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In some situations it is not feasible to develop a theoretical

(physically-based model) due to:

1. Lack of information

2. Model complexity

3. Engineering effort required.

An attractive alternative: Develop an empirical dynamic

model from input-output data Identification.

Advantage: less effort is required

Disadvantage: the model is only valid (at best) for the

range of data used in its development.

i.e., empirical models usually dont extrapolate very

well.

step response easiest to use but may upset

the plant manager (size of input change?

move to new steady-state?)

other methods

random - PRBS (pseudo random binary sequences)

sinusoidal - theoretical approach

frequency response - modest usage (incl. pulse testing)

on-line (under FB control)

2

Simple Linear Regression: Steady-State Model

As an illustrative example, consider a simple linear model

between an output variable y and input variable u,

y 1 2u

where 1 and 2 are the unknown model parameters to be

estimated and is a random error.

y u

1 2

and y denotes the predicted value of y.

Let Y denote the measured value of y. Each pair of (ui, Yi)

observations satisfies:

Yi 1 2ui i (7-1)

The least squares method is widely used to calculate the

values of 1 and 2 that minimize the sum of the squares of

the errors S for an arbitrary number of data points, N:

N N

S Yi 1 2ui

2

12 (6-2)

i 1 i 1

Fitting First and Second-Order Models

Using Step Tests

Simple transfer function models can be obtained graphically

from step response data.

A plot of the output response of a process to a step change in

input is sometimes referred to as a process reaction curve.

If the process of interest can be approximated by a first- or

second-order linear model, the model parameters can be

obtained by inspection of the process reaction curve.

a step change of magnitude M is:

y t KM (1 e t / ) (5-18)

d y 1

(7-15)

dt KM t 0

in u and y:

y y

K

u M

Figure 7.3 Step response of a first-order system and

graphical constructions used to estimate the time constant, .

Ke- s

G (s)

s 1

For this FOPTD model, we note the following charac-

teristics of its step response:

1. The response attains 63.2% of its final response

at time, t = .

2. The line drawn tangent to the response at

maximum slope (t = ) intersects the y/KM=1

line at (t = ).

In other words, the settling time is ts=5.

Figure 7.5 Graphical analysis of the process reaction curve

to obtain parameters of a first-order plus time delay model.

determining model parameters , , and K.

First, a slope is drawn through the inflection point of the

process reaction curve in Fig. 7.5. Then and are

determined by inspection.

normalized response is 63.2% complete or from

determination of the settling time, ts. Then set =ts/5.

Method 2. Sundaresan and Krishnaswamys Method

This method avoids use of the point of inflection

construction entirely to estimate the time delay.

Sundaresan and Krishnaswamys Method

They proposed that two times, t1 and t2, be estimated from a

step response curve, corresponding to the 35.3% and 85.3%

response times, respectively.

The time delay and time constant are then estimated from the

following equations:

1.3t1 0.29t2

(7-19)

0.67 t2 t1

difference between the measured response and the model,

based on a correlation for many data sets.

Using Graphical Analysis

In general, a better approximation to an experimental step

response can be obtained by fitting a second-order model to

the data.

Figure 7.6 shows the range of shapes that can occur for the

step response model,

K

G s (5-39)

1s 1 2 s 1

Figure 7.6 includes two limiting cases: 2 / 1 0 , where the

system becomes first order, and 2 / 1 1 , the critically

damped case.

The larger of the two time constants, 1 , is called the

dominant time constant.

Figure 7.6 Step response for several overdamped second-

order systems.

Smiths Method

Assumed model:

Ke s

G s

2 s 2 2s 1

Procedure:

1. Determine t20 and t60 from the step response.

2. Find and t60/ from Fig. 7.7.

3. Find t60/ from Fig. 7.7 and then calculate (since

t60 is known)

16

Smiths Method

20% response: t20 = 1.85

60% response: t60 = 5.0

t20 / t60 = 0.37

from graph

t60 1 2 1

2.8 = 1.79

= 1.3 2 2 1

Solving, 1 3.81

2 0.84

1 2 Sum of squares

S 3.81 0.84 0.0757

NLR (=0) 2.99 1.92 0.000028

FOPTD ( = 0.7) 4.60 - 0.0760

17

18

Neural Network Modeling

19

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