'q Ih II tee PiJ oters Of ~(J()U<" !o,_N ....... v.e I Ttt~ ~hUwn>d In ,)lI'Id 0'01 01 IJll!'Lr ~ .. orks ICKu'SIflq on I\"Iali deta Is show nq S(_Pf\l>\ ')CV(>r,}1 tlnll.!l from d f fN~~1 <Ingles, string nq to<jE"lhfJf ItlndS(djX,'S out of Iwl~I'-!d "-"femeI'll ThE" ~'.\'('f.'(Y.> 0' C(hDtng res f()~Hj '"110 .. "VIsIOn 1hell allN(>(J and re~uu'it'd a '..-otIc t(01ns.lo(fr~ had, to lhe "'l"~\oLt!:f


All 01 these tladilions were .lYdli.ab'e 10 Ihc «usu 01 Ihr ~dtly t\ •• ,~J1t~lh cenlury, dnd thl'lr ,)rt ptOlo'ldM clues 10 Had.d S pl(torhll bl.uldmQ bind l'UM;or n Cubism e-l(pr~onlSm or Suplfm1.amm ,~bslfdCI fMgme(lIS.,\'€'I'\" d$wmbled .nto ,) neneuve siructure These Jtt,US bleoA up Ih(.',r "-,\JrILI Duct'ldmp" Nude Desc~'tdm9 Cl Sld/IGJ:f,e IS t-Mdld's 9f.andrnol~r

H,ld'd's most mmoofdte Jld~e"tdf:Jl! s that 01 the Ar(hltlKtUft)1 A.sXJ(1d1 0 ~,. london $N. 'l.lud,ro Ihert' dl,lnng a peI100 when the- schocr \'.<1" ,11 h ()(>.~ U!t. 11)(' W()fld'!, (enu£, of drCh'ICoCh.lfiJ' exnenmentaucn Budd nq -on 1N1- I?'(J .. oj A1chtqtam. Uudf'nu Jo(1 Il.'dC.hE'n. .ulh oJ!.. P("I~' Cool.. RE"ffl ~OO" 8etn;:mi Tschuml Mid NflJ~1 COJIe-s !rdn~wW ine (OmfUl'5.oon"'i 01 I"" nl'Ot

w ,orid 11'110 the!- sllbJf"({ dod thfl fex-m of Ih('lr \'1.0"'. O<)I:n" to be mod~ 111

~er aqan, they souqht tc c.aptull;' (he ener9~ of all our cj1.angln9 d<tMh~ by lC'lhng stones aboul them. and In sc dOlng aodC'd a Il.urall:\1! VIf!'NpOJnI 10 the attempt to gIVe sN:1* to modllf"'ty Whether the works wcre anecdotal .;I.nd convoluted (Tschuml). e myUucal collage (KoolPitas) or a manifesto (Cook), they a.U incorporate(! multiple pirspedwes. SWEi!p'ng and exp'cUNe fo..-ms. dod te<MO}ogKiJI framewOrks mtc lma_ge5 whose represtOtatlon descrIbed lalhet !h.1n defmed

ccndensed Collages

IllS 10 thu conte.x't 'OOlZatkl Hadld-s.'WOlk too.l; shape Her first notable prejeer. her thesis de~lgn fOI a hrldge O\'E!'r the Thames (MaleYtch's Tf!kIOnl~. 1976-17, p 16) t50 Uf'I(10l,lDtedly Il'Idoebted 10 hil!'r dssooauon wtth gem Koo .... haas - she collaborated 'Mtn the Offic-e of MetJopoHlan ArthI1~t,jfe fot' lhr~ 'feijfS - In the way In which It foregrounds a ~eotr'?el.t)' reduced 10 n.s essence. IIt(!:raUy !'lOkmg. the SuprematLSt ·w{uk. 01 Male\1th. Her palntl1'19 of the bndqe '001.:.50 like the M2IIevu:h alrplilnes thai could also be sculptures or homes The neuuo1hty of the irn.agO' nI Intentional. as she 5.aW the buIlding as. 01 '<;OC1il1 CO"denser'. to U5I:! OJ phrase then populilr at the A.!cMectuJal Assooallon The bwldlng I~\f l$ .1 moc;temm Joft that folds back on It.se1f 10 brIng dlffetem pt09r3mml' elemenl50 (\...n,c;h We does: not acttJ,ally show) Into ccse coetect WIth each QUaer What astounds us as V1W~, hov:"I'eVI:f. ere not the profe<t'~ functional a~p)rattom or Its quotalJOO,S Qf the past. but the Hnage Itself II holds the piJge and ~ with a resolute natemern of the nfNJ

In several ptOj~ .dtl:!'t her gradu.auOA, 'iadld {ootJl1ued to deeesop ~( Nnatlve Slal'Ke' more ful'Y 111\0 a spatial J3ngt)age The forms of S9 E-aton Place (1981-82, p 19), all apartmef1t d~lgn fOt he-t brother, dlrealy evoke art IRA bomb that !\ad e:xploded on tl'1e~te Ihe draWing Itself IS an -explosion, and the elPlftenls 11 pla<:f!; on the page die f~.a_gmenl5·flOfIl thiS !1'KJ$t mocWn releese of e-ne-r9'f. In what was. to become a central theme lil Karl_d's I1rc:lmedurl!l, the objects condense .and thl:! otys. (OftTiS'tum Into iwmture. ttese l'llerior pieces then move back out to Lake 1helf piece as Pop Aft. elements, <l 5t~gC' set for thtre-cccopancn of a modem Ctty

Hedtd developed the 59 Eaton Plate drij";"lngs further Into her viS-IOO 01 Halkln ptace-(1985. p 281. In a :ooftop~. the Vl,C\vefYJafsabove (he eaves of 1M oty's rcrwt'l0U5e5 \0 N~ a Peter-Pan vew of e (tty ComIng dpart <'II the seems • e cesoecwe thai lets Hadlds fragtnenU of a modemrst utopIa (e· InhaM thelf hlS10f1C1!1 forms

Hadrd's propos,l' fOl the new residence for the IriSh Pllf'l'le Mlnl5.ter (1919-80. piS) Inltodu«(>() (oI!age mto her v...ork. ~~tationJ! fle-menrs (tJ!es. gloMs, br.cks.) populate a s~mple c.ube Ihroogll which a fong C\JfWlg wall ens to open up the PfD)e<t'S. oerewe tnslr:ad of le}hog us about lhe preqrarnme Cit the sne. Ha(ild evokes the ccemopohtan nature of the ~fW· eence, rather than give us \he- plot, she "",\5 lh-e· !.Cene

Her Pf'OpoSlll ft)f the Gr",nd S ..... ltflt!;9S- project .I't lo~doo'5!;(' Square osss, p 250) summarfzes miJ(ly of her 3(hl'irJement.'i dnd shOW'S ncr ;ablilly to fe-Imagine (he urban land5.(o1$X!. The pa~ntlng l.t a dlptych thai depl(:,U the btu!dm,g hom <3' least five ptrspect.IYf'S It alia ihows the city pee-hng

iNlay from Itself IJI both a flglit-Sldc-IJp and a bottom-up VIfrN, creating 1M UMeHl1n9 effect of not knowing ~t l!o the IcflKtum and 'Nhdl is I.M pr~ terred gU)Lind c! the painting By ('omb4nln9 the cleveH\n~ of olA EKI'w, draWing With the- asplraOOM of a COA~;uvctM5t compQSItJOO. Hadld dtb.,.. .. nates the oty

Had\d ha$ a ptogrammanc: rauonale fOI thiS. manner of ri:pr~entatIO(l the Gr;Jnd 5lJlldlngs ptoJect Win some1hmg that would put the atVV1tle!i and fOfll1'lS of Trafalgar $Quart»' 1010 a d<oftSC mmpootJOn mal would t'H up laytr$ of open spaces to allow the- Ctt)' to bll?a!nl!' In\o the oolld1ng wll te ft5- J991~f,r'Je sil<lPf$ l'TlOWd out Into the urban tenarn Operung lip the City at the :s.e-ams, whe,e the reality we expeneece and the fanta~ of a nt!W .prOje(:ucn or budding meet, became a. re-currentsu~)e<.t of her pejnnnqs in th,", mstance she arcompbshed thiS v .nth.n the Image It5e:lf. leaVing T{afalgBr Sql;Jare (0 Its O'll'!r-tOOMled reahty and her bu Idlng In ,k\c uto~an rearm of unfulfIlled fanl3t1ti

The summ<JtlOO of ttese early wcrk,s tooK two forrm The lIl'St W'alS oiIi pantIng thai presemed all of net prOjects to that POIt1t The World (89 Oeg,~ (1983. p 24), in It Hadld 'tN9-nes our global re-aM,. .u a colfectlon of her deSIgn:[. a$ we mght see them rtom a helicopter Of cl tnlS91e 5hooMg off suo space As (he. world (u.rns, Its landscape heaves up mtc fra.gments of rlieVl geometries. The real world becomes Holdldland ... \'here grilvuy,epean. pel'lpe(11V(" warps, lines ccoverqe, and there ts no deflnltJooo of SQ!e: at aC1rVlty Th~ IS 00' ol SpeGfK: scene cl functtotl,S and fO,"lS. but a constellaoon of pessible (ompmltio,,~ that wgelher Ioem a ventable land~ape' a ipac.e shaped by human hands Info .an .)r1lhoJI depICtIon of the physlc.lJ environmentm which we h~'e

The ~cond summation made H"dld tamcos Her WlMlng enlfy for thoe Hong Kong Pea.l: competit~ (1983. p 20) proved to thousanch of arcimect5 .a.nd dC'ilgll s.1udents (Including thiS alJthor) (hal the tec:hnlques, she had been developing .. '~re a. neol. ... form of .architecture. Sllu.1ted at the lilghes! pomt of the colony. <the- proJect was .tse:lf a summatsoa of the site as well as of all tho:se pr09ramrn~ Ind. jettrsoned tn~ mundane demands, of existence In tevcvr of a purely hePOnlSll( collection of rorrm The bulldlng was a facIlity that aened to deiJgh1 and dooplmc- the- body In a form that appeared accepti1~e

Hadid's ercbuecture embodied trus pfoqtamme and Sill!' In tubes u,at stad:ed up on (op of each other hk€ .3 pile of wcceen beams on a (orrst!\K.ton Site llley extended the vertKalny of the sne '" cal1tilever50 and :stJabfled spaces. The InteBti_(,es, 01 the fomlS artICulated 1he Peak's fonctton as a sooal duo ~~re .:JaMt~ eueeeoeo, whi~ !,he bums' movement seemed to cap. Iure and sohdlfy the tr.lJcctcuy of bodle$. m motion I~ was .a bu.lcLng that IJr-Qught human and mounram togethel to lest each other It did 00' Just 'oown Ihe brow; ,{ Dulloo the very 1"e-ak apan 'ID l~t ",W, like letter-day Titan'S, (Ql,:tld do bjltt!e with II

Hadrd lard out 1hl$' vWOI'I In a set of '1'e1)l large palntln9s th,H 'SE'emed ~D a$plIE to ttl€' scali' of the Itself. Although the .. "chltect emphaSIzed the ral.lonal natu_f't of hiU construaton. the dfln-VU'IgS pulJe(l the p.1rts <'Ind Jjfe(e5


"pdrt e>._ptOd·ng IU Site and 115 programme In one pa!ot ng Hadld sh(A.ved ejemenu of the dllb Of!(Omlog part ct downtmvn Hong Kong, wtnle themetropolis',; 5 YSCJdpers ~Iov.· became abstract planes that (otated, new off and t!(tuai turned mto the 01)1Idln9 b1oclu. fOf the Peak. In thm Ins:t.ances. Had d PlJt fcxward an a,cchiteCl..ure that represented the <I('1lfloa' tendscape or that or .my meucpelu as an .as.sC'mbly of abstract geometnc fo(fTt) These shards of the new pcmted tewards a mote open. mteose and unstable arrangement of SPace

Setting Scil on c, S~a of Gestures

In th~ 101101.'/109 decade Hadld expanded 1tll~:'Oe themes In b ... ldmg~, d~lgflS eed proposats around the v vorld. a number of wh ch were It) Gerrna,ny ~esc mdoded her two 'arg~t bl.,IIlt pfQjt'Ct:s 10 dale. the leA Housing Block In Berlin (1986, P 38) o;lnd the V~tr.ol Fire Staucn III Well am Rfle n (199(}'-94, p 62) V/hlle lh~ former burlt the baSIC forms used In the Gt<md SlJlld'flg'S d~lgn. the l~tH!r po rued the QlfE'C11M 10 a new phaw of he, ~~d:.

The PfOJects for Berhn V,CIOoa '1988, P 49), Hamburg H.!ff(>(lUrtlssc (1989, P 52) and OU$seldQrf 0989-93, p 68) In common what had by now become Hedrd's sl9ni!ture prow shapces. ton-me spaces around eccenvrc <ores. publIC spaces brought loto !he bu,ldlng .and .sha~ extending out sue the oty CNe, the years mese fOIln5 took on an almost 5"tyJ'Sllt raS14 yet they atsc Changed Character They became Ilgntet. more lfaos,patC:f'l1 and more layere-O To some degtee uns was the result oj Iblge, end '0 most Cd~S more COmentlemal programme:!; The-se cece bUlldlng1 and apartment bloc had jew h)br;d elements, 50 It wa5- pe/hilps difficult to develop e naH.atrve representauco of them

One e'so se-nsed a shrft 1(' focus I.iVllere }iadld's earlll,'f bUlld!ngs were coila es assembled cut of d spar.atc elements. her forms new seemed 10 evaNE!' as S'll9ul.a,t gMlul('s To Ha<M Ih'1 Wc1S the result of seeing her wed: as a form of

IandKape. or shaping of the land VV'h,1e the Bedu'\ Vlctofl4 CIty Ate")l ~t ,~ lov.ifd the reope of InteMiflGatJOfl and extMtOn Hl)d,d haCJ rust pl'opo!.OO If'l ~ G,.,nd BUtldmgS sch@ome, the large rorroeaes In O~dorf aod Fran furt rea:! like hitgmerits of .a mod!rnGllceOOf.g whose deft5 leave the edges as; ~ The5e fIssures fewal the partial Ntore of ~ bVI!dlng In the Owsefui proJKt. the ronplexs wnous functions eccrve sm tar forms. which are sheeted off Into bt'rdgesj '.\'alJ.:way§ and pvbllC bUlld,ngs that are umfred In ther free ~ raco of space Whether In the publIC {calm or In the omee IOWM., everyttw-g 15 pan of the 5ime UT1I\1t(re of rO>lmi

Hadld's use of COIOUf also beg"n to cnange After the hot Image of lne London ICA PIOJect (1988, p 46, and th€" colour-coded Iragments. that:it haunted bcjh Betllo bUildings. the omer German deSigns. were ft'mall:atry soft In- their ccloeanons This was. partially because glas5 now Pfed'Gm rutted, and ~rhap!. also because of Ihe re-IatNely g,ey enarcnrnent of German OIIM II also. hQY.~. seemed to mark a cooling down of Hadills pa1eUf' lones 1Jl"ld torennes, folds of continual forms and modulalC!'d volumes dlspfaced collages or shards

These dC\l'elopmenlS ruimmated In the VIva Fife Station When one sees 1 from friln~ Ge-hry''S celebrated oil-white museum, one IS most iW/pre of the prow-lll:e shape of the bUild n9 In reality - and Hadldrs (hawlngs mak.e 1m dear - the fife stauon has been c.orl{eplually sheMed off t-orn the f.a(lory bl nelf;t 10 II ~nd shOI through w eth a CUMng wJ!lk>.va), that leads bac~ to the museum and erocnd the complel It lS an eruption out of 'ts place tna! freezes the muteness of the fac~ory walls al II~tJng enclosures Till! bu Id 119 opens up VleM .along the lire Station's contours. rather than stand 09 against them This geolog cal formation ecnnnues on the Inside, wnee the largef spaces for the rife true:' curve mtc the shOWEr and Inunge areas. end Ine ,talrs step up wah the: volumes towards the second Hoor

Hadld PfOvt'd 'N'llh Vitra 1hai she could burld a landscape AllhmJqtt tNt


'urbatlle-. ... efS· In U1fo Card!!f Bay Opera House (1994-96J P 118) aod the VtCterra and Albert MU5eum SOI!e(hot:Jw AdthlJon's tight sequence of spa-ces {1996: p 124). After wande-nog In thE! landscape, HadJd's bt.llldlngs seem to want to make the tandscepe Ih~ir own bV ItYJapplng It around the PJo~ aremrnes and then using the surroundlI'1gs. to shelter Of contam space 1n the v & A prOjKt. the gallery spaces reach up beyond the rooftops In the sal'l'le way they did In Hallan Ptace In lhf Cardiff Bay Opera House spirals enclose the grand spece of the main halJ~ In the Bluepnnt PaVIlIon, they trel1ted an .Joolcular preseoce lor the fair 'Stand

AlLhough most 01 llet rt'Cenl works ere Ia.rg.e bUlfolngs;, Hadld df.a~ys them as tri'Jl;lSfXII'ent volumes lnstead of the w~ghty preseoce of tectonI( oIates. she roN sugglMts thal the manlpulaooo of geometry and slru(lure could 11ber.l1I~ a space from 11.5 confines The precccopeucn wth conlinlilty of a l'aodKIJpe

becomes recast as open fea01cs Md Inti!flO( 'tOIUI'T'te5 Many ci the dr.1Y..'lr..g5

SpirClJling into ContrQI assocated \Vllh these pU:)jt>Ct5 have whitt? lines on black surf"(e'j., in 11 th(oy

Altef V'llta, 'SPirals beg'" to appear In Hildtd's work, In the folded metal plate wetE!' but sk~tch~ of po<;.$lbllthe5. open to rrnerpretenoe Tbe certa1nbe$ of hN

ti'r2lt enclosed the- 8Jl.Iepont 'PaVIlIOn (1995, p 10S), the curling up of lhe early p.rO)e<U ha>,tc ijlVE!n w,J,,/ to the 9~tUfill eJpiQ(.atr.on ot abstract O;P('nne'5.1

fonns may .appear farnl!i(lf, they are OJ long WifoJ from the tOIl~tructed .1:;:M!m-bIage'S of her eerly w crk Instead of bUilding on the land, opening up neIN spaces and Inserttng fornu that reared up wtth 399rm!Ve (hill~nges to their surround1rKJs. :she now drC\'>/ her fOJm~ out f(om the- Site, moolded them out of fuocbons ollld used ~patlal 109~ 1-0 create monumental bUilt facts, Her ar(hltf!f;lule became lemlruscent of how j,elds me up over hills and caves open up below the-m, of how nvers move lhlOlJ9Il undulating landscapes and pea prOVIde- a sense of oeematon Perhaps Hl'ldtd reabzed lhat the 'txploSlon of a tenth of a second' I~alea nell so much the construction of the human. pSy<:he as I; did tbe nature of the bcnlt erwronrnent as a ~rmenta. eon of human habitatIOn that 10110\.'15 'ufes analogous to those In InorganIC n.:nurC',· She round free speces not In the fragm€nlS of a utOPI~. but In the


'This traoslccent 9~mlll:E' q~IIIY reeched (I co!mlnallOfl 10 Had,d·'S propos;,15 101' Ine H;)c~oey €:mplf(> tbeane camp!e-K (1997 p 163) and tne CIt1(IOI'HIII C()I'ltrmPQl'dry ArIS Ce-ntre 0998. p 168) Here tiJe So .II"IS dls:;olvt> 1010 nothIN) MOfe than the- anterfar;;e befween the eOl;:fgy ot Ihfo city and the- Inteno' n-ese forces btcome moft' and mere loca eed In r.afT'lln ~l"Id sPiralling vol. uMe!> folding and lote.loc:bng, ~t~ forms (walls. (Ioors and ceilings) and rtegal_"'~ spaces bnhab,Mble sp.aces} turn ere e-e{s around eac.h other In eYer more dense. and yet fully hJCId. spallal orga .... lzatlons

At the Sotlme tune, the tubular forms of her 1?arifer proiects turn Into dom • nam features Thtoy are bUO(:lI~ tog~thel 10 form the S.plllelau VhldUCti In VJ'"".1199~. p 90""" ne l<abl,.bl. S"dge p.OjOtI (1996. P 135' """"gh tD :50"1(1 ecent the beam! tecalt ihe sJabs of ttJe P'eal.. prOJKt they are now mu<h cfC:rlser and 1Tl()I'E- tlghUy pa'cked, clroJiallO/1o SInd uyble space become Vlrl~ilIlly rodlstingUlihclb'e Ihey also emphasize the hQ-rtlont,ll movement l~rDU9h space OVe-1 the- \o'erllcal budd·up of torrn In lfie- 199' prOjOCI fo, .cl loilndSCclf)e e..:h bnlQ" 'n Gelmal1Y (p 151), they mugC'd With HlJd d's prev.OU5 mterests In rne ma~log 01 " tandscape to create a grecll curved plolOC

Towards: a Ne'W Landscape

LArtdKape tw D«DmC ,) dom naf'll prE.'-OCCvpaltOO In H~d d's ItlQJk If ue V(j. wres 01 he' rJeSl9nS ere In(fC,Ulftgl'f ftu d. }O are the r t.lltenM In prOj@<ts I e the MlJWum of 1s1&ml( Am In Q'Hol!(1997, Il 1561.lhoe bUIld nQ becomes. no mOIl~ 01' li?ss than a ,ppl~ und.u1dung OUI of me SItE", mOVing up ;0 encompass ~pa(es and then dVmg bae':. down Into the 9,ound Cou{ty.ud slots




\\I@-.1ve space- and solid together lie .-. PerSI()n carpet. but dlso I 'l' f ·t·~ O!' '<lkes, dod move In and out of fand L ke pppl-es 11'\ doth;l1g or the fottm of Ow.> Verner Panton (hailS she adores, these bUlldl.,gs clr~ moufds Qf '''''' pro. gramme th~t II5e up onty as. far 3$ they must to CKcommodate cse, 0." t'Wr: rt'Veal the- beauty of tME' body Irlner.enr In the movement Itself

~de nus new 'Ii'Orl'd hO'ovever, there IS a dlfferMI reahty Il ~s. one Hat:J'O has fT'I()S.t fully ~1ore11n 5ud1 recent prOjects,a3. her scheme for ill't e:thobt "1 the London MJUenM urn Dome (to be completed In 2(00) The cQm~~ Inlli!f~vea"'H'9 of spaces .,)fld 'orms IS, ~oothed met by the l.ancl'SCapeUe sk ns, bet Will, a nip of a wall, the ceetours of Idnd!.cape become o\lerNnglf19 prO' ... , Had d IWi no' forglJtten her desrre to -ge-sUJre beyond the I mitat.cns or SIte end programme to (fe-ale snccrores Ihat seem larger and mo,e open I~fl \'If etpecl f'om d confmed bUlfdmg

Most of H.adid's receet pro,KU thus. i)ppear to h9Ye fE-plated sla~. prov.1 and block'S WIth splfafs and lures Mouon dnd gesturE' have leplaced fot:m es dOON).inl elemeN~. and the wolk IS- more open, tenlat,ve and lyrical oeeoIng up the urban landscape, unfuld,ng the enerqtes of the modffrn metropolis. and creaunq a m.ronafy v ... Offd. H.l(ild explores fhe spatial PQ~b lilIeS 0' lum al:'l drchll(!CU.lte In (ONTli that hoyt' thel( own typelogy, $tflJcl\lre .and ~ dille one wy II - .styjlSliC properties.

Th@ mdnner n whIch she Pf6et1LS thiS wod. parallelS' 1(5 lfUtnt\(lm ~f the ye;]f~ Hadld has In\lO~ he~U lesr. eod less With the execuucn of her po) nlJng~ and dt,'}\I\"'Ing5 She nnw pre-fen- to work, ll!o:.e a R~ni'llS-i.<in(e r'rlat1~ as the tlead of an atelier She ~k~mhes dnd docs '~!I the precrse hf'lfoS' that

Into a common mode of pre-s~ntaIIOl"t Everyone today sees their bU1Id,"9i from ,"WOOJHng hell(OPleB, eod f"I\dnv o'esl9ner'i fo\lo.·/ the stt6!; po-nu 0' meaal and stone to (If-ate undu1a1lng. attenuated .rind p1'ow·Mte Sti''UCtur-e5 A, the same Um@, Hildrd I~ respor.5Jbl(> lor e0gendeollNg a 'Style thal r).O'o'l fortm. oiflce buddl"95. I1orne\ and .-J5.HoocI fr;,lnchrse.s 110m Seaule-10 Sqnga:l)O,e

lOSle-ad of \he frilfToOO unaqe, the whcal pa-nt ng Of the film, the mode-! for her work 1.'$ ncm the sceen lh<ll (011«:13 the fIO"M of data vrto moments of IIghl and dar,," lhe reOC:(t~on of hp( awn fate IS oorety vrSIbie on that !;CI!:e(t MO'it of the ~e \50 dmk_ and the hoes ()OInt not out of the cildoBter of t~ scece of t~PlesentaO-On, but In to, v ards the f1O\-VS. of InfCHlTlduon The QUf!'S' hon lana Had-d now taees t'.i whetlwr she can ~oM,fy th(l~ IIOWS Into tosm Can she- find the landscape beyond (he phys._(al metropohs' Can she form the sp.aces Ihat open up !'lOl as ntOdE·m\~t lofu, but as the Ira.gmenu of tuned and wired erwuorvnents suspended In global reJatloMhlPS~ Can ihe IT1-.lke SOtnl?thlng reat dod hee out of 'Nhal IS hdTd to grasp .,nd constramed br the logic or l~nQlogy and capital"

VoJhen Had!d :summed up her and our wofld Together 11'1 1983. she had confidence In the power of hl?r j)dlnbng 10 (e~a~bl(4 the dr'lpar8El! PIeces of {JlJr reality HOM d nt'V!l' one 'She r:!. ~ 10 ''I?dlLZ(' many of tier dr('a~ • .)Jl(l he-r .a~h'Y 10 do so 0'0",I(>S d 9rt"at deattc the ue·mend'ous Ireedom t-omp-ulef'S h&-e -gr.ten us nOt -001)110 11"IV19 n new '/I'Dr!ch. but. 3~50 to construct them E.Y'eO I' we mlS5 the 1ASIOnaIY pdlflleJ 01 'he I?dlty 1 98~ .v ve tnlJ".ol relogntle Inc'll the wb1{> ev'Ae-l1c~ of her Slg"~lure- on paper 0' Un-1Jas has disapppared ~cJCUo,-

Indlute her de'5lgn obJe<'Il\l~, her CO-IMlIt::E"I'S render the work al a IMger K<l\e (),-.d fill In the space3 be-lween h~, geslUfol'~ Ibere IS tess dehlll In Ihe .. ~k less d fll!rl:n'tlatlon and I~ (O!OI.l" Having I'OOved from multicoloured and he~vllv painted (oUaqe-s to mcnechrcme washe-li. she "ow jnoouces pa.ln[I09s thelt ate only wbl'e I nes on bleck paper, gnw-t.5 of it tUMt' (I.Y

Screen Gems

Descne h<>r (OOllnUII'I9 p.a·ntoe~ apPfooch.'d nO\y also makes UM! of thoeComPUIiH 10 advance hEH aims ThE' latest settware .. Haws her to loke .he

Sling Idndscape .md unfold ~l to pan. S\\'OOP, swerve, cut W\V dOWfl ,md ~peed up In many ways. the (omputer iu1flls Benjam1f)'s promISe. eipe(I..)IIy.,'So the S(l'P3fatton between pe(CeptlOn, rE'presentatlO!; and re-alltilllOf'l dlssolve~ The computer 11. d way of legl$tenng facts about our envnonments. II v ,\lbl~ rorc~ li'lat cHe- otherwise- 100 ab5tra(1 10 see. n allO\-vs U5. 10 101m and rerOl1:'n those$ nO'o\eve1 we choose. 11 oon men Quantify the~ cuxe! '(;OJ)resenl;,;llQns Into b-L1lldeb~e ~oalltte5 Thu!.: rbe new co-es out of a maolpulahon oj 1M ~epr~nliUtOA of whal already e'tlsts

WNI CIi!WIppedf'So ~n the precess IS tht" hand of the tTh1 (or lhn~ Benj.'l.mln alia PlC'dl(t~d. but 11 WC)I.;Id seem parllcl.narly I(Q-n(( In thl"S- case bec.1Use 01 Ha.d'ch herOI( staoee as d m.aker or O'.J[ragfOlils S'({urture1. 10 e eeuam extent lhts I~ I)o·t !.Om(!rth og Ihal she can aeo d The lo3!t~l computl?r p'09rc1ms. ceo render 'Mlal H<'Jdld hod co~w(ted w1th care In tilt> 197~ tlod 1990s


be<ause her ...,goo c~n 0tt:NI take concrete shape A5 palnttll9s dlS3ppear Into CDmDuter draw"9~, \.hEll, Imagined wor1d t.-!gl~ to appear

In her recent proJE'CU Hadld ~rn~ to be fflOiIlng beyond landscape Into rlf'\!.' 'Ind of 'Space u IS one that 1$ at once dense and open, defined dnd Inderlnlte. and Y1rtUiJI Us sM~ 15 51) I only a pfOrm~. one that Will soon be ¥ea Iled WNt WOfld awans beyond 89 degrees. beyOnd fight d(\gl~ and skewed qeomemes, and be)'OOd the event homoo In whkh human actM[Jes ~I ,My nto tom, rernaes for Zatta Hadld to see ..and lhen present 10 os. In her IliSOousl nes.

... '"

I W.mff~m.n. MInIMA9"'()f!l.'«nan.caJ~· "1l~1JOI'1S.

~t~HMtyZt:wr\lN(iwVcd. Sct«lenBooUl.!lI> 211-51 j) 236-

2 tht~''''l~~I~@'iJ<I • .,,({'IJrof1(.lHrttS .. nlo~WI,opN'IM\d'I...:_tlDf\all ~"ttwll f(H501Jj 1rQ'nlt«-dmIftdIOl'!.lo bt>1\~ I'R09r~ ptWo1tll.Vldp,sbC. al"ld ~ot"'#1 It It; Ihtobuold-f'g ~1 AOl~oj t~~ ~ but.iIs£J 01 f,U{h oti'lfl !..Itt ~~COOPI-!~l.IleloC\l';lV'lf'~IIC.faO(lfthelaft""9fMtQ'f'>W .... Ci;<Ip~IJIo4I~ondon "1,(thaf(lJ,JI'.,I~PM:s.l998)

l Go.t'l Otfflq" rM Fold L..m.,. oInCflhl~. tlOCl'!. Tom con&rry

\~~"'.tiNpDl~ Untyffl,llyofUonr'Iti01QPnu, 1M3} p 5 " 3d pp i4--lS

S COn~uonwthW • .rttu. t~~ 1997

G see ... WU4~~ ~klrm- nZO/lt:5.""ot'pori~ (t:-Ycr~ ZOM f'J~. 19921. PI' 128-67

1 (orM!rS.llOrI\\th~.uth17 1CiOl'<~ 1m


The Complete Buildings and Projects


London, HJ76-77

f"O! my gradVillJOn plOJKt rtOm

li'te AlcnlttKtufal A5~OC1atlOO I wanted to~:.:p1Q(e InC' "mutation' lactOf 'Of the proglvmf1lE"

requ rem@ntsofa l)Oh?1 on me Hurn:jerlO((j Sf,dg~ over the

It-ames The hOt'lzontal te~tonl\:.· cont~m~ to-and makes useof'i;'nlty random (Ompos.t1oll Of Supfemall'St formS-to meet

The demands of thf' p'ogr.amme andl~:)IU!

The br dge In 'i the rl1f1eleenlhcentury,Slde of the rwer eeth theo South San!.::. whl(h rs com natoo try ttl<> Brota1rst rom~ of e 19SOs ar\Scompl-ex Th(oSlrtJCIUU,I''S Ioorteen leovek. ~lemat!(;a!l)' adht'leoloth~1el:tonl~ tum ngar (on,el'l~b~C! (f.)oM\rail"lts mtc r'l1i'W pcss-b I ties fa' space

Ibe pnl!;ect has paHICUiaf resonaore Vo1th my tater prOJe(ts. fl'~1 .ruhe GfoC-dF U(C9'<I shCh\.' at Ltw GU99{'nOE'!m Ip all. In \"iht(h I was eble to lcalue some of these

tektcn .. ~ n concrete fOrm, sod secood, n \.he: t-tdbllable Bf d9f ofOje<:llp 1351 \vtu·chcoos'c:hued the J)05.$lb 1(1Ie5 01 f} ml..::ed-uw d€"I·~ni O"'el Ihe Tham~


" ,..




lOndon. 1977-78

OM otmy fll'rt n:leologlcal and COOJectural prOjects, In \\!tIleh I ~9ht 10 MUlblts.h pnnoples for l.he.role thai architecture should p1ayIn ovesat the end of the t','.'eI1Vet.n <-entury I was p.)('(I(ularty mtesested In the problems of hlsfOflQI and cultural context

1Oeo af(_hetype of tnc. nineteenthcentury museum was th~ explOl'W In t\:YO \Ya)'S. through th4:! elabltalloo af too crecue scxlal sceoauc of I~ metrcpoluan ccarco, and tnrough the display

oj a l)"mbohc !l:'hilllVlly. an aspect lhal appealeO 10 be ,lb's<!nt In the \';'CII'k ollhEl' c.onte)(tuall'51. CJrchlte<ts. at tbatume

". 01'0(. tor V-Nfgpollroo AtrMt'(nv~/O'.w bN&d-d, """"~ (~lo'ftJ~_'

Situated Wl"thln a (ecUingular 'fortJl"5.S,' 10 the centreo! the l-tagulI?-, toe pohtlCally d.swro. bfapch~ of Ole DUI(h parliament and 9OVemmeont WE!re housed In a5lngle complex caned the Bmne.nhClf To ~role these \1h'O pohtlcaHy OPPOsing bran.ches-, a I(:engular site Was.iKqWrM 10 allow for an e~pilMloo of padlam~Jll3ry iJ(commodatl:on. 1'he progr.lmme there-fcue mvol\.'ed'l.'w'Orl::lIlg \Vlth,n

e sling strucurres ,-\!hde ma'Klng the

~dW3menl sp31lally aUlonomous

ThtS was "rnleved by creating ~ gap In the BJOnenhof that IS occupced by IV..o~bs ahonz.QOt3Iefcment-a glass.brl(k_ podium thilll COl"\tal~.a vallctyol fon(tlons,.and that acts es a coveted fOfum for political dC\IVltyilnd a SIl'Id)1 sk)')CfitPE' of oval rooms The h:VO 51NC''lJlesilre uerted by an assembly uece that bnd~es the gef1efa~ pvbtu:. and governmenl cfflc~t!io, and an ~mbulalory runT1jng. through one 1I~b allOYlS c.rcu1aboO




sor my 11'lIt ma,or p'Q,Kt '" F'le't\'

'ei deece .,nd sldl.e fun(ltQn room to!' the Ins'" PI 1M M Mho" the oblE'tIIIl(>Wdoe. to cre"Jle" \'/€lght" 'C~'I'\I.'~\. Itll'e:tforn from the Stir5.s.ol putl! r Ie Both bur 0 rig" thOU9" ccnnecteo b~ a road iJ.od wa kW~'f. needed to reldlt'l t"e r P'II(~CY PMC~ ~",Ih P1 It-Ii" \'lllst r'lg wat ed gardf'(,) Iheru». .. qu('~,.~ou~e 5~r~ hom tnt' p-one m n )lefS 'E"$iden(e b,. u-e Tl'd n .ecect on rooms. lh~ quest-bocse rooms are located ,nOuf"d I~ pe('rJ1C'IN apdrl rrom th IE(Cpt on block dod mester su te.

,.: .. ~ c;n 'Hoat ()vEt 1hoc g.arden


london. 1981-.82

An explo»On at the 11.11.;,n Corn.u1atL' .1136 E;~ton Place ptOYldl!'d the mam Lnsp rancn fOfour reooyalJon of an t"!e<jant turn.of-lhe-<entury1o-.-m !lollse on ill steele, !Nhlte--washed s-tJE'!tlnSetg1dV13 Theap.3l1ment " CQnt{J,nedon Ihree11oof!t, w+uehWt'! meerted (Or1Cep1lJQUyas 1hreit v(!rtlCdl rooes Ql,jr InteNention In tt';@So(!spaceswas Intended to prcede a ceftalO newness, which \\-e aWe\ledbylotroduong matenats such as ~\~ and :stone 00 the ground and top floors. as w~1 as by ln5f!ft'ng a oewsta.rcase In the lobby and dlf\JAg-room afea to

ooen the publIC dO(T'laln up Into the m'dd~' .... el

BARC DE ICllh€.f lhal"1 nang'flg rogetMI
LA VILLETTE these prPl;:~ fuoc.ltOO M:,e (,a hgr~phy
00 the land yA"!"tl I~ cxtered by
Pan" \982-83 I'TIe(Nnl(,Cl1 ~~lems 1.i"w)t are at
Do<e «lfItroll(>d thy humans) and
random (by nature) Pl(nlC areas
fast-food lestaurantsand
FOl'a c.omp('Ution todes-qn l~pliln ,nfofFIldllOfl .... lo}ks OIDJt W1Ithln
,tnd elements of ill par IOC.:lIEd their fJI."fn gafaxy In <:Onlnh,t 10 ao
ou1.$J.d1!' (enLlal PallS'S r'f'lO'Sl V\i.IIOO lcnq mQt"1OChrome 'pfal"tell!ry
area doddcvoted tOS(.It!Il(C, we ~VIP Applopmne to a PIC,1IE"C1
creat~d floa11n9 p ecee IMI would COA(ea¥ed for the tuune. there
mO'ie a~rOS~ ttl£> SII("\ flil\ U.'H111n .s e 'drscQ'W-l)' qerden' whlCt\
Th~gret'1'1\,l;( n a held form cooceoscs all the p.u~'s fUN.I~(l~
',' a. ntt<\'t.ype 01 q.arden, suspended and lal'ldKilJ,Jej,
19 THE PEAK Hon9 Konq. 19B2-83

"' .. '"

A Su1>1'M'lalISl 9eclogy-matena~ ~hat are Impacted ~UCaHy aod hO(1'zorn.a-t y - <ha1J(tenl~ Ih1.1. dlH· top r~rt lofbly Jo.:ated il'booioao the conge11ed CIty The (1 r(llilecli.J1 C! CUts Um)ugh uadltlOnal pm'iClpk"s. and re<.onstllul~ 1leW~, d-ch6 natcre and reseu dl..-!lfOYUl9 It

1Jl:.e the mounltllO. the bUilding 15.

Slra'lltled, wnh I;'.arn I¥' defining a tuncuon the: first and second It''Vab 'CQntall1 ecerenems, 1~ Ihlrd layera 13~me1Je-.hlQn 'VOId ~1J~nded bel\\'eC1l the ~Qnd aru:lIM penthouse SlOCl~YS - f~alUfes.1.he club The 'Vo.d IS e \and~pe vt'lthln


~-..hich tuacnons +exemse platforms, snack b:ar,llbrary are suspended like!: planets TIle upper -stmhl contan ~nthotJse ,ipartmertl:!)

OUe. "9 an.d5yrribol1vng the pnnadeo(the high life. the Pea 's ~ams and VOIds are a qentle seeauc shift on an Immovable maS$



4 ...


Tlw~ paintIng ",epresene; the c;ulmlnatlon 0' 0 5e-vE-l1·yea, e~lordlion mtc archlledure'~ uncharted remcnes that began v.Athmy\.VOf london's Aldlltoctur at AsSOOalJon Technology's repd devetopment and cur evfr-thang1ng Me style1 neated a f~,JOd.\Jmenta!ty new and


extular.llJn9 bac~drop for bUild ng and 11'1 thli new YoIOdd context I fell

we must ,e-uwestlgate lhe abof1M1 and umested e)lpenmentsof rnodermsrn - not to resunect them but to unveil new 'Ields of ml11d,og The painting compresses and eKpal'ld) PfOJects I had camed out over the last se...enyears.


lr.afdlgar Square. london. 1985

Sd'!C'~ 10 recapture london's

most famotJ~ square conunue to this day In the> bcce that outdated plan~ng '£!$traif'll;$ m gilt be <l~ndonl"d. we presented l!. Pf~1 \~i1t celebraled the

drMmic po!;slbdrtJe5 or the urba" l~qdsuPf' by ('mg the publIC reatm Illto offices, lhN~by pushJn910r\,...,rd the f ronuer vme,e modem .itchneclu(i"O)n


k !

cMlIlbule to 1M quail1)' 01 oty hfe

Po. pubhc podium. slabs of ofrlte"S 400 t~rs, are the central chdr.Jcten'it)(:5. 0' thebulklJI"tgS Beneath the \CJ\.'Y@fS, wh ch .'.Iopped by peruhcuses, aft! scmeeanesn lobble$ A shopP-lr'ig corcowse ~s up,

gent~ CUfVl"9 Moood the sue's, penreeter and enclOSIng a nt!W fJ\lbllc dCJ1'Mln as It \o,1nd$ up to the roof. whl(h features a pubi« terrace that O\Ieriooh the mire of cers below As Of'boe"S vantage-po,nt moYMatoundlm-s.quare, the 1000veUdppeBr to mutate- from shards ttlat penetrate jbe squdTe's suda(~ Into a 51nglesol,d md~






tendon, 1985

Th 5 sh.ldy con~de,s lQOdon al vanous le .... E>l!.. from small housing ~11i?'$.lQ larg e , urban sc.heme We envisage a loofscape Ir'ghtl (n~t re!Qles 10 the sky aM Its Immed ete urban ('ondlllQf1 some roors are nab~tablo, others not (ThIS Idc-a aoucnates our ccrcept fof' La F~ ce Ip 1 <1.01\ In a metrQ~ls wh~e lal"d IS scarce .md planmOC] re1lttCliOrt50 are severe. these e!~"aled Sites ate consdered saes In them!.elvC'S. with speces dlVJ<fed \'e~cally mtc Indoor and outdoor zones In lfie sceoene or Halk_m Place. Ike r>ent.hoosc's spaces are sondv v xhed between the Willng.antJ the new roots


Lend"". 1ge5

'rtns devqn d med 10 I.!JI.plode- th€ "9 d bo.c looms of a small Ilatm a post-war. purpose-bo't flat lwo ClJr'II~ q'ess W<J I~ ~.ctc Slfctw(>d across the eAst''lg apartment. O((~SIOf\o)lty O"o'erIJppmg. to oeete a qererou Ifu d space aroond the (f;'nlf;)1119ht ..... ell fu'flIIule 11 on t.)d:,s or p'~OIS ro a lo'_'" spauel .1ndflJf\Ct:ol'ilo\ tll!"b11lty In ,t,e 1N1f19oJreJs

'.' ,"Odo



lh e). btllOO 9<l\it! rn. u-e opp<.v1V(\ll)l to create it modem to'1lfa~t 10 theVII;tomn nOlJOn of 1 nti, v." d, $.Oohen charac:tenled '''I;' numorso11hepefiOO Our ~heme ns.e-'ts a pla,sllC structu,e

\\ lh n a p<EH.'II'SIIr'lg space Intended :Obe'r'l~".edl,om"boI.'C.lh!!' 's,!uctua."'lo pla.n embraces the- soace bi f11l,1cln3 of IlSeJ:~lu!OiOO - the oppOSr!eeffecl of the en<!osulc rreated by the Vlctonans' curt~11'\S .,dtrn\S


"The nsL3!1allOO I~a Iraqment or the deas lhill v.oould reach Innnorun the Cathcaft Road pt'oJ~t Ip 301. lUst .as 'IleOl.1'.folt(lp 6O) .. rved es a test to, desqn Pfll'1(lplE'$la.tE!:I cmpJoyed at the vnra Fife Station Ip 621 Scek~n9 neY.o ~'1a~ to a'llculiHe ~{C'....,th n a c.onfllWd canlex'L, we ~ cuf'r't!'d W~U~ '0 wa,p 01 bel1ll ~e- (like the MolblJl:V Court PIOJE!<:I ID~len<ll"ld canoplC:5 :0 mal ltH:!enlranc:e



London 1985-86

nllslnte/Mtlondl Styf(' res-denc,," PtOVlCf(>(j the backdrop lc- lhe-Irsl malenal d !splay of my 'SUP1C"fTl3hSI C]~oloqy', an eneoeoo of my

~ S9 Elll00 'Ptacll'!p 19] The "nt.emb'e "e!uded Bflt1' furmlUrf!o!p 1701 wtllch d d nol act cs s<-u!pI\.jrc11 obJerts- n" f'lc.Jtfal COOld t'!Pl ralhE'f the el\ra.ta(g~ oeee ... (.paled a dy"<lrmc scece or jhe r 0W11 l1\'ot1'19. ~id'ng and swivel m(J. a Horage welll further anima-ted ue sp.}ce'tvrlh the .:iI-c:tuill ph~(t11 tJ1..C>vements. of lt$!ioor\ <''ldc.abf'\E'I~

(II 1.


Hcrnbvm. 1986

DUH"9 thl! late 1980'5 lJle(' .... ,,)5 uemendous Interest In rfNltal't!ng waterfront a-eas In nu-nerous Cities n Europe aTldAmefl(a parlel MO WOl hops'. ~ vp n Hamburg to c;w:plor~ lh~ pcss ble re-uses of these d'Sl.nC:15, vve wer asked to (on5Jden"a' n v ,I, en tflfC1ly'S ~'HstOtIC old harbour area, patl.i(UI.,rly ih~ former , .. alehouse d.$1nCI

of Spo.cherstedt. (OU d be master p'3l'1oe-d 10 1~l.!neri.lll? the e-ea eod acccmctcdete d ,,"',"01.' tang\" of m)OOI):>€S-

The ape-Mess <lnd IJr()E' ')(Jo e of tbe harbour f(OF'lL. as well as Its. IntegratIOn Ir'110 the "1,/ centre.

1.1 sed e cumber of fl[~reslll'9 prob!em"'1htll ~·.f?'.)ddfl!'S.~

n vancvs '.'Ia~ In Ire- HMtcn~tr<l;,~~ O-r: .,,,lopmeN lp 5Z] and In co'oaoe's Rh,!:""llillL'n Ip 831

By push"'I';; the CIty S \.libel!'

(onte).! ,n~o till' I .)fOOUf 10

up I'll:c on III .ceres pa'!IW1ilC

tOjt-V1~\"VS, cpeooess. eo v er-ptesent WaH'~I-'''''''e ~ghl l"I('\vge-omevl<fs and (:(Hi€i for redhelopment that wou'd Ctedte not only a oe .... stylI?

of urban It'.' n9 but iJf1 C'nllfel~ ne v _. dJ-l"i:I.,..,lc wIlh n the Clly s fabnc





Ii u n9 10 \1 c-oco fot the -eco-wtru ton ot ~11'Olel.11\ ~

I etrn oou.-r-, po 'b I'f.><, ,J"(j

WI <I' o-r .. lor rl'dl"rtl1 nq I O·~ JincJ mc- ropo I.ln • nq c P<'<lfl(

Pr c of {onilr'(>d L~'I.;n·05 Qr.<" TI rpo f I of clL·p.Ul ... ,(' \',,6 (orb .... pt VI 1(' ~.,d eu (> tor M, Nl.ilit 11"1, ~ .. h U I :~l e.e f..,nridl"ftE'rola "r rn s.",JgE'"~ N ,\ Vol! ,llblll"i co' tht 01"1

Bceacse I.IJllh\l\I.JnIS.1 multd,ljC?fed (lIJ', r1IN\~ 'I('d b/lt::, U'OdndE:'f ,I,;, \l>.J" nterveuuon Sho"ld be

(orwd 'IN to be '.t' (ond'Y'I:'l!(j

e,p D~ om· WI oteas Corhl.l' ('J

" on \'.'J. 10 cJ ssolvc the (lyon: 10 rep'fir!:' It ~"llh J C~Up4:·t of blilnd mod(>lnl~n t){ r-ve t ~po~ .... be 10 ~U~t<lI" thI' 1"'IlIm')'1!, of the rneucpo ~ \\ thoct c rod "9 the QlICllh,\; t o'd- t Icx;r-tnf."1


Se,! n 1986

, .... ,



fl,~con~\,a_~:s.Of an e;KUtme1y "~rrO'W'nel 1· 16mel1'e~)ga.'i,le «se to OOf tie n of a (omp!le!osW Sdl"ld~"ll(h' S1'~tule IMI ccmpnseo a seoes of p1ant1- space~ dod uses

The """,on ta 1 p~es ct tbe

sandwoch are ttJe $IS for the trccr

plan. WhfCh eaeb jes the

!oep.ilJ auon 01 O'('IJ 1101"1 and mcvemeat from 111 O!fI(1!' ' Wrtf'tillly, the sa ch 01 spaces. cMferentlalH l1etv.-E'~ Ihe- 91ou,-.d· floofpfaniCl' the pubtfenlry and

the "01>1"" •• .., bu,ld ~AbQv' which houses onees e d dovble-her:gt11oUICf>dt the top e lobby and IfnTfanc{l are raised < bove Ihoe- 9101,<frIM(~ed by .amp. hbe';iJbnglhe plan Irorn ~C' ground. d nod 10 the- RUS'Solan s.upr rni11lSts ThP WU(tule abose IS POII~d ;,way kern d new back. W<lII, and ,he

gap above thl~ ramp rcoveal~ the

rna 1"1 entraoce

tbe pten '''g£''"1 Yilxtwed~md ITJO\.;~ oet lowards the (or4er. thus the 11001 area teaches Its mdmnum.n the lop Jnd C'r.4le) e dynunMYn 'ltd I rele<l!; 1he- ~$.U"1 cuce-b'co, repetlhon Thj 'on<) weer elevauon has. II tran parent surf.x.-e -.a. 5111JClWill m(> of a-llOmll'l tim e~tfu~IOn~'5 !1~ndl1d 110m tt'lt?ICJ.l IhiJl mt'!.an Il,jm'naroo gl.m bo, hroug'll

wh <h the Inl~II()(~ uct'\'I!IPS can bedelec'~



, .'


Righi from the- beginning we

had to confront t\'VO fundamental Issues the~RAstfl3tegyofmflll

ind fepa1f and toe tight blJildl"9 regulabon'i for ~I hoU5Jr'l9. which coouadlC'l modem openpl~n layoots. In liIddltlOn to these ccnstramtsweee the :wrrounalng bu Idlo9'1i. \\I'hl(h represented aWII:te range of dr'ferl!:nl ~ and penods, so cespue go. del ees stlpulatmg that new deveklpmeots 10 the area must (ontain an .werage ot INt S10(ey5. it seamless. Insertlon Into tlus eeauc context


woutd have been virtually ImpoSSlb'e

We therefole lr1tEfp~ete<l the flve:-sltlfey plaJ'll1lrtg r8tnCoon

by creaungil 1009 tn1tJE-SJQfey block ~t termmaled In an e.gh1- storey tower at ihe comer The !coger block' 5 Jowe( II()(HS

contain commetcal premises w rth standarda:ed dwellings above,

on top IS. iJ roof 9"rden \"J1th t1 chlldren'sptaygfoond 1hescolpt~ [OWN, dad In anodIZed sheet metal, (¢nt.a"~ uuee ~ve"dge-5haped rofts ooeachffoor









TO~/o i986

O'il:i nn on th(' vcpenences of I' e ':1.1 D,.irnfl"l PIO,l'Cl .n 19851)) 34J. '-.' 1('". hIed the 9'(''''{ polQ-f1!1.J fo, Il(>.»'!] pace JnTol.,o- 8'JdL' fh,tl'l{'r It?'lllOty recu ,If', tlll' bevcnd II e hound,rl I' uf ~".JCl: dn(.llTl<m~hUI'{lrqtot'1fylr) re-,l~e lh (I '/ :\otd I1g tooqC:S1 01"1

S ,n J Il1tO HI.! I ... "d-,\.,Ip<>.u c.J P (it ~ q II t' [ nh. If I' hu IJII'IIJ ···,)(n"·lk~tlt·p·" '.)Ieoilts


narrc- .... SIte nil canyon of 1<lr'1dom bUild I"lt). near 111(" RopJ)I"Jngl d,,\r (I Tt.e p- st "I.' g'tl:.s ~IfU(tu'e IS ce-c-esseo betv.een a 1,111 rn~tdt WAil ,l.,d.J se nfor(c.u ccocete Wd! pur.ctuT(_"d b; )('-,-.('1.1 ee \',lndOw$ 6ct\'(t:en !tIP' ... ' S afl~ 1.'.0 CUILiln '.'{d' .'i - c-e of b'ut' Q'.W. tI e olhm (Itar -Ill",! lit out. flSlng It:) 111(. le-ltolC€.' So PiUclPl'1 'Nal!s In~tue Ih(. fullimpaC1 ollt,tI reteascn 'PiJC0 IS mmeo a1~'ly <~pPJr,.r;lln lnC" 111f~e-. store (!l'1l1ilnC('.j)tJ{(> to, " SliH\',vi 'I"In~ hom Ill' bu ru rI9'~ h!r.l'1;l' tI e \'bJyl>p to Ih(' top

"'\"I) lad ("'I mto (j,~'T1,11 C<Jnl,"


nzebu-Jyuben The CNlIr£,P,e(C OF the des gn '5 a det cote elevated (') dS~ p.'I."[Or'l, ccenco tmee s des. tbet t-oecrs ebove opeilg'ound ~.Io~t of the bl,Jlld,ng I~ be'o.v tne curv n9 ground f oor ,.\hl(h 1$ pu led bdC'

.', 19:'&

1'1 F" .~. ;.".' 1 "r~,I.~ (('I,l\ed In from the edQI2'5 Jnd I'o!d~a 1i111 ql.l~S

'i." poe 10 A/<lbu·Jyuwn v .. ll u-at <llle.;·'!. 1 qht mtc ti-e 'ower

;:: I' I \'1,.11 tt-o cor.(Cpt l.cre IS 5,)(IC;:. v.rooS;.' g(.'nerClI.I.'i propcrt Of'lS

.~t ed CClrIlPO',(lJ clS.l serves 01 m,)ke them II ....... bie lor rNdll<lnd

",n\;i'{!, rj hcozomcl spaces end office ectwrt-es

',1 n c c crtems tll~t are m\l'l~od('d In SUCh.1 dense ClI"f, I.~ht ':1110 J I

by t ".p r I nq mot Qn ot ~tJ,r., end ere veluab'e commcoures 'WiJ. must

r n' 'ITI\. 1''.l.dllljdtlll~ nv.lncb

U ['>\ IJrrw O':-coml.'l. II'£' vo ct r.:Jlhct .jn co~rv,' I'H) r-e 110 ti oUI :is. <II

releaso tbeoe ipilC~ from theIr (Onstnned ~IIC'~ <Jl)(j bH:-.lUW 1,('liH and ~II Into (he urban (ond,t1on




Tt'E!(> .... "re l'.l!r,] n1('!;;'$1 no ch,)II e n~ws 11 lilt' buef IOf tru

elf's qn II e f ",I ~".i}5 til(l ((0 ,)1 ~t!'~'

.. 0 ..... ' fJ d .. cJ p-coress-vc ,"\/1'1 (n1l 11' lha\ so\,lqhl to m i-e ts my, \'.,th" 1t'<,patch,,\O'" o-to

Aflt1r'e, wnpCf ufbN"l l<ijo .. t rtw \E,'CO"d \' .. as till_> ,]re, 's iC'II,t(> Ut'<lII\'1..' 'f~SO",'(C-\ VI. i·'\.[ floll't ..... coe has

one ot u-c luq' SICO" l·nlr.'ttO~l

01 oteaor ,1'1(1 (i'L'P' d O'lt'I~

n ,,,(' cocnt-v e f~(1 (moo 7f"(J hy C;:X\f P" :. B Ul' \',"l,lle- ON' 0' I' t' otvvmost .ecococeb'e 'd ,1('{lur"

IJf'ldrna" s. tne »te for the cv C ceoue wa!. ad)Jct>r"It 10 ,t

Ine rr ltl,e."/ cont(lxl·I(~(> envuonment brOUg)U.,00lJt one

01 mYl',lrl est exn 0'.11 ~n.,ol the

bu d nlJ,)" Id'1dsc<,-pe .. ·."'Ile the e-ca S. !lat h'>ffd n 01"0\',\,,(1 os 10

cons rj{'1 Ihp .re as a qecmctr ( ~Or){)(J'~lPhi·. an i1PproJd, rore~)'Jdcr.·.l'd bv OfO;E'(tS I r.~>

L-d V elll'!p 191 On lhrS urban (_Jl'o.,\e:j·c canvas. oIJ)c<h: noar and nt(",n fl')',·.ar hat SOII'/poso;;blp. n ~ -, de-opo» Wi!(£.>~




~;':..:":_.-: .. -=..1 .: __ ----:. ... r


Instllule- of Coniemoorary Am, London, 1988

The'!lUf'dmlrlq (eOAeSsol ~ p,alnlmg, <-ommfSS>OO('Ij for an exhibition thai "prOl'ed facets fJj the- melropolo$, I!. m(,'.)!'1IIQ.e.qJfOS an e:<a.sp€ralfQ(l With Ihe$pr3>.~~ mess lhall~ london OI"II"",e

leliel, the pc1 "tlng fhol.!oIS lDndoo as a paldw.otk. 01 \'Ilid-ges Sut rather than pfDmotlng-ilI'lMll dJstnbl,JllOO- of 1nl5uman metg rkJwhich has been evolving 'or (enllmes weQlrtl(u~trd

the City es poIyreolfJ( where a "umbe, of mef(opOi.lan<etllr condense al d ffNent focal pocnts n Ih~ conte->;t, thf" rro repfCSfnu the Ilfes 01 London, whefe IlI,"I.V ~UI"menI5 Jnd Of;!t,.\fCE:ntres need to ~Uw('nred toreplac:ei:1Bex~.eO 03n-rj O'tecwost.e-d beert



8E>f~e1t1:tcoHclps(>ollheWaliln 1989. '\N~ ..... ere InVlIi'd 10 ~J)C(v\llte ~tJoul thE- City'S lutUf(;: As ~rt Qw\'!,j,I~ screme between the.a,.esof Meh,m-gp1au to 6i1"nt-.of frll!<.tnth~Mdue and e'dooe[lbUfger

TQI' toAlexanderp1al2, the f!!lIl,nt1 of the wau tlfiered "e;,.v ~S'baht16 for 'egentrauon We conSidered bolh the e,pao!olOO <'l:nd the 'f'p.1lr 01 thi! (lty. rang'ng from comdols of developmtiU to 'Wa-I1·too~· butldl(U) PlO<jramm~

The flX~ (if ou' VISiOn was the Ne;xanderpLm Be<.luse It ~epl~n\s. OIle 01 the lew a ttempt5

lOgo beyond typ(alf1loeleenttt- cenlUry\J.~mml. we deoded to leqvl!'l free of hofoogefioOOU'i. rormreroe! d.e\ie1opment to stanO ,n po qoem eemrast to lhe vulnerJJbl~ hne-lh.l1 used to demercate aerllnF$dM~on A sen~ 01 dJdiJ~(jms.~fl9htJ ~hO'NS possbte d~e!opmerl1 of these OI?ltAy released temtones Cof'tldo( «ues

pCOj'et:' Inlo the tandscape. And In (he lQ\.ver dagtams, new geomcll1e5 In~blt the former d~d zone, som!'l~ml'!i fK111lnc.aryel "\j'9hUy QUt of sync "'''llh tbe l"Alsung Orde(

In OUf L'ycs the Wdillone (ou1d tecoree 10) M'If'.1Ir PM Whele coce a conw:oole "boor'! Wolli and no-golOlW !,],)' ..... e would IllY down a SIf'lP 01 Pdrl.... dl"COt'd:I£odWllh bu O'I"9i




Bedln. 1988

Before Ihl." W,.U came down, lhiS Slit" E'Pllom~Zrd B€.>f1rI'l·'S ildlt" urtwn IIl.;Jnd The- S-IJe ISo Crt a major ,)l;rS. ltoe K\.II (urstenddmm. but (OfY'Iplf't~ ~11C1o~ r'!.nd w(ually 11'1.l)(CeiS,bIe To(r~a!{JdbUl!d,n9Io5uch a fOfllfted COOtext w9gesled that we ~ould Irllen~ty ttle urban denSity hQrllootd1iy The Solie ... ·"JS Itfu\

d wded ore nNJ 01 r (orr dQt1 With three d stir\{. zone-s tnat conta n the three I'lldJor tunctlons, ~P'rog IdClf II(>'S., Offlce-i A-~ u holel

BetaU!t>lne CIolKllorm vte v.ould be- the new focus 01 ~era' malOr lhofougMa(C50 - nu:eb dna I~I l-ues. - a ONl' s)'\ODP n9 dUM IS te-rered o coecentoc relancn 10 the shops 00 the- fr.ogc- of the Sill!' ThiS ~f'1d~ spc.c~ IS. glas.s.·floottd and IS-

~vs.P<'n 00 Q!ro' further pub iC

(<I( IIJ~ .v ·,hJC_h IrK ude-ITI()J~ 5ho~. ihe hctet lobbr.4mI,J111~rJmC il'l.!.f!mbly hall, ol conference centre aM .1 restaurant Abov~, an eJt;I(ondlbl~ \ysu·f"!1 01 orhce beams Pd(h of wt1 en m qhl rna me.e e

(1,'5.1 nCl corpora te df'fll1ly - rS 'J.lJpt'l1m~d on triP Y10:PPifl9 fd(lhbe50ntopollh6-lIo,,!.sJ

bent sJab(.ont.3~mI19Ihe betel

~ \

~ oCL 0-

F s+-

F= =


"""" .... '"

"' '.oU"




Thl"d~gOI\9I cll!1!5-01 "f'rda'~ l1~n.cleen!h<tnluryp'al"l lot the CJty''.i i!1tp.1noe..o-n I:; u-e pt\Iot;ll elf'mE'fll for our ,KOr\SVOCbMOf II QUI new urban geometry 'IS DiOseO on 11 sobtl~ l\'f1H,f19 of the d'dgONI 1010 Skewed, ,ntfo'r1oclmq ffa9m~ts As. th~ !'eld 1I.w~~ Ufban(onreJ(lS. It 1$ COMtc1nlly mtersected by an

et.3,tl( (omdOf' euccat (OOd'ilOflSlflP9utar(Vllf>3lg(;J. 9fldd!!d (hous1l''1g t~jor'Sb!ll\'faltw~a.nd w;)I('rironll . Wt tl'!9gltr1 an \nb,an 'espon~~ .i1"t1 mLllbpl,~ ~lr&et dlCtMty In each r'It'1l)hbourhood






To!"'o 19B9

')lrnIJrI1J1~ .. ~P ""JP~s(>mpO)'''dll' I!? to.2.LlDI.'-Jyui.JClr) and 10m q<l~a r'oil>(h!Pi1 42 -13J It)· des co

<)15IDCO_j..,~er.l(1 !he(:t1l"tq~ucn ,i Tu,,'ro Tht:(Cnll<)1 'Olml$d

vo.o .9v'i:)(C)n1 ncr -out 01 1'.I"Cl'ifTI<1Ir, v o-d!..II<!:diamalca 'f '0 a •. t-d r-d ..... (h roll't> the

n d f'() S Cl.ltlur.;J1 clod conlereoce

v, II 11, I<'lU)'r'r'lll O' (ose-Ir);'" \ loorn~ -I .. (I 'he "I"r'I Q{ PO"'(j('

u-e c.o~ier('n~;: iI(f't3'S~11'!

etovered ,HHJ ";.('~}ClrJh.'d by vaeable P<HIIIIOr'r} At qr cu .... d l!?'Iel Ih!L'se ~p,l(.e~ Cd'1 be- cl' lf1p-sed ihrwgh ~hillP y cut 0;.111'0 In llic:- QliI<;~ 11001 Ufl-P"I t'\('\s C"cnlJ n. G:t..M b,IIO" SPQ{e~. 5IUCIIJ~ r~t~u~.;I~LS and pub r aruas On 111(' roof 1 ,] l(1r'1ds.ClIpW qardert \'dl, a

d .1IjOfli!i CUllhat at 01'6 'gilt ,)11U .. enhl.ll on mto the lower noe-s

- ~~-

_ ?;t,~

/. -: j.;-- ~


~~. ,---- - -_/ ~

-0::~- ~1--.:J~

.~. ~;'>l~~

t:'~--:l-.=1-_ ~=~-=,1~''?,



"'ambuIQ. 1989


In toe 0 d harboul street (Qf'lld1nlng tesd ucna' 'our. df'\d f''w-l.'-SIO',C')' bccses WE'H" two sll~ or rather ga-p-s L.!ated 10' red~lopmoent The ,.t'fet '}I"od II'!! 10,',. hou'l-es.are &Ur'I of it ser es of paro;1't' SlflP~ <1)fTl~ I Oolll; 1Mne<.'J'SHeeland:l'1' ernbenkment De 119 !.he Dtnel eJem(>f'ts INI step co .... n Co 1/1(' rbe- Ouro~.(I(I"'iC'w.a~to(tE'att"

! n S w"'nm9 ac:t<»~ 1h(' '>Vl~ dnd to tril'lSfon'n 111(> embam ment nto a receat on area

One- Sltl!!~ tccated 0'" 1In dCt,lle COf~r A~Abbu Id n<;!I'M"~ fo'v.{ltd and tv .... ts 0.,", oper.tn9 to the (wel,rom n·c ..,,('rll(.;)1 CYgan zaucn

'S. Q sequence of (omnw.c( and ft"s.d~t~' d'/,ers, Witt., 03 PUbl!( space 0'" ihl.' f~rst t\' ... o 1!'I,ii!1~ S'dl"9


C'Mb!("()doI~ol('it(hflooc-lot«:ome ooldool Il'Ha(E'!> 1he elfN.lllQO 'iI(I!')91h4! rrw:r IS a. contlnuou~ (urta,n WJi~ lhal wral)5 O'llCf \0 boconc tl:e penlhOo~ toof

rl1l!' '§.e<.on.d vte W;!S di gap III tbe n~nf'leenlh->C{'nlorv b10n Wit

eiWrS ontod.d \('","'01 :C0H1111<'S11. .. cI ')J.dtJ!.lhtlt. desone being CI dl'm.e MJ9lomtrdlUOO. ~IICMcd for ~ d"fflf«''E'O the it"Ktur~'~ )nlE'r-stKC1. dcf)'l!"l9 tMe JlOi.lon of a. illtlaC;dde The grOtlnd noot cootd,n') ret.llt spares. fe-sld('nbal cnu s , uc-.1boYe, .and wmt' wnne<l hon.!OtIMlly jl(~o~lhe'!J~bs MijnYflSPC(lSolth~ prolKI ,m110po.ltl." the'llnderlY'nq prm(lp'es of Ihl! Art and Me-d,,) ceeee 1ft D01SC'1dod !Il &81



Si\pporo Japan. 1989·90

fur 0) t v "'o·(o~ progr,'lmlT'le'ol fo«mJI ealu'l.g and reoi.ued Iouog ng \"'2 wan;t!d to oeste 31"1 OPPOSlllOROf moods lhe resu't 1$ tv.-o SynthetK olf1dstrangcwoddJ- hrc and «e Irl5PIred by ltle:s.easonal ce bu ldlogi of Sapporo, the ground floor fe.a.luie!o cocn greys. f'tIdlenolil.Eed In 9tau~ndtMtalldh'eidre-wrp fragment') of Ice, a raeed floor t~el dflfu.Il:(' an Kell1.'~g dcroS$ the space Al:)o.le the I(I? d\clmber ",,"lIls

a Icmace cl "fe, toe-nderE'd In SE'iinng rl'd$-. brlilant yPl'o.1IJS. and exuberant oraog(lo1 Asplralabo1le the bar tean Ilu()ug the 9found-lloor ceilIng

cud ng up 10 the undefSjoeof Ihe ujloer.1evel dome I te a hef)' ~om.ado bmstlll«] IhlOvgh a pressure ~'50(l1 A plasma cl b.Qmorph c sota5- accommodates eating an(l bHKJlnlJ and auews j1R lnflnlt('(onr_go(alllOn Of sedllng Iypes wrth lI"IOII'ab!e trays at'Id pllJg·,n sofa baoo

0\1' Site- at lhe IolemalJooal u:pom 0sa~1l \V.d-s.IOCJUed on

oln open pI.l~d;;J1 the IlJnctlOO of paths We des.gned J seees 01 compr~sed and iu~ elemeeu I c e:xp.J!'ICI j" ! be 1And,x Ip£' .and 'chael pede<..lrt<ln I'T'IOvE'meni

from af<J' 1·.-vu\lertlciJUY

E-.o;tluded ~ilOl.?~ SlgM1lt,e f~1y

10 .apprOdch ng !I'SIlO'i. ~'Ih>le un

dose hOrizontal J)I.1nE'S der~"t' lh4?ll1uClure's Pl'f1metef5.

and creete a senes Qf (dnyons Conlrastln9 wnh the 'Iy!ng J)1an~. fl\'e: ramp~Qf va~ng SIZe stf(flch along the- ground plane The

un peeled IUn.cIlORS of the-w c1ynoilm.( hon~onlo1ll'lnd 'o'elU[(lJ eleffW;n~c:reillli!'cl numl'Je(of

coves, wllere VJSIIOO may sec


" ,

tl>mJ)Of'llry refuge lrom the .:Jrduous {'xerClSe 01 w<tlk.'''g dnd Slqht~~tl9

With us bundled and l"\II~1Ing

Wd1k ..... e were JISOilb.'t!O trN! Ihf-Ow);'a prO)('(! ,I}d lulf·scJt' ~.penment lor lI'oe WfJF'I'$U! Ip 611


.11 990

nea 01 d~(.H'IIf1g "('10', founta'ns orate I}l..b « pld(l,>~ 50

d,anl SIlOOl the \qlJare

We ",.,0\.1 d fd.lh\"f see L~ ceste-

q 1t".ndpl.IlJ1.(fOOOl h<lMable -d sL.nme-1qt:d be-m',Hh the $IJdcKe:, .)1 11'\'-*.lt!.\\Jththe(lty We

,,, JdooIPJOpoSf' to Ir It'le~Udre-

• UI.< d ~q~ 0' spouts of W.c)toe-r

.. e ,',OI.IId tum sl;ch 'jUuChHes

o _;" (XM n dnd \tn'. tbem Into ,)"II:' '1' Od Sol d ~od t'anspdrent

y)l.f p4:r1 '('''9 «uc the earth

d co. .... ta n .w;:C)lTImodallOr'I. and \'JI~ roc d (~'jcade down Thl"".e It"fled Cclnyoos-as '" cool,ng t?'e<hm vn rOf an 0'\'91\'JO!f;ed

h rt S,'dge'.odnd ~MSS3g~~"-'OI,.l'd (.'I .. ene th£' 'JO;-(h ~I)d sol ds 01 the 1"4'.vsl,,"lratW<)'f) f"'b~I<:. v .. htle-I qhl ) u lW.Iid rem nd tile vt!Jlor of the

tv So (3'11 oJf IdbflC hO\~fln9 .1OOvC!


Well am Rhem. German)" 1990-94

rh~ ptOjt'<:l be-qan dS< a corr"",s.~'on

to bo Id d hre s.t<lOO"l If\ ee OO"tt'-t'd'>t -ecuce of the '/0'" VIlla rt,.;'OII1,lft' factory (ample):, it'S\'rell ,)"i d~qn bOlm4drywd',S.. a l7.cyde-!.hed<lM othe-r im.llU ele-~nu 8K-a~" Ow sue iI're(ld~ conte-ned d dl~r'dl array of lalgL'-$(a\~ fclctOf'{Du ld 1"\9\. W'eCl~(ldt"d to(OfH:(,n(f"teon the nte ,a.s.,J looeWl\hln thlf, Iru:h,riUI31 taodsoape that s.tre.tched hom the malO gale to the far end 01 the Site, ..... ~te Ine file ~tat,on .... rou1d stand

The fife steucn rS de-s 9ned as lh~ edge 01 this SOO·metu:··1oog lOr-.e, which ltiel! ~om€'5o en JrtJll(lcl~ lat1d_KllQe- As ~.lipanSlOt\S occur. our 'S(heine auo v "oIS for a d,no'1'l (pattern to oeverco bnheen IMC'jp.1<es. like lurnlttlre rn a lArge ,oom

The de$!9n~'i .pnmilry fe.ature 6 a setl('!.o of laye-r~ s.clet:l1h'9 w.a 15. between ...... Ith S(Jc)ces are pUC'l(\ureo and breal: ac(()(d'ng to the! st,1lI0"'S flJnc1I00~ 'fhto main



pun(tur IS 1M' movement of Ih" hre eI"!9Lne~. Pt'1J)(:f\dl{ul~r to the I oe 01 Ih~ waus aod ItH·I<lnd~,)pp es a

.. .rho1e zc o-ev . .a cs ecross the )tructurp, me It'd IHI~ eng f't?'\ ""e the (ent'dl focus. of lhl'j Iilnd'!.(.d~ And e 50 It .. !:' (,Ie- engru- "t'd Iln~ appear ~owwllttefl(ll'th(,d.,phalt so are Ihr ntcets 01 111« ( remen ,n~!tl(' r.~niJt'd ,kp(horeoqr<'l[)hc

f'I"3i;Jl!rm lh{" ... • .. hal'" bUI d1nq I~ IrOleY'I mohno. 'jIJ'!iocndrlq {hI,>

tC'ns on oj dlerln("S,>. rt>.ldy10

e'p1od rntool<!>Ol'l <il lny moment




Dusse'dOff IRhemharen). 1989-93

f~ the ,e(levelopment of D~seldorf's. promlnefll hiuOOur

ruo an enterpree zone cootdIO"(Uj offices for an .adveri'SlClg agency andS1ud os 'rtte~rSl!'d wtth shops, restc1urantsl)rtd loovre Iachues,

we created an fttllrlCJdllandsc.ape th~H ioil{OO ihe rlWl and became

an extcrwon of the water's

,KbVll!es and (unctIOf)50 ThlS landscape IS prOtKlf'd by a 90- metr~long wc111.lIle bUilding thai (ontalns the offtCei r)nd blfxl$ out Iraffl(nOise

from Ihe over an ellQrmoU'$

metal c wangle cuts Into the ate, pterong the wall to form an entrance ramp The adJOin 119 ground pldnes (rack open to (e v ea~ lechn'

stud cs to the ocnh, and shops

and restaurants Bel{)'I.'.' ground,

a walJ of techn cal R'rvlces IS compfl~~sSl!d.;;() tnar p(lft Ollh~ w-\'IlIllW$ above 9rOund and

CUt,,(,S:,lfQund to Create a 310-5.fMI Cll1ema

The- ~vatl's:'j;treeH de has tony neear mosoos in Its ccnoete, 0(1 the ncer s.rde.lcvels are olrtf(ulate<i by \1'81')11119 dE'p~hS of cannfeeer cn e.a<.h floor A g~al-ed "Inger' budding ~s.Z) fragmented' seoes ct slabs set pe-rpend'cu1ar to Ihe meet like glass ~'phOIe1'S that have broken free from tI1e wall WhNe The slabs t;:(}~rge, a VOid IS Ci!I"',IOO 0'-11 for coore.eoce (00m~ and e.~:h,bliion eeas

A m.nlfna'ist 91.1~ box ~urrounded by a tam lyofIDJlplM Ieet and heavy tfli:1ngukJr structures, thE' eurance lobby .s ill the intl:~llCCllon of Ihe wall and the Ilng'?( bUlldmg From here the street dnd

rlVtrs.cape are '1f15uall)' (Of)oe(led

A nbbonlik:e wand .staIr !edds up

to 11~(()!'Ife(en(e teems through

the underbelly 01 a hea\1)' !oI.I1pended .1bavc




Gronmgen. The Nmherlands. 1990

The If\tenlfon IQ' OUI' mu!tlc..tJ1de-o p.e\{)ltonw~s to make d pll'Jyful ~ac:" In what was fOf me the most challeo91ng locaucn In ~heo city the gilp betweenthe monumental A· kef!.: and lhe Koter"'!beurs bu Id·rtg5.ln Ihe-vl5-marl:t.dISl'l(lllk.~the 'monrtOr' beoses of NewYo,k 's F,r~ l!Jand - daptlOdrd hoU!>C'5 wrth huge p!.at!! 'WIndwn faCIng the ocean, v 411ch ar night revt>31lofly I"tenor~-the~gn jorthIS pal/iliOO .pfO'v'Ki(l'S. a Wlf!.dow to the !,Io'Odd In <Ml1(h people Coln be seen I'TIO'r1ng ~mld YldOO-lmtige'Y. be<om109 pan of the oettermance

Trapped betvo>eenlwo wall'S set ooe metre Clpdrt aee d~ ,\'hl(h pfo"ud~ Into the glazed encJo~!,JI(' 1f'N9~ are P'OSecled from the upper d(>(kJ onto the- mrd-decl(. cote lf4fl'ilUC(>nI pdnt_-I~ setetc the 9',ned lac:;ade.,nd cote the 17I,:,ed


ground [m sh benefllN ~'l.ilkl!5.,) lot of mOnf'{i1(1d ",Horlto p'oduce SI1Qf11,-,dco·sl ces of rnessaqe i!ond '$.0(19, but 'he videos .lIe nsull!oe!1t ontbe. own we wanted turn-

m li::N"5 ~)f>rlOImeH, ,11"10 viueo prOOl>Cfl(" to have iJ snurivre v-tth \'IAI ch Ille-I (OJ!d C)'tX:1 ment



Abu Dhabi, 1990

t,,-C! m<1flj AlTlt!nCdO 01,1'S, bu Dbab. I" orgdrl1led on a gild As a lJ~lfo'm Wuclure the 911d S(!I\-~ <35 the Oims .lga nst......t1 ch erchuecturet'cvenu are placed For e hQlel cc-re'ex IOCillNl on a rlflme sue In the otycenue .... €> fI,pped up tillS hOfllonl<§ll,lIbilr"! 9"d to

become J verucat ptane • a slob of dPdllml:nl~ .H1'.l hoW! rocrre that become- ,} bdL~dr(}p for bctet-retated


~I aces l:e ccoterence rooms. resldlJf.mU and a health dub Whe-re I e~cJb ~pl'u.opart .h~ 5p1)Ce5

s-e ~prl1ded and sculpted 10 a

\'1"1: (dl (o.;ftyMd' AI grouf1d lever 'OUf~slof"Ybeam{lJts acro:.i the

.,Iie' and \h(OU9h the 5latJ. prcvrd ng socces lor a~opPln9 ma~1 belaN .and orflces abase On the beam s 'OUM floor. "lth Ylews OVE"( the

gc t. > Ih< nol,1 lobby. wi"",.

veh de access s vsa a cwved ramp that S" .... oops from one comer of Ihl!' ~IE' • .around the slab dod rnto tbe \"('11;(011 COV1'1yMd


Glulendotr. Germany. 1990

1~20.".. ..

We. were asked by iii Gerrnan

trmber manufc1cturr:-r to (tIM-Ie an e;.:nlblttoo stand 10 dlsplaYlne r p.cducts tOl the biannual lmeraum trade shew The pmrnnymll~ntlOn

ct our des.lgn was 10 create a separate environment thal could be expefleru:ed On sc-veral levels VJ'ltlw~

the: bisckdmp of a Iarge and stenre \lade shO\v. we wanted to Induce the sense 01 an msol.ated landscape w Ithln an enclosed stluctvre InStde. a central palhw~y. wturh, Ike thel(l.m~ of j) tree. had branches that ran ofllt,led 10 product e:mlb~ts and ambient surroundings.


• l.' ': "

I ,

v, tt, n d -no • ptJ,r,t In ur.d I

~"Q rrn IJrJ(i~dl.)'''' :,1<1U a (1(' \ 1:"('~I_.(~I-tlp.)11SDtl rOr<fI


', I

'lo e .• l ri l- rOllghl.I'luu ,.,d 't:\In, .. _I ... ',dl"', (>"1I,f, r. A Ih(> :'·".nh 'T1 ',~,>o."ll' ndo" "0m v-c .',''S' S~I,l"d"co[1,i!fQt ~ relci."r u

10.'. lid 'm e H! ih'_' L' un-.e (It

r- .'.' -{,c'1 oo (':('5001 I r J'lt,l -'(',I , '.1;' t ,"," be e, r .Jd

• ',' ir:'!' !rcj' lot "d ,(,I.' ntet iec fl)1 e-t.c., ;r'_! ,I.

'Of 'l'O->.I:j ,', ,(, nLot)

.Kl \J \11':' -,',0. ... ! t - l'itt:"'i,f ,j n till nu,'. P'"''


HiW)lK" HouSo'1'\Q F t .... at T e Haque. 1991

The ~ng e-.';lm;1y hovs(! I~ ci buld'r~ type (hellcontlOuts lobe? cOflstr!lne<tbfcorrve:nuon We mesented two des!9tlllU p.HI of

d rle1d'oleJgtlt'll'l es tecelecated In.asIJbu(bol lhe Haque Ihe rwo

VI las, to be COltSlfueled of remforced concrete, .Bb\!UKI the- C'llMVMhOl"ldi (OOrlgur.lbon 0' domt'Shc 5o~ei 10 (mate u('te-~J)e(ted and \Oelcll Inle(oiKtJol'l~

Jll.e firs, deSIgn - the ['bs~ hOl..M -IS tcrmec hom.a f.j100nd· e-wM

pod um thai'$. nh~'1«l.ed by ll.vo bellm~ thai enoose most of the readence Thl?m-er beam IS(U' Iota the pod'Urtl t~ d negat.l~ '>(.laC1;I n~t fotmsa courtyafd The LIPpe' bII,Jm s ·POill~·. houtln9 an open 1r,r~rl{.1 ' r:t ~lud!O~pJc.e lhal '!odts: llixNe the- pod um and (JQ'iWS 'he courtyard The house I~ ~'rtu5, a supenmpcx.lllon of \-wo OPP(KlIP I\Hl'W] condit <Jn~ Inito'.-t>fiee rind ~tr(Netiro


, ,

~, nq th'wgh lilt:' ertencr GIJ2:ed , jf~ fot 0;." the floor s sp.ra

tf'lyso d IOll"lrerj, Ht3ns U((ont

f 1"!.cJ , ua"sporoeni R~~ldltAl

N(!rl'\af Sp ra, alford slJr?"'~ng e.,,-s arn1 d'id'lOfIt 01

ccrllTlon (dlIOll.anO InteraC:bon







Solomon R GuggenheIm Museum, NeWVo!x.1992

The des gn for an e~hlb\llOn on R-u~SJdn S\.lP,ematt~m and ConnruC\Msm oflered the oppcrtumtytc f~lt my student e .. plorat1ons of the three-

d mffiSIOflal qtJa!ltlMof MiJleYlch''S, tektonik [p 161 Our proposal for the Gt.Jggenhelm ShO\"J !eatufe<J two latge-5ClJle 1115t.lJtatlQnS of the roll n To-.WI and MaleYlch's Tekton I"

wh ch both engaged.n the-., 0\'.<11 \WySw,T rh~n\.. Uoyd Wngnt·s spJralling fcrrn and were m tum dtstcrted by the 5~Ct> For the

fllSl trme. Mal€'Ylch'!t 1E~;-tonlk

was habitable v ctcrs hed to cess throuQh II to re-adl the upj)e'r 9aHenps

Ol)r des gn for the 9" lenes featwes nrervenncns that actIVely eng.lge ~"Ith the cbJects. on d ~pla'l fOt' eXi!O'p!e the ta.'Yt'f and !"klanl set up the opposItion bet\'o'een Ma'{"Vlch's, Red Squ.)re-and Tatl o s Comer ReJi~f for the space contam nf) wor Irom the oog'MI o 10 exhibitiOn, 00(101 Matevl(h'So

SUpf(~maMt c:omPOSlllQnS has been extruded Itom Ih(! flOOr tn the 81.)c ROOf", whl(h!th~ohJ{'(:ts from the-l921 5 If 5 =-.2S I?Ah,b non, p<J1ntu'''g5 dIsplayed on Peesoex stdnd~ appear 10 cemetenabze and

flOdI above the floor Ibu sense

of ..... -cJghtre:a!ll1t"s'\.15 encouetered Jgclln m the Globe Room, In wh.(h constf\JC1I00s hclng nglrom the cetlmg 9r.aVlta1e 100 ... ~rd.5.d "",h te o'b that ~(rl(:rges from the 110m


k 'r.'~.


J - _


VISION FOR H~stonc: .. )jy. l~e 9t0'lo1h of Madnd RIQ M\ll'\ozanares, the city IS now i1nar(h'cspreddofdev~. f
MADRID could be described tls.a SU(CM.Stve 9rO\'I109 mainly eastwards Suburb!> proposed four Sp('(_rtlC <lIra, of
burStmg of ~e"s the Clfcu!ar 01 housing bkK:~s have mush loomed r(>ueve1opmem.aod regt'fIeora1:cro r
1992 moo City. 1MI.'" runeteeruh- beyond tt1e M30 hrghw<lV and ar~ tht> south, the- former lOdus!1\,i
<enlurygnd ana ,n the twenneth abovt (0 er-gulf the nearby VIllages f ebnc around lilt' City 5 rd ' ••• a:.~
(e-ntury, the Ine",roeve'Opn"lE'OI now Our ob,ectNe was: 10 prevent the could be Ir:a.n.s'o.rmed' f1iolr.l."')'
defined by a h'9hway In the form of CIty from coll3'p~n91f1.(O rorml~. parks and lelsure~I"'f\d.scitpes ~''f
an ell pse Framed II'llne west by the ness, to channel and orgdmze thts (omtnef{~1 de'le-lopmel'lt Cov.d be BILLIE STRAUSS HOTEL

Nabern. Germany. 1992

The (oote;rt tcr thrs en-hotel addiuon was,dO Inte-r£>StI119 one ill hJjf-tJm~etl farmhou~ and slable thilt the chenu wanted to euomern W1tha challengJl19 neW5.l(ucture that woold have a sculptural presence The hfi!aft ollne d~9n IS a ·blobb~· • .an ell~p'rcal space that mediates between the o'd budd ng and the Flew one Partly set ,,,[olhe foundaucn the space Gln be used for ?erfQl'ma~cesor t2'lfh blLloo5- In lhe- tower aboV@"tnillvelyPN01 POint are uuee levels of roons basee en the cross iJruj star. t!3cnot which


has:1 completel), self-col'\ta ned erwucoment With built-in Iurmture an.d fillings A third motif. the-sp rel, IS Ylated by the two other spaces as they COnner:t bac.k to the main

bUilding In iJ V1llage of 5U0091oc:.1' chata<:ter. the ensemb'e seu uti

a stn tog contrast on;? IMIt'; Intended to !ncouMge"deo.:ul!.a:rld creatMty


(()p(>n~3gen. 1992-93

Ttl ~ ;lfge strucnse .,chlC'VeS both compd(1fH'S$ and openness by 5VJ,II"1g deep CVl:S of light. laod and ,hrougi:1.a solid YOit.lme- thai CX'\,II)Ie\-iI compact site l1'Ie~ shdq) (ots. are open to the: sky. and: show the lull rell.t>f or Iheoal~ Acurved

(J JgOf'lal cut deaw-s orf the pubucSQl.Iarf component, bnnglng the

promenade slowty up mto the bu'!drQg SCulpturally exprE!'SSrvC! volumes of the structute, artr<:u'llted bydlfferent{oIouI5 of gramte, ccrrcress 5~<:e bet\.~n them "the Str1Jctures .. n~ made ~tGm cast-mptaJ;e reinforced concrete to alloy..> IffeglJlarlyshaped lIa~ slebs to Ix!formed

t;;", ,



C.oJ09ne. 1992

To COMe<1 thlS fermer !ndtJStrl~1 lOrJe"10 CoIogne\,.""e lI~thr@E' df5tlrKl format dev!ces- trape2od. v, 'Wge end ~p1ral-la dl.'flne ~l'Id ad9ptlhe- mlJiLlpurpos.e sne 10 1(5 heterogeneous :5!JoffOuoolngS

The sbeces are ma~Srt"e. amblguovs enmes lha, are~aTed SOrnevmefe between bU"dlf\gs i;md' I.lnd

Icnns Wor log together. till" ~(Iom !OIm a whefent<lre-a.Wllh a h~9h dC'flSl!yof (uftural.lclsuII?: hOIJSJr.g Imd commerCial f.{)tllllf'S, es .... '(!II as.lllCOfpor<llmgold bu,ld'09s with corwerted lli-eS,)fld nC!W st'octur~.5

The 1t3pezodal.,retl embraces 1m.


ennra ha(bOurba~n. w.ln two: .q1J.a~cr(!o tJuld'ngs thai c-or'll.llt\ OOdllng fa(llllJl·S and d (hee -m centre (o~ the fl\rtfbo.:!t. an .:Jre,a to th(l t'Iorlh IncJl.tCft"'5 <l conference reoue 8etwet>n the lraDelOld and

wedge- areas (Ise stan11n9 office lowt'fS Thewedge5etllon liselt cuts hom ,he- OO(l~,$ of the RNef .Rhine Into the UOlerung. tOI"lIlec1log the rlverfrool WlU1the Sevenru: hOOSlOg qU;]ffer IS organlle-d Il'Iloog hOHlOntal bt<xks on sulu hke the former warehouses, i1:5 If they Il.a~ been lifted to snow unobstN.l(100 VIews of t"e- «ver The- 1'p1ral"n Iheo flbmC{j'iar With the Qua)'Slde-. ~pannlng pa(; of the rlV~jcle road thrOUghout the' srte Me\V (ulltl'''' (.£>nlre'5 were enVlllOned as 'io\iJuered I~ll rh.1(\\4)uld rellK1 U1e wa.le.'s mOW-men! es n nO\V\ by aM ch-dN)es With the ~Qmn~


I \



. I!'M,I, 1993

One of Ihf' rMtlnauons of ,'Hch.a~oOIl sees 15 the W.ay '" \Wla<h the fem'Jlm. of human ovlh1~llon hal/'e me:t9~ mto the J-a'l'ldKape al'a 's eem ill Q(l~ wtn nature IOlhlS~A,Mw.n\edthe "ouch,lecturE' of th S ,..-I'1;r.)1 Pilllr;, to become drlQ1hcf ma.n-maDe ext~f\SIon of the landscape We too does i,om rnegeologKi;l1 fOlmal 0f'6 ar,)d from local hum.:U1Ilnh~f ... ent oru Ir~e quarrying The bv 'a "gs-I) geoiog'(')! centrl!, outdoor ueene, bekedere dnd mUlWm - are (he. firn frM)rffl!otJ of d new culture! on the mounl~ f' .hal over lime w I gradlMlly IPhilM the 5.urJDUOfJln9 quarty, fra9ments that 'iU9Ye$1 an ¥(h.:Jeo!ogy n rl!¥pr~

lht"Cj~\C3lcenlt~,S~1Q rhe ht51Gry of the mountain Itself. Its progenItor, cutt "91nl01hestrilte

M~_e .a.blade.revtallng the>beci(ock and thus beccm ng pan of the i-,;:httuII()M F ools.'ilan1 {lgil,n~1 each o~her fI~e laulled pt3ntS: OI1e c.ul$ shces Into the mountalo, the Olher 1-oliowsIU sJOPE' TI1E' o.utdoor

theatre t'i corcewee es.a Gree. amphItheatre, a 'found ob,ect In 1Jil. quarry lila' (oll~"fS. the lia'arth'~ contours OutofthlSnegillrVe

Ccm'ed spare eJTlefge.s a P051IIveplOjCC1lO1\ Cd"'llevefing oser the 'Slope and cryst41hlmg .tself (N(li lu11(" out.o'the~l\e·5 FJIM~U. ,ln31lJral eneeson 01 ffiQn· tOP<>9r.aphy The muSeum rs the Inl~~ of thtCofH:ep~~xpIoled In the ather 'three .Wo~ The grOl.iI1d "lp~ erup~ and IhrtlSlS la'ge s4ab$ up

mio the tt r hke geo'ogl(al

QU((fOPP I'lgs From the Wee-I ttns, fonrauon IS seen <lg.:unslIM f1lO\Jnliln.wfI1ch now has. a dialogue \ v "th the- Quarry -Ihe plate of the Solnttu.lf)' - ,n lhe -dlStilO((.'


, ' ,


Vienna, 1994-

TN> prOject r(>YIi;J IZt'". til walNfroot ,JtP..l 11"1 V",nrh. bl I ., ~ nq thro Wdtf" 1- ofdg to 'h~ c \)' f.II.>I" thloo9t In Pl.''''Ul9 Icrmer ra IWd)1Y1tlfJOC1 lQ(dt~od al~ the Oonau~a~-al n Vf~nnd d-..erlt'Sol ,)J'llU .. tudOS oHlCe~ ;lrtd commef(laillp.Kt'S

weave ~('.I nbboo Ih101J9n, around and Cl'X!'t Ihp bfCh(>d baY'- of 'he VToaQu(T. de1sqnPdb, OtlOWdl)1Wf ShGO$. c.afk c:lr.d fe!~of0nu on the gfQund too, of I,hree sepaeate

bu 1d ng\ (ater tcrbe HvtnJ(Jl'lt pede-s'l,rilO path, which ~liO 'ead" to a 1'I1qhttiub n the old subw • ..,'f UJTmel ad,.lt:Mt,o tbevedcct Thf eraue pt'~IX1IS Int.ed to the UI'IM?f~ty by 3 pede'lLfllltVl;y,lf< brl(!ge