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SHIP HYDROSTATICS

AND STABILITY

A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH

A systematic Approach

Table of Content

Table of Content ........................................................................................................................ii

Preface....................................................................................................................................... iv

Chapter 1 Ship Types, Basic Terms, Terminologies and Symbols........................................... 1

1.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 1

1.2 Types of ships.............................................................................................................. 1

1.3 Basic Terms, Terminologies and Symbols ................................................................. 7

1.3.1 Reference positions: ............................................................................................. 7

1.3.2 Linear Dimensions ............................................................................................... 8

1.3.3 Size of Ships ...................................................................................................... 10

1.3.4 Form Coefficients .............................................................................................. 12

1.3.5 Centroids ............................................................................................................ 13

1.4 Ship Lines Plan.......................................................................................................... 14

1.4.1 The importance of Ship Lines Plan .................................................................... 14

1.4.2 Body Plan ........................................................................................................... 16

1.4.3 Half Breadth Plan ............................................................................................... 18

1.4.4 Profile / Sheer Plan ............................................................................................ 20

1.4.5 Offsets Data ....................................................................................................... 21

1.5 Ship Geometry Coordinate System ........................................................................... 23

Chapter 2 Hydrostatics and Floatation ..................................................................................... 24

2.1 Archimedes Principles of Floatation ......................................................................... 24

2.2 Reduction of Weight of Immersed Objects ............................................................... 24

2.3 What makes a ship float? .......................................................................................... 27

2.4 Effect of Density ...................................................................................................... 27

2.5 Some Simple Problems ............................................................................................. 28

2.6 Tonne per centimeter immersion (TPC).................................................................... 31

2.7 Hydrostatics Particulars............................................................................................. 32

2.8 Hydrostatic Particulars of a Ship ............................................................................... 34

2.9 Using Hydrostatic Curves and Tables ....................................................................... 36

2.10 Bonjean Curves...................................................................................................... 37

2.11 Cross Sectional Area Curve ................................................................................... 38

2.12 Second Moments of Areas ..................................................................................... 38

Exercises .............................................................................................................................. 43

Chapter 3 Basic Stability Consideration .................................................................................. 45

3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................... 45

3.2 What is stability? ....................................................................................................... 45

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3.4 Basic Initial Stability: The role of GM...................................................................... 47

3.5 Determining the Centre of Gravity of ships after loading ......................................... 49

3.6 Effect of movement or addition of weights on centre of gravity .............................. 51

3.7 Hanging Weights, The Use Of Derricks And Cranes ............................................... 53

3.8 Free Surface Correction ............................................................................................ 54

3.8.1 The Effect of Free Surface on Ship Stability .......................................................... 54

3.8.2 Calculating Second Moment of Area ...................................................................... 55

Exercises .............................................................................................................................. 56

Chapter 4 Transverse Stability ........................................................................................... 58

4.1 List due to movement of weights onboard ................................................................ 58

4.2 Finding list after loading and unloading ................................................................... 61

4.3 Correcting Lists by moving or adding weight ........................................................... 63

Exercises .............................................................................................................................. 64

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Preface

Man has benefited from the sea in various ways. The sea has been the source of food,

ornaments as well as provided means of transportation. Conquests and defences

have been carried out on water. Water-based leisure activities are becoming more

common and varied. Lately, man has innovated the use of the sea beyond those

traditional applications. The sea has now become a primary source of petroleum,

gas and lately marine renewable energy.

To carry out various activities at sea, rivers and lakes, man uses various types of

marine structures, fixed and floating. The structures normally provide safe and

stable platforms upon which the activities are carried out. They must be designed

and built in various sizes, shapes and sophistication. Some of them are small and

simple such as a canoe or a raft while others are large and complicated such as an

aircraft carrier or a semi-submersible oil drilling platform.

and floating structures ensuring that they can perform their stipulated functions and

missions effectively and safely. The persons having this expertise are called naval

architects. To build these structures, shipbuilders requires design plans and

guidelines prepared by naval architects. Knowledge in naval architecture is used to

carry out design calculation and to produce plans which can be used by the

shipyards.

Although man has been using marine transport for a long time, not all these vehicles

are designed and constructed using naval architecture knowledge. In fact the

discipline of knowledge on ship design and naval architecture only appeared in the

seventeenth century. Prior to that, shipbuilding is not based on science and

technology but rather on the skills of the master craftsmen.

This dependence on master craftsmen for shipbuilding can be traced back to the

earliest civilization of Egypt, Greek and China. Similarly the warships and

exploration vessels built by the Romans, Muslims as well as the European colonial

powers were not built using scientific methods.

science and mathematical methods in ship design. Among the earliest was Sir

Anthony Deane who wrote Doctrine of Naval Architecture in 1670. Among others, he

put forward a method to determine the draught of the ship before it was built, a

technique which formed the basis of we now understand as hydrostatics . Since

then, a number of scientists and engineers continued to study and document various

fields of naval architecture. In 1860, a professional body comprising of naval

architects was formed under the name Institution of Naval Architects. A hundred

years later the name was changed to Royal Institution of Naval Architects.

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A naval architect works to determine the size and shape of a ship tailored to its

intended use. In addition, he estimates its stability, propulsive power as well as

calculates the size and strength of its structure and the impact of waves on the

vessel. The types of machinery and equipment to be installed, materials to be used

and layout of ship are also determined based on naval architectural knowledge.

This book will cover only one aspect of naval architecture, that is ship hydrostatics

and stability since it is one of the most important subject in naval architecture. The

safety of ships, crew, passengers and cargo will be jeopardised if ships are not stable.

This book is written to enable readers to appreciate the basic terminologies, carry out

simple hydrostatics calculations and to equip them with basic tools to assess

stability of vessels.

Many books have been written on naval architecture, ship hydrostatics and stability.

Most books however are difficult to follow, due to the unsystematic way the

materials are presented.

This book differs from the rest in the sense that the content is not presented as

discrete topics, unrelated to each other. Instead, it is presented in a systematic and

logical manner.

progression of knowledge acquisition as well as confidence building through hands-

on calculations examples and exercises.

The Chapters are interrelated, as do the Sections. Readers can easily see the

relationships between each Chapters and Sections. Materials which are important

but not fit to be in the logical flow of the content are put in the appendices.

Knowledge is built in an incremental manner. Readers can read and understand the

step by step explanation and solutions to the problems and able to apply their

knowledge by solving the exercises provided.

to Ir Dr Mohamad Pauzi, Dr. Koh Kho King and Haji Yahya Samian who have

contributed to some of the sections. There are many others who have assisted in

various ways.

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Terminologies and Symbols

1.1 Introduction

There are various ways of categorizing ships. Ship types can be classed according to

a number of criteria such as the number of hulls, hull form shapes, the way it is

supported in water, and its mission/function.

1. Number of Hulls

Ships can be categorized in terms of the number of hulls. Most ships have only a

single hull; these are called mono-hulls. Some ships have multiple hulls such as

catamaran and trimaran.

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Figure 2 A Catamaran

The shape of the hull are different from one ship and the other. Most large slow

ships have round-bilge hull form while smaller faster boats normally have chine

hulls. The fishing boat in Figure 1 has a round-bilge while the Catamaran in Figure 2

has chine hull form. Chine hulls consists of two or more almost flat surfaces, the line

connecting the surfaces is called the chine line. When the hull is made up of two

surfaces, then there is a single chine. Double chine vessels have three surfaces. Chine

hulls are also called V-shaped hulls while round-bilge hulls are called U-shaped

hulls.

When a ship is in water, the total weight of the ship is being supported by various

forces, depending on the types of hullform. Round-bilge hull forms are normally

supported hydrostatically, i.e. all the weight of the vessel is supported by buoyancy

forces which equals the total weight of water displaced by the vessel. These are also

called displacement hull.

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Volker Bertram , Overview of High-Performance Marine Vehicles as Naval Platforms , Volume 38, Number 2 -

Summer 2008

Hydrofoils are an examples of vessels supported by the dynamic lift due to its flat

lower foils. At high speeds, the lift forces provided by the foils is enough to support

the ship, lifting it out of water. At these speeds, the hydrostatic buoyancy forces are

insignificant. By lifting the body above the water surface, the drag of water on the

hull is reduced and the vessel can travel at high speeds.

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Another kind of ships are the hovercrafts, which operates above the water surface.

Air cushion is provided by large fans which pump air to lift the vessel above the

water surface. The total weight of the vessel is supported by the air cushion,

sometimes referred to as aeropowered lift forces.

Many vesssels have combinations of support. For example, when a chine hull vessel

is stationary, it is hydrostatically supported. However, when it starts to move and

reaches a certain speed, water moving along the lower hull will lift the vessel,

reducing the hydrostatic buoyancy forces. In this case, at the cruising speeds the

vessel is supported both by a combination of hydrostatics and hydrodynamic forces.

Chine-hull vessels which operate at high speeds using partial hydrodynamic

support are called planing hull vessels, see Figure 3.

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4. Its function/mission

Ships can also be categorized according to their functions i.e. how they are used for

the benefit of mankind. For example, some ships are meant for transport such as

crude oil tankers, bulk carriers, containerships, passenger ships, general cargo ships,

liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers. The ships used in the navy may take various

size, dimensions and functions such as aircraft carrier, submarine, frigate, destroyer,

patrol craft, and minesweeper. Some ships are not meant to carry cargo but to carry

out certain service at sea. Examples of work or service vessels include tugs, supply

boats, crew boats, heavy lift, crane ships, fishing boats and rescue boats. Some other

boats are used for recreational purpose such as luxury yacht, cruise ships, tourists

boats.

Figure 7 This 396m long containership is one of the largest ship in the world

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The terms and terminologies used in naval architecture are unique. Proper and

uniform understanding is important since these terms and symbols will be used not

only in hydrostatics and stability calculations but also in various other naval

architecture calculations such as ship resistance and propulsion, ship structure and

ship hydrodynamics. These symbols and terms are used by those in the academic

world as well as by the practioners in the industry. Therefore proper understanding

is important to ensure smooth and efficient communications.

Distances and relative locations are measured from certain reference positions on

ships.

Waterlines are lines of the water surface at which the ship is expected to float at.

DWL is the waterline at which the ship is expected to float at its fully loaded or

operational condition.

After perpendicular(AP)

AP is the line which is perpendicular to the intersection of the after side of the

rudder-post with the DWL. For some ships without rudder-post, the AP is taken as

the centre-line of the rudder stock or the intersection of the DWL with the transom.

A line drawn perpendicular to the intersection of the DWL with the forward side of

the stem.

Amidships or Midships ( )

Base line

The lowest part of the ship, normally the underside of keel where a horizontal line is

drawn. This becomes a reference line for measurements in the vertical direction.

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The horizontal distance between AP and FP. This is the most important length

measurement during ship design development stages. Most calculations such as

stability, propulsion, maneuvering use LBP.

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The length on the water-line of the ship when floating in still water at DWL. In many

cases, this is similar to LBP and also important during calculations in the deisgn

stages.

The length measured from the extreme point forward to the extreme point aft. This

length is an important measure during operational stage of the ship.

The maximum breadth or beam of the ship is usually measured at amidships. Some

ships have the largest breadth not at amidships.

Depth (D)

The vertical height of the uppermost continuous deck measured at the side

amidships from the base line.

Freeboard

The height of the deck at side above the LWL. It is equal to the difference between

the depth and the load draught.

Trim

The difference between the draughts at AP and FP. If the draught forward is greater

than the draught aft it is called trim forward, by the head, or by bow. If the draught

aft is greater, it is called trim aft, by stern. Ships without trim are said to be level

keel or even keel. Trim are sometimes stated as trim angles, .

i.e. the measurements neglect the thickness of plating. Subscripts mld are used.

Moulded breadth for example (Bmld) is the breadth measured between the inside

plating on the two sides of the ship, moulded depth (Dmld) and draughts (Tmld) are

measured from the top of the keel plate. Moulded dimensions are normally used

during ship construction process, especially when lofting is carried out. In

hydrostatics and stability calculations, the outer or extreme dimensions are used.

These are given the subscript ext, for example Text. These dimensions consider the

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surfaces which are in contact with water. Unless otherwise stated, all dimensions

without subscripts are normally referred to extreme dimensions.

The size of ships are normally stated in terms of displacement, deadweight or gross

registered ton (GRT). Some ships such are measured in terms of their carrying

capacity, for example TEUs (Twenty feet Equivalent Units) for containerships, the

number of cars for car carriers or the number of heads for livestock carriers.

In ship design and operation field, the term weight and mass are used

interchangeably and units of mass (tonnes/tons/pounds/kilograms) are normally

used. Although this is not strictly correct, the net impact is the same and as long as

consistency is maintained, there should not be any problem.

Volume Displacement ( )

A floating ship displaces water. The volume of water being displaced is the amount

of water pushed aside by the ship. The volume of water is called the volume

displacement of the ship usually expressed in m3.

Mass Displacement ( )

When a ship is floating, it is displacing the volume of water whose weight or mass is

equivalent to its own weight or mass. The total weight of the vessel is the same as

the weight of water being displaced. So the term mass displacement is the same as

the total weight or mass of the ship in sea water, normally expressed in units of

tonnes or kilogram.

This weight of water equals the volume displacement multiplied by the density of

water,

In sea water = x 1025 kg/m

Mass displacement or weight of the ship is equal to the sum of lightship weight and

deadweight. The operational displacement of the ship or its total weight will

actually vary from time to time. While the lightship weight is constant, the

deadweight and hence the displacement will vary from time to time during

operation depending on the loading conditions of the ship.

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Lightship

Lightship weight is the weight of an empty ship, without cargo, crew, water, fuel

and other payload components. It is normally associated with a ship that has just

been built and ready to sail. It is the non-variable component of the mass

displacement.

Deadweight

The difference between the mass displacement and the lightship weight is called the

deadweight. This is the variable component of displacement and includes cargo,

fuel, crew, passengers, stores, etc, expressed in tonnes. The sizes of tankers and bulk

carriers are often quoted in terms of the deadweight tonnage, which is the maximum

deadweight the ship is designed to carry. Since the weight of the cargo make up

most of the deadweight, the deadweight tonnage is a good measure of the cargo

carrying capacity of the tankers and bulk carriers.

Displacement tonnage

The designed total weight of the ship is called ship displacement tonnage and this is

normally stated in the ship particulars. The sizes of non-cargo carrying ships such as

ships belonging to government agencies are normally stated in terms of

displacement tonnage.

Although the terms tonnage and tons are used, GRT is not a measure of weight.

Instead, gross tonnage is the total volume of enclosed spaces in a ship including the

under-deck and the enclosed space in the superstructure of the ships. Due to its

history of its use, although its unit is tons, it is a measure of volume, not weight

where 1 ton is equivalent to 100 ft3. The sizes of most commercial vessels are stated

in terms of gross tonnage.

GRT is the total volume of enclosed spaces onboard a ship, NRT is the net volume

after deductions of non-freight earning spaces such as engine room and crew

accommodation. Net tonnage are used when charges are levied for services are

provided for the commercial ship, for example for pilotage and port charges.

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When comparing one ship's form with another, the naval architect makes use of a

number of coefficients. These coefficients of forms are used as a general term to

describe the fullness or the fineness of the ship hulls. These coefficients are

important and used in power, stability, strength and design calculations. Coefficient

of forms are stated in terms ratios between the actual area or volumes divided the

are or volume of the circumscribing box. The higher the value, the fuller the ship

form. However the values do not exceed 1.

This is a measure of the fullness of the form of the ship and is the ratio of the volume

of displacement to a given water-line, and the volume of the circumscribing box

having the same length, breadth and draught as the ship.

ie: CB = (L x B x T)

CB varies between ships. Typically slimmer, faster ships such as frigates and patrol

crafts have CB between 0.5-0.65 while slower full form ships such as tankers and bulk

carriers have CB 0f around 0.7-0.85.

This is the ratio of the midship section area to the area of the circumscribing

rectangle having a breadth equal to the breadth of the ship and a depth equal to the

draught.

ie: CM = AM (B x T)

This is the ratio of the area of the water-plane to the area of the circumscribing

rectangle having a length equal to the LPP and a breadth equal to B.

ie:

CWP = AW (L x B)

The ratio of the volume of displacement of the ship to the volume of the

circumscribing box having a constant section equal to the immersed midship section

area AM, and a length equal to the LwL

i.e. CP = (AM x L)

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The above is the most typical prismatic coefficient, sometimes called longitudinal

prismatic coefficient, because it is a measure of the longitudinal distribution of

displacement of the ship.

CPV = Awp x L

1.3.5 Centroids

hydrostatics and stability calculations.

When a ship trims at small angles of trim, the ship is pivoting about a transverse

axis passing through the centre of floatation, F. When viewed from the side,

consecutive water-lines are assumed to be passing through the centre of floatation.

The centre of floatation coincides with the centre of the waterplane area at that

draught. The location of F is measured longitudinally from the references axes, either

amidships, AP or FP. This distance is called longitudinal centre of floation (LCF).

The single buoyancy force representing the summation of all hydrostatic forces

acting on a ship is considered to act upwards through a single point called the centre

of buoyancy (B). This coincides with the centroid of the underwater volume of a

ship. Its position is defined by:

(a) Vertical centre of buoyancy (VCB) which indicates the location in the vertical

direction. The reference line must be stated. In normal practice, the keel line is used

as the reference line and in this case, this height is stated as KB which is the vertical

distance above keel.

(b) The longitudinal distance measured either from amidships or AP or FP is called

the longitudinal centre of buoyancy (LCB).

This is the point through which the total weight of the ship may be assumed to act.

Similar to the centre of buoyancy, the location of centre of gavity also is defined by:

(a) Vertical centre of gravity (VCG) which indicates the location in the vertical

direction. In normal practice, KG is used where the keel line is used as the reference

line.

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measured either from amidships or AP or FP.

Ship has a complex and unique hull shape due to its double curvature and non-

homogeneous cross sections. Unlike simple object like cylinder, box, and cone which

can be represented in simple orthographic drawing, ship hull require special way of

representing its unique and complex shape. Not only it require to be shown in three

different orthogonal views, more lines are also needed in order to represents its

shape at different cross sections or planes. For this reason, the ship hull drawing is

always called as Lines Plan Drawing.

Lines Plan Drawing is a lines drawing that represent the shape of the ship hull

looking from three orthogonal (perpendicular to each other) views i.e. front, side and

top views. The front view is termed as Body Plan, the side view is the Sheer Plan

and the top view is the Half Breadth Plan. Since all of these views represent the

same hull, they are interrelated to each other, thus the preparation of lines plan

drawing must follow certain standard procedure.

Lines plan drawing has always regarded by the naval architects as the most

important piece of information about the ship. This is due to two reasons i.e. the ship

performance and ship design process. On the performance of the ship, the shape of

the hull form determines the power required to drive the ship, thus reflect the ship

speed, its also determine the amount of pay load (capacity), comfort, habitability, etc.

On the ship design process, lines plan drawing is the first information that needs to

be made available. Without lines plan drawing, no calculation, design and analysis

works can be performed. Construction process also can only be commenced after the

lines plan drawing is completed.

Some samples of the various hull form are shown in Figure 10 to 12.

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Figure 11: Body plan of a planning hull (Vee hull with hard chine)

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Body Plan represents the shape of the ship hull when viewing from the front or rear

of the ship at every ship stations as shown in Figure 10 and 13. Station is a

transverse cross-section along the ship length which normally equally spaced. The

body plan concept can be better understood by referring to Figure 14. A ship is

normally divided into 11 or 21 stations from after perpendicular, AP (Sometimes

noted as station 0) until forward perpendicular, FP (or noted as station 10 0r 20). Half

or even quarter station may also be used especially at the region with high

curvature. Body plan is normally placed at the top right hand side of the drawing

although it can also be placed at the middle or on top of the sheer plan drawing

depending on the size and type of ship.

Since most ships have symmetrical shape for both port (left side looking from rear)

and starboard (right) sides, only one side is shown in the drawing. Therefore, it is

almost a standard practice to show the stations of the rear region of the ship at the

left side of body plan while the right hand side of the body plan represents the

stations at the forward region of the ship. The curve on the body plan is also call

station curve. The centre line of the body plan represents the centre line of the ship.

Apart from showing the station curves, the body plan also shows the waterlines and

the buttock lines grid. These grid lines are essential not only for reference lines but

also used for transferring and checking data from one plan to another.

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The same hull form if it is viewed from top will produce the plan view of the ship.

However since the hull shape is complex and unique, the plan view must be made at

several waterline planes. Thus Half Breadth Plan is a lines drawing that represents

the shape of the ship hull looking from top view at every waterlines of the ship.

Waterline is the horizontal plane that cut the ship along its vertical axis, thus

creating the waterlines curves as shown in Figure 15. Waterline is normally equally

spaced, although half waterline may also be used at the lower region of the ship.

Since the hull is symmetry about its centre line, only half of the hull is shown in this

plan as shown in Figure 16.

Apart from waterline curves, the deck line curve needs to be drawn on this plan. If

the ship has bulwark, chines or / and knuckles lines, these curves have also to be

shown in the drawing. In this plan, the grid lines shown are the stations and buttock

lines of the ship.

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Sheer Plan which is usually placed at the top left hand side of the lines plan drawing

represent the shape of the ship hull looking from the side of ship at several buttock lines.

Buttock line is the vertical plane that cuts the ship along its length, creating the buttock line

curves as indicated in Figure 17. The middle buttock line (normally labeled as BL 0) is the

plane that cuts the ship along its centre line which creates the profile curve of the ship. Other

buttock lines are drawn outward (offsets) of ships centre line and normally at equally

spaced distance. The stations and waterlines grids are shown in this sheer plan drawing. A

typical sheer plan drawing is shown in Figure 18.

Plan B = Plan C

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Offsets data is the data that is extracted (measured) from the lines plan drawing and

considered the most important data for the design, calculation, analysis and construction of

the ship. As the name implied, Offset Data is the distance measured from the centre line of

the ship to the specific point on the curves (station or waterline curves). The offset data must

be measured at every intersection points on each stations and waterlines including deck line,

chines, knuckles and bulwarks (if any). Offset data also called as half breadth data, because

it represents the half breadth of the ship at every station and waterlines. A typical example

of offsets data is shown in Table 1 and the measurement of offsets data is illustrated in

Figure 19.

In the offsets Table, it is also a standard practice to indicate the data of height above based

for deck, chine, bulwark, and knuckles lines. The height above base of buttock lines may also

be included whenever necessary.

A sample of the complete lines plan drawing containing the body plan, profile, half-

breadth plan and offset are shown in Figure 20.

1.5 Ship Geometry Coordinate System

Sometimes, there is a need to define the locations and positions on the ship hull using

coordinates. In such cases, the following system is used:

X axis for longitudinal direction, positive forward

Y axis in the transverse direction, positive to starboard.

The origin (x=0, y=0, z=0) is normally taken at amidships, the centre line and the

baseline. Sometimes, the origin in the longitudinal direction i.e. x = 0 is taken at AP

or FP.

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equivalent to the mass of fluid the object displaces.

It means that when an object is inside a fluid, there is a force acting vertically upwards upon

it, the magnitude of which is equivalent to the mass of fluid displaced by the object. This

force is called buoyancy.

A man immersed in water for example will feel a weight reduction because part of his weight

is supported by buoyancy. This buoyancy is equal to the weight of water displaced by the

immersed parts of his body.

The maximum buoyancy force exist when the object is fully immersed and this equals the

weight of the fluid being displaced. This in turn equals the total volume of the space

occupied by the object multiplied by the density of the fluid. If the weight of the immersed

object is less that the weight of fluid being displaced, the object experience a net positive

force upwards i.e. lift.

For example, a helium balloon is lifted up by the buoyancy force equivalent to the

displaced mass of air. Although the volume of helium in the balloon is similar to the volume

of air that the balloon displaces (disregarding the thin skin of the balloon), the weight of

helium in the balloon is less than the weight of air being displaced due to the lower density

of helium. Therefore, the net force is positively up, i.e. the balloon floats up in the air.

This also explains the strong force required to keep a ball to stay underwater. The weight of

water being displaced by the ball is more than the weight of the ball itself, and hence the ball

will experience a strong net buoyancy force upwards.

Omar bin Yaakob and Mohamad Pauzi Abdul Ghani, July 2006 24

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W

> W, giving net lift pushing the ball upwards 1> W, ball floats in

equilibirum

If the ball is slowly brought to the surface, the ball will be pushed upwards until an

equilibrium is reached such that the ball floats with only a certain portion of it being

immersed in water. In this case, the smaller weight of water being displaced now equals to

the weight of the ball.

When maximum available buoyancy is less than the weight of the object, the object will sink.

That is why an anchor will sink to the bottom. However the object will still feel the effect of

weight reduction.

Omar bin Yaakob and Mohamad Pauzi Abdul Ghani, July 2006 25

A Systematic Approach

Example 2.1:

air, what is its apparent weight in water density 1000 kg/m3?

displace liquid around it equivalent to its

external volume.

m3

pushed aside by the cuboid.

weight of this object in liquid is reduced due

to the support given by the liquid on the

object. The apparent weight is equal to the

weight in air minus the reduction in weight

of the object or the buoyancy i.e.

= volume displacement x density of liquid

= 2m3 x 1000 kg/m3

= 2000 kg

= 2 tonnes

= reduction in weight

Since the object weighs 3 tonne in air, it will apparently weigh only 1 tonne in water.

Omar bin Yaakob and Mohamad Pauzi Abdul Ghani, July 2006 26

A Systematic Approach

Exercise 2.1

Do similar calculations to find out the apparent weight in oil (density 0.85

tonne/m3) and muddy water (density 1.3 tonne/m3) and mercury (density 13,000

kg/m3)

( ) ( ) ( )

Oil

Fresh Water

Muddy Water

Mercury

the densities of fluids in which they are immersed?

As can be seen in Section 3.1, when the maximum available buoyancy is more than the

weight of the object, the object will rise to the surface. It will rise to the surface until the

weight of the object is equal to the buoyancy provided by its immersed portions. When the

object is floating, its buoyancy is just enough to support its weight. At that point:

This principle explains why a steel or concrete ship can float. As long as the outer shell of the

ship can provide enough volume to displace the surrounding water exceeding the actual

weight of the ship, the ship will float. A floating ship is such that the total weight of its hull,

machinery and deadweight equals to the weight of water displaced by its outer shell. If,

while it is floating weights are added until the total weight exceeds the maximum buoyancy

That can be provided by the outer shell of the ship, the ship will sink.

An object experiences buoyancy force equivalent to the weight of fluid it displaces. As seen

in Example 3.1, for a particular object, the buoyancy force will depend on the density of the

fluid, since its volume is constant. The basic relationship can be written as follows:

Omar bin Yaakob and Mohamad Pauzi Abdul Ghani, July 2006 27

A Systematic Approach

From Equation (3.1), the displaced volume is inversely proportional to the density of fluid.

For a floating object, this will determine its level of sinkage or draught.

This explains for example why a bather will feel more buoyant while swimming at sea

compared to the river or lake. Also, a floating object of constant weight will sink at a deeper

draught in freshwater compared to in seawater.

Consider a boat moving from the sea to a river. There is a change of density from the more

dense seawater to freshwater which has a lower density. Since the weight of the boat does

not change, the buoyancy force to support the boat is also constant. With the lower density

of fluid, the boat need to increase its displaced volume. To ensure this, the boat will need to

sink deeper i.e. increase its draught.

The fact that a floating object displaces fluid equivalent to its weight as shown in Equation

3.1 can be used to solve a number of problems.

From this equation, we can obtain the weight of the object if we know the volume of water

displaced. On the other hand, if we know its weight, we can work out its displaced volume.

T, shown in Figure 3.2.

In this case, we know the weight of the object, so we can find the displaced volume:

Displaced volume, = W

water

Displaced volume = L x B x T

Hence draught T of the cuboid can be found.

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A Systematic Approach

Example 2.2

A cuboid shaped wooden block (L x B x D) 1.45m x 0.5m x 0.25m floats in water. If the block

weighs 0.154 tonnes, find its draught if it floats in freshwater density 1.00 tonne/m3.

Solution:

The weight of the block of 0.154 tonnes must be supported by displaced water i.e. the block

must displace 0.154 tonnes of water:

In fresh water,

Volume of displaced water =LxBxT

Weight of displaced water = x FW

= 1.45 x 0.5 x T x FW

1.45 x 0.5 x T x fw = 0.154 tonnes

T = 0.212 m

Exercise 2.2

Do similar calculations for salt water (density 1025 kg/m3 and oil density 0.85 tonne/m3)

CASE 2: If we know its draught, we can know its volume displacement and we can find its

weight

If we know the draught of the cuboid, we can find its volume displacement and hence the

weight of the object;

Weight = Buoyancy = Volume Displacement x water

Weight = L x B x T x water

Example 2.3

A box barge length 100m breadth 20m floats at a draught of 5m in sea water 1.025 tonne/m3.

Find its weight.

Solution

Volume Displacement = = L x B x T

Weight of barge = Weight displacement,

W = = x salt water

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A Systematic Approach

= 100 x 20 x 5 x 1.025

= 10250 tonnes

Exercise 2.3

A block of wood length 5m, breadth 0.5m and depth 0.2m is floating in seawater at

a draught of 0.1m. Find the weight of the block.

Exercise 2.4

Find the new draught of the box in example 3.3 when it goes into river, water

density 1.000 tonne/m3. Also find a new draught if it is in sea water with density

1.100 tonne/m3.

axis vertical. If the diameter is 1.0m, find its draught

in:

i. sea water

ii. oil of density 870 kg/ m3.

Exercise 2.6

A cylindrical tank diameter 0.6m and mass 200kg floats with its axis vertical.

Find its present draught in oil ( = 0.95 tonne/m3).

Find the weight of cargo to be added to ensure it will float at a draught of

0.85m.

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A Systematic Approach

Exercise 2.7

A boat with constant triangular crossection is floating with its apex down. Its LBP is

10m, breadth 2m and depth 0.7m. If it floats in sea water ( = 1025 kg/m3). at a

draught of 0.5m, what is its weight?

The weight required to increase or reduce trim by one centimeter ia called Tonne per

centimeter immersion (TPC)

For the ship having area of waterplane Awp, an increase in draught of one

centimeter will require an addition of weight equivalent to the additional volume of

displacement multiplied by the density.

100

Example 2.4

A ship with TPC of 30 floats at a draught of 6.5m. What is the new mean draught

ahen 150 tonne is unloaded from the ship.

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A Systematic Approach

A floating object will be floating at a certain draught depending on the total weight of the

object, the density of water and the shape of the object. For a ship, the shape of the object has

a strong influence on the draught of the ship; the shape and draught have to provide enough

buoyancy to support the ship.

When a ship is floating at a certain draught, we can find the mass displacement and weight

of the ship if we can find its displaced volume . Also we can know its waterplane area,

calculate its TPC, KB, Cb etc. These particulars which are properties of the immersed part of

the ship are called hydrostatic particulars. Examples of hydrostatic particulars are:

, , KB, LCB, Aw, BMT, BML, TPC, CB, CP, CM, CW, LCF, MCTC

These particulars describe the characteristics of the underwater portion of ship at a particular

draught. It is related to volumes, areas, centroids of volumes and areas and moments of

volumes and areas of the immersed portion. If the ship is taken out of water, and draught

becomes zero, the particulars ceased to exist.

As long as draught and trim are maintained, the size and shape of the underwater immersed

parts of the ship remains the same. The volumes, areas and moments of areas and volumes

remain the same and consequently, the hydrostatics particulars do not change. Once draught

or trim changes, the particulars will also change.

These changes in draught and trim will normally occur due to changes in the total weight of

the ship, movement of weights onboard or if external forces are applied.

Exercise 2.8

Calculate its , , CB, CWP and TPC at draughts of 0.3 and 0.5m

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A Systematic Approach

Exercise 2.9

barge with dimension L=100m, B=20m, at draughts of 1.0m, 3.0m, 5.0m, 7.0m,

9.0m. If the barge weighs 2,300 tonne, what is its draught? If the barge is

floating at a draught of 4m, what is its CB?

Exercise 2.10

Calculate , , KB , LCB, Aw, TPC, CB, CP, CM, CW, LCF of a cylinder radius

1m floating with axis vertical at draughts of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5m.

It can be seen from Exercise 2.9 and 2.10 that for cuboids or cylinders, the waterplane areas

are constant at different draughts. Hence, many hydrostatics particulars which depend on

waterplane areas also remain constant.

Exercise 2.11

An empty cylindrical shaped tank is floating in sea water (density 1.025 t/m3) at a

draught of 8.0 m with its axis vertical. The external diameter of the tank is 12.0 m,

internal diameter 11.0 m, thickness of base 1.0 m and the overall height is 16.0 meter.

Its centre of gravity is 6 meter above its inner base.

Calculate:

.

i. Find Hydrostatic particulars , Awp, LCB, Cb, Cp, TPC, WSA

at T=1, 2, 4, 6, 8m.

ii. Plot hydrostatic curves similar to page 19 showing all data.

ii. Final draught of the tank after 500 m3 diesel oil (density 850 kg/m3) is poured

into the tank.

D 4

The second moment of area of a circle about its diameter is .

64

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A Systematic Approach

The objects considered in the previous sections are simple, uniform objects such as cuboids,

cylinders and prisms. The formulae involved in these cases are simple and familiar. In some

cases, the particulars such as block coefficient and waterplane areas remain constant at

various draughts. By using these objects, the calculations are simplified and can be used to

show the main concepts.

Those formulae used for the simple objects are no longer applicable for real ships, although

the concepts remain relevant. Unlike those simple objects considered earlier, real ships

rarely have uniform cross sectional areas or waterplane areas. The waterplanes are no longer

made up of straight lines. Therefore, there is no simple formulae to calculate their areas,

volumes and moments and hence hydrostatic particulars.

Consider the ship whose lines plan is shown in Figure 3.2 . At different draughts, the ship

will have different waterplane areas, sectional areas, volumes and centroids. Hence, the

hydrostatic particulars will also vary as the draught changes.

The methods to calculate areas, volumes, moments, centroids of the waterplanes and sections

of ships will be covered in Chapter 3.

If areas, volumes, moments, centroids of the waterplanes and sections of the ships can be

calculated, hydrostatic particulars of a ship can be obtained. These are calculated at the

design stage, once the shape and size of the ship has been decided.

The particulars can be presented in two forms, either as a set of curves or in tabular format.

Table 2.1 shows a typical table of hydrostatic particulars while an example of hydrostatic

curves is shown on Figure 2.3.

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A Systematic Approach

Cb

(m) (tones) (m) (m) (m) (tonne-m) (m from ) (m from )

Exercise 2.12

A ship with length 100m, breadth 22m has the following volumes and areas at

different waterlines. Calculate its , CB, CW and TPC in saltwater density

1.025tonnes/m3.

Draught Aw

(m) (m2 ) (m3) (tonnes)

Cb Cw TPC

Aw Aw x

x (LB)

LBT 100

2 1800.0 3168.0

4 2000.0 6547.2

6 2100.0 10137.6

8 2120.0 13728.0

10 2130.0 17424.0

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A Systematic Approach

Hydrostatic curves and tables can be used to obtain all hydrostatic particulars of a ship once

the draught or any one of the particulars is known.

Example 2.5

From MV Bulker hydrostatic Curves (Figure 3.3 ) at a draught of 7m, we can obtain

displacement = 31,000 tonnes, LCF = 2.0m forward of amidships and MCTC = 465 tonne-m

etc. Also if we know the ship weighs 40,000 tonnes, its draught, TPC, MCTC, LCF and LCB

can be obtained.

Exercise 2.13

draught of 9.5m. If 1500 tonnes is added to the ship, what is its new draught?

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A Systematic Approach

Hydrostatic tables can be used in a similar manner to obtain hydrostatic particulars once

draught is known or to obtain draught and other particulars once the displacement or

another particular is known. There is however a need to interpolate the table to obtain

intermediate values.

Exercise 2.14

ii. Find values of displacement , KB , LCB, BMT, BML, MCTC,

CB, LCF of the ship if it is floating at a draught of 6.75m.

iii. Find values of T, KB , LCB, BMT, BML, MCTC, CB, LCF of ship

if the ship weighs 11,480 tonnes.

iv. When the ship is floating at a draught of 5.5m, 3000 tonne cargo

was added. What is its new draught?

One important hydrostatic particular is the area of a section. For a particular transverse

section, the sectional area can be calculated up to a particular waterline.

This can be done for all waterlines at each station.

If these areas are plotted against draughts at all station positions along the ship, the resulting

diagram is called Bonjean Curves.

The curves are frequently drawn on the ships profile at the displacement stations or on a

centre line with those for stations in the fore body on the right hand side and for the after body

on the left hand side. They enable the displacement and LCB to be calculated for any

waterline, trimmed or even keel.

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A Systematic Approach

The plot for every stations are superimposed on the profile of the ship as follows:

The shape of the hull can be defined by a curve representing the distribution of the cross-

sectional area (CSA) of each section at the respective stations up to a particular waterline,

normally DWL. The curve is called Sectional Area curve.

The second moment of area or moment of inertia are used in the calculations of metacentric

heights. Therefore is important to have a firm understanding of this important quantity.

By definition, second moment of area is the product of area multiplied by square of the

distance of the centre of that area to the reference axis.

The second moment of an element of an area about an axis is equal to the product of the area

and the square of its distance from the axis

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A Systematic Approach

Consider the rectangle length l and breadth b. A small segment area length I and breadth dy

will have an area l x dy.

The second moment of the rectangle about an axis parallel to one of its sides and passing

through the centroid (XX) is

Ixx = Area x y2

Ixx = l x y2 x dy

The second moment (i) of the strip about the axis AB is given by the equation:-

i= l dx x x2

Let I AB be the second moment of the whole rectangle about the axis AB then:-

b/2

IXX l. y

2

.dy

- b/2

b/2

1XX l

- b/2

y 2 .dy

b / 2

y3

l

3 b / 2

lb 3

1XX

12

lb 3

1AB

12

The second moment of a rectangle about one of its sides ( axis AB):-

b

1AB l. x 2 .dx

O

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A Systematic Approach

b

x 3

l

3 O

lb 3

1AB

3

According to the Theorem of Parallel Axes the second moment of an area about an

axis through the centroid is equal to the second moment about any other parallel

axis minus by the product of the area and the square of the perpendicular distance

between the two axes.

I XX I AB - Area y 2

Fig. A.4

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A Systematic Approach

X

Fig. A.5

D4

I AB

64

Exercise

Second moment of areas are used in calculations of the distances from ship centre

of buoyancy to the longitudinal and transverse metacentres, BML and BMT

respectively:

IF

BM L

and

IT

BM T

Where IF is longitudinal second moment of area of the waterplane about the centre of

floatation, IT is transverse second moment of area about the centreline and is volume

displacement.

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A Systematic Approach

In hydrostatic calculations, the longitudinal second moment of area is initially calculated

about amidships. To obtain IF, theorem of parallel must be used:

I F I WPA LCF 2

Where WPA is the waterplane area and LCF is the centre of floatation measured from

amidship.

BML and BMT are important hydrostatic particulars which are required in the

calculations of ship stability.

GML

MCTC tonne-m

100 L

Where GML is the distance from the centre of gravity to longitudinal metacentre and L is

LBP.

IF

MCTC tonne-m

100 L

Since

IF

MCTC

100 L

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A Systematic Approach

Exercises

1. Find BML and BMT of a box shaped barge 120m x 20m x 10m floating at a draught of

7m.

2. A cylinder of radius r = 10m is floating upright at draught of 6m in fresh water. Find

its KML and KMT.

3. A fish cage consists of a wooden platform placed on used oil drums with the

following dimensions.

If the total weight of the structure is 3 tonnes, floating in sea water calculate:

i) draught

ii) KMT

iii) KML

centreline. Each hull measures (L x B x D) 10m x 0.5m x 1m. If its draught is

0.3m, find its :

i) and

ii) KB

iii) BMT

iv) Maximum allowable KG if GM minimum is 0.2m

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A Systematic Approach

LBP = 220m

Displacement = 153 tonnes

BML = 24.3 m

LCF = 0.97m aft of amidships

Calculate:

ii. longitudinal second moment of area of the waterplane about the centre

of floatation

iii. longitudinal second moment of area of the waterplane about the centre

of amidships

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A Systematic Approach

3.1 Introduction

One of the factor threatening the safety of the ship, cargo and crew is the lost or lack of

stability of the vessel. Stability calculation is an important step in the design of the ship and

during its operation. While designing the ship, the designers must be able to estimate or

calculate to check whether the ship will be stable when constructed and ready to operate.

During operation, the ship's officers must be able to load and stow cargo and handle the ship

while ensuring that the ship will be stable and safe.

Stability is the tendency or ability of a system to return to its original condition when

disturbed or displaced from its normal equilibrium condition. Ship stability is the

tendency or ability of the ship to return to upright when displaced from the upright

position. A ship with a strong tendency to return to upright is regarded as a stable

vessel. On the other hand, a vessel is said to be not stable when it has little or no

ability to return to the upright condition. In fact, an unstable ship may require just a

small external force or moment to cause it to capsize.

A ship is normally stable to a certain degree of heel, after which it will capsize. Some

have a large or strong tendency to return to upright while others have a smaller

returning or righting moment. Some ships have a large range of stability, up to 90

degrees and beyond while others capsize when heeled beyond small angles of say, 20

degrees.

An analogy for stability is often given of the marble. In Figure 3.1 (a), the marble in

the bowl will return to its original position at the bottom of the bowl if it is moved to

the left or to the right. This marble is in a condition called positively stable.

Figure 3.1

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A Systematic Approach

A slight push on the marble which is put on an upside down bowl as in Figure 3.1 (b)

will cause it to roll off, a condition equivalent to instability. A neutrally stable ship is

analogous to a marble put on a flat surface, it will neither return nor roll any further.

It can also be seen there are various degrees of stability. For example a bowl with

very steep sides will have larger stability than a bowl with less sloping sides.

As we will see later, there are also varying degrees of ship stability, from ships with a

highly positive stability to those having negative stability.

Ship initial stability can be seen from two aspects, longitudinally and transversely.

From longitudinal viewpoint, the effect of application internal and external moments

on ship's trim is considered. Examples of application of moment is the movement of

weights on board in the forward-aft direction or the addition or removal of weights

to/from the ship. Important parameters to be calculated are trim and the final

draughts at the perpendiculars of the ship. In any state, there is a definite relationship

between trim, draughts and the respective locations of the centres of buoyancy and

centre of gravity. Sometimes, the trim angle is also calculated.

Transverse stability calculation considers the ship stability in the port and starboard

direction. We are interested in the behaviour of the ship when external moments are

applied such as due to wind, waves or a fishing net hanging from the side. The effect

of internally generated moments such as movement of weights on-board

transversely is also studied. This includes the shifting of weights or crowding of

passengers on one side of the boat.

Important relationships considered are those between heeling, listing and righting

moments, as well as the resulting angle of heel or list and its consequence on the

safety of the boat. Note that the words list and heel have similar meanings.

However, heel has a more general meaning and normally used for effects of outside

moments which are temporary such as due to wind, while list is normally used for

the effects of internally generated moment, such as movement of weights on-board.

This Chapter will focus on basic transverse stability particularly the relationship

between the metacentre and the centre of gravity and its effect on ship stability.

Further transverse stability calculation will be dealt with in the next Chapter while

the details regarding longitudinal stability will be covered in the Chapter 7.

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A Systematic Approach

Figure 3.2

Consider the ship floats upright in equilibrium as in the above Figure 4.2 (a). The

weight of the ship equals its displacement and the centre of buoyancy is directly

below the centre of gravity. The points B, G and M are centre of buoyancy, centre of

gravity and metacentre respectively.

When the ship is slightly disturbed from upright for example due to wind blowing

from port, the centre of buoyancy (which is also the centre of immersed or displaced

volume) moves to the right. The line of action of buoyancy points vertically upward

crossing the original centreline at the metacentre, M. Since G does not move, a

moment is generated to turn the ship back to its original position. This moment is

called the returning or righting moment.

In this case, M was originally above G and we can see that the righting moment is

positive i.e. the ship is stable. If M was below G i.e. GM negative, the righting

moment will be negative hence the ship is unstable. If M is at G, then the ship is

neutrally stable.

Righting moment is the real indication of stability i.e. the ability of the ship to return

to oppose any capsizing moment and return the ship to upright position.

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A Systematic Approach

Consider the triangle shown below:

Righting moment = x GZ

on GZ.

GZ, the bigger will be the righting moment. Since

GZ is a function of GM, then bigger GM will lead to

larger GZ, bigger righting moment and hence better

stability.

to ensure that it has enough righting moment to

overcome external moments.

The relationships can be used to guide us how to increase GM.

KMT = KB + BMT

KMT = KG + GMT

For any particular draught or displacement at low angle of heel, keel K and

metacentre M are fixed. Therefore the values of KB, BM and hence KM are fixed, as

can be obtained from hydrostatic particulars and the distance GMT will only

depend on the height of the centre of gravity. In other words, if we can control

KG, we can also control GM and hence ship stability. The lower the centre of

gravity, the larger will be GM, and conversely a high value of KG may lead to small

or even negative GM, which means an unstable ship.

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A Systematic Approach

The ability to pin-point the location of the ships centre of gravity is important

because its distance from keel will affect GM and hence the ships stability. The

centre of gravity will remain unchanged except under two conditions:

coinciding with the original centre of gravity.

ii. Weights already onboard are shifted, causing changes in moments

about the centre of gravity.

The effect of addition and removal of weights from ships on the centre of gravity can

be calculated by using the fundamental concepts of centroids of composite bodies.

The concept is given in Appendix 1. The tabular methods described in Appendix 1

can be applied directly. When considering the net centre of gravity after loading and

unloading, three groups of items are normally considered; the original ship. Their

respective weights and centres of gravity become the input data from where the final

KG is calculated.

Example 3.1

A ship originally weighs 2000 tonnes with KG= 5.5m. One cargo of 300 tonne was

unloaded from Kg=7.6m and another 500 tonne was loaded at Kg=2.5m. Find the

final KG.

(tonnes) (m above keel) keel (tonne-m)

Lightship 2000 5.5

Unload

Cargo 1 -300 7.6

Load

Cargo 2 500 2.5

TOTAL

Total weight

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A Systematic Approach

Example 3.2

cargo is loaded:

1000 tonnes, Kg 2.5 m

500 tonnes, Kg 3.5 m

750 tonnes, Kg 9.0 m

And 800 tonnes of cargo Kg 3.0 m

(tonne-m)

Loaded 1000 2.5

Cargo1 500 3.5

Cargo2 750 9.0

Cargo3

Unloaded

Cargo 4 -450 0.6

Cargo 5 -800 3.0

Final moment

Final KG = Final displacement

= ________

Final KG = m

Final KM = m

Final KG = m

Ans. Final GM = m

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A Systematic Approach

Exercise

dimensions of the barge (L x B x D) are 12m x 11m x 10m. The wall and floor are

0.5m thick. Its centre of gravity is 4m above keel.

Calculate:

ii. The barge is to be used to carry mud (density1500 kg/m3). If the draught of

the barge cannot exceed 7.5m, find the maximum volume of mud that can be

loaded into the barge.

iii. For the barge loaded as in (ii), find its GMT.

the overall centroid of the object will also move. The basic concepts to

determine the movement of centroids due to the movement or

addition/removal of weights, areas or volumes is described in Appendix 2.

weights are shifted transversely on-board a ship, the moments change in the

port-starboard direction, causing the centre of gravity to shift.

Similarly, when weights are added or removed, the net effect is the centre of

gravity will shift. When a weight is added, the centre of gravity will move in

the direction towards the point at which added. On the other hand, when a

weight is removed, the centre of gravity will shift in the direction away from

the point at which the weight is removed.

Example 3.3

A boat displacement 150 tonnes has KG of 1.25m, GM 1.7m and floating upright in salt

water. A weight of 2 tonne already onboard is moved from port to starboard. Find the shift

of the centre of gravity.

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A Systematic Approach

Example 3.4

A ship weighing 7000 tonnes is floating at the wharf. At that time, KM = 6.5 m and

GM 0.5m. A 30 tonnes box is loaded at a distance 10.0m above keel. By considering

the shift in the centre of gravity, find new GM. Assume no change in KM.

Solution:

Find rise in KG

Original KG = KM - GM = m

Distance 30 tonnes box from original G = m

10m

GG= 30 x 4.0 = 0.017m

7030

KG= KG+ GG = m

Exercise: Find the new KG and GM of the ship in Example 3.3 using

Method 2:

(tonne-m)

Ori. Ship 7000 6.0

Box 30 10.0

Total 7030

KG = Sum of moment

Sum of weight

KG = m

GM = KM - KG

KM - KG = m

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A Systematic Approach

The use of cranes and derricks will make the weights suspended. Suspended

weights are assumed to act at the point of suspension. Therefore a weight that was

initially located on the lower deck for example will instantly be transferred to the

point of suspension at the instant the weight is lifted off the deck by the derrick. The

centre of gravity KG will suddenly increase and because KM is constant, GM will

suddenly reduce. If the rise in KG is more than the original GM, the net GM will be

negative, leading to instability.

Example 3.5

A ship of 7,500 tonnes displacement is upright and has GM 0.20m and KM 6.5 m. A

heavy cargo of 100 tonnes already on the lower deck (kg=2m) is to be unloaded using

the ships crane. When lifting the cargo crane head is 15 m above keel. What is GM

during lifting. Comment of the safety of the operation.

Treat as if the weight is suddenly transferred from lower deck to the point of

suspension, a distance of 15 meters. The KG will rise, and since KM constant, GM

will be reduced.

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A Systematic Approach

Original KG = KM-GM= 6.5 0.2 = 6.3m

Rise in KG = 100 x 13

7,500

=0.173m

GM during lifting = KM- Kgnew = 6.5- 6.473 = 0.027m

When free surface exists on board the ship, stability of ship is affected. The free

surface gives rise to free surface moment which in effect reduce GM. The reduction

is called Free Surface Correction (F.S.C).

FSC is calculated from the second moment of area of the surface of the fluid;

Ship displacement

Omar bin Yaakob and Mohamad Pauzi Abdul Ghani, July 2006 54

A Systematic Approach

Free Surface Moment (FSM) = i x fluid

Where i the second moment of area of the surface of the fluid and fluid is the

density of the fluid in the tank.

Once the FSC is known, the new reduced GM called GMfluid is obtained

Note also that KG in ships having free surface is called KGfluid and regarded

increased by FSC.

As can be seen, the presence of liquid free surface effectively reduces GM or increase

KG. It is thus very important to ensure that free surface be avoided or at least

minimised during the design stages and while operating the ship.

The method of calculating the second moment of area, described in Section 2.12 can

be used to calculate i . For free surface with rectangular and circular shapes, the

following formulae can be used.

12

12

64

64

12 ship displacement

Omar bin Yaakob and Mohamad Pauzi Abdul Ghani, July 2006 55

A Systematic Approach

Exercises

6.5m. If its KG is 6.8m, what is its GM?

2. A ship has a displacement of 1,800 tonnes and KG = 3m. She loads 3,400

tonnes of cargo (KG = 2.5 m) and 400 tonnes of bunkers (KG = 5.0m). Find the

final KG. 2.84m

3. A ship sails with displacement 3,420 tonnes and KG = 3.75 m. During the

voyage bunkers were consumed as follows: 66 tonnes (KG = 0.45 m) and 64

tonnes (KG =1 m). Find the KG at the end of the voyage.

4. A ship has displacement 2,000 tonnes and KG = 4m. She loads 1,500 tonnes of

cargo (KG = 6m), 3,500 tonnes of cargo (KG = 5m), and 1,520 tonnes of bunkers

(KG = 1m). She then discharges 2,000 tonnes of cargo (KG = 2.5 m) and

consumes 900 tonnes of oil fuel (KG = 0.5 m.) during the voyage. If KM=

5.5m, find the final GM on arrival at the port of destination.

5. A ship arrives in port with displacement 6,000 tonnes and KG 6 m. She then

discharges and loads the following quantities:

Discharge 1250 tonnes of cargo KG 4.5 metres

675 tonnes of cargo KG 3.5 metres

420 tonnes of cargo KG 9.0 metres

Load 980 tonnes of cargo KG 4.25 metres

550 tonnes of cargo KG 6.0 metres

700 tonnes of bunkers KG 1.0 metre

70 tonnes of FW KG 12.0 metres

During the stay in port 30 tonnes of oil (KG 1 m.) are consumed. If the final

KM is 6.8 m., find the GM on departure.

6. A ship of 9,500 tonnes displacement has KM 9.5 m and KG 9.3 m. A load 300

tonnes on the lower deck (Kg 0.6 m) is lifted to the upper deck (Kg 11 m). Find

the final GM.

7. A ship of 4,515 tonnes displacement is upright and has KG 5.4 m and KM 5.5

m. It is required to increase GM to 0.25m. A weight of 50 tonnes is to be

shifted vertically for this purpose. Find the height through which it must be

shifted.

50 tonnes is added to the ship, location Kg = 11m and 7m from centreline to

the starboard side. Find final location of G above keel and from the centreline.

What is its new GM?

Omar bin Yaakob and Mohamad Pauzi Abdul Ghani, July 2006 56

A Systematic Approach

9. A ship has a displacement of 3,200 tonnes (KG = 3 m. and KM = 5.5 m.). She

then loads 5,200 tonnes of cargo (KG = 5.2 m.). Find how much deck cargo

having a KG = 10 m. may now be loaded if the ship is to complete loading

with a positive GM of 0.3 metres.

10. A ship of 4,500 tonnes displacement is upright and has KG 5.4 m and KM 5.5

m. It is required to move a weight of 50 tonnes already on the deck (kg=6m)

using the ships derrick. The derrick head is 13 m above keel. Is it safe to do

so?

11. A ship of 9,500 tonnes displacement and has KM 9.5 m and KG 9.3 m. The ship

has two fuel tanks in double bottoms, rectangular shape each 20 x 5m

containing bunker density 900 kg/m3. Find GMfluid when free surface exists in

the tank.

12. Find Gmfluid for the ship in question 11 but with one tank only, length 20m

breadth 10m.

13. What happens to i when there are three tanks with b = 3.33m in question 11.

Omar bin Yaakob and Mohamad Pauzi Abdul Ghani, July 2006 57

A Systematic Approach

Normal ships are meant to be upright. However under certain conditions such as

when they are improperly loaded, out of balance moments may cause the ships to

list. Movement of weights onboard ships will effectively change the position of the

centre of gravity as described in Section 4.x. The shift in the centre of gravity will

cause a net moment which will cause the ship to list, either to port or starboard. The

net result is, the ship will heel to one side until it reaches an equilibrium i.e. a balance

of forces and moments and finally settles at a steady angle of list.

Consider a ship floating upright as shown in Figure 4.1. The centres of gravity and

buoyancy are on the centre line. The weight of the ship W is supported by an equal

and opposite force, the buoyancy, . The resultant force acting on the ship is zero,

and the resultant moment about the centre of gravity is zero.

Figure 4.1

If a weight already on board the ship be shifted transversely from port to starboard,

the centre of gravity G moves to G1 as in Figure 4.2. The net effect will give rise to a

listing moment of W X GG1 in the clockwise direction and the ship will start to heel

in the clockwise direction (to starboard) until GI and the centre of buoyancy are in

the same vertical line as in Figure 4.3. The ship will settle at a steady angle of list, .

Omar bin Yaakob and Mohamad Pauzi Abdul Ghani, July 2006 58

A Systematic Approach

Figure 4.2

Figure 4.3

Omar bin Yaakob and Mohamad Pauzi Abdul Ghani, July 2006 59

A Systematic Approach

In this position, for small angles of list is small, the buoyancy force will act vertically

upwards passing through the metacentre, M. G1 will also lie vertically under M. If

the positions of the metacentre and the centre of gravity are known, the final list

angle can be found:

GG1M: GG1 = w x d

W

Tan = GG1

GM

Tan = wxd

W x GM

The formula can be restated as:

W x GM

It can be seen that GM plays a big role in determining angle of list. The bigger the

value of GM, the less the angle of list and vice-versa.

The final position of the centre of gravity and hence GM is found by taking moments

about the keel and about the centre line as discussed in Chapter 4.

Example 5.1

6.7 m, and is floating upright. Find the resultant list when a weight of 50 tonnes

already on board is shifted 12 m from port to starboard.

Solution:

When the weight is shifted transversely the ships centre of gravity will also shift

transversely, from G to G1. The ship will then list degrees to bring G1 vertically

under M the metacentre

GM = KM - KG = 0.6m

Listing Moment = 60 x 12 tonne-m

Tan = 60 x 12

6000 x 0.6

Tan = 0.2

Ans. List = 11 18

Omar bin Yaakob and Mohamad Pauzi Abdul Ghani, July 2006 60

A Systematic Approach

(a) (b)

Figure 4.4

As can be seen in Chapter 4 (See Section 4,x), loading or unloading a weight onboard

a ship not at the ships centre of gravity will cause a change in the height of the

centre of gravity, KG. In addition, if the location of the added or removed weight is

not along the centreline, there will be a change of moments in the starboard or port

direction (clockwise or anti-clockwise). The net moment will cause the ship to

change its list. To find the angle of list, calculations are carried out using three steps:

i) Find the final KG (see Section 4.x)

ii) Find the net final listing moment (port or starboard) about the centre line.

iii) Use the Tan formula to find angle of list.

Example 2

Load 100 tonnes cargo KG 6.1 m and centre of gravity 7.6 m to starboard of the

centre line.

Load 200 tonnes fuel oil KG 0.6 m and centre of gravity 6.1 m to port of the

centre line.

Discharge 70 tonnes of ballast KG 1.2 m and centre of gravity 4.6 m to port of

the centre line.

Omar bin Yaakob and Mohamad Pauzi Abdul Ghani, July 2006 61

A Systematic Approach

If the final KM is 8.0m, find the final list.

t keel

8000 7.6 60800

250 6.1 1525

300 0.6 180

-50 1.2 -60

8500 62445

Final displacement Final KG = 7.34 m.

8500

Final KG = 7.34 m

Find moments about the centre line (set ve value for port)

Listing moment

W .d (tonne-m)

to port to starboard

-50 4.6 -230

300 6.1 1830 -

1600 1900

Since the net moment is to starboard, the ship will list degrees to starboard.

Tan = Listing Moment

W x GM

= 300

8500 x 1.36

= 1 29

Ans. Final list = 129 to starboard

Omar bin Yaakob and Mohamad Pauzi Abdul Ghani, July 2006 62

A Systematic Approach

When a ship is found to have an initial list, it means that it has an initial listing

moment.

Using

W x GM

2. Apply an equal and opposite moment such that the net moment is zero, i.e.

the applied moment must counterbalance the original moment.

Example

floating with a list of 7degrees to starboard. Find how much weight must

shifted transversely across the deck through a distance of 7 metres to bring

the ship to upright condition.

GM = KM-KG = 0.2m

Initial listing moment = Tan x W x GM

= xxxxx tonne-m to starboard.

moment to port.

W = tonne

Omar bin Yaakob and Mohamad Pauzi Abdul Ghani, July 2006 63

A Systematic Approach

Exercises

upright. Find the listing angle when a weight of 12 tonnes is shifted 8 metres

across.

6.4 m. Find the distance through which a 15 tonnes weight already onboard

must be shifted to obtain a list of 2.5 degrees.

weight of 10 tonnes was moved transversely across the deck through a

distance of 12 m, causing the ship of to list 3 degrees to starboard. If KM 6

m, find the KG.

floating at a list of 11.3 degrees to starboard. Find how much water to be

transferred from starboard to port tanks, a distance of 5 meters to bring the

ship to upright.

yet to load 200 tonnes of cargo. There is space available (centre of gravity, 6

m to port and 3m to starboard from the centre line). Find how much cargo

to load on each side if the ship is to be upright on completion of loading.

has yet to load two 20 tonne boxes with her own derrick and the first box ls

to be placed on deck on the inshore side (KG 9 m and centre of gravity 6 m

out from the centre line). When the derrick plumbs the quay its head is 15 m

above the keel and 12m out from the centre line. Calculate maximum list

during operation. Note: The maximum list is obviously occur when the first

box is in place on the deck and the second box is suspended over the quay.

to starboard and has yet to load 500 tonnes of cargo. There is space available

in the tween decks, centres of gravity 6 m each side of the centre line. Find

how much cargo to load on each side if the ship is to complete loading

upright. (282.75 tonnes P)

9. A ship is listed 2.5 degrees to port. The displacement is 8,500 tonnes KM 5.5

m, and KG 4.6 m. The ship has yet to load a locomotive of 90 tonnes mass on

Omar bin Yaakob and Mohamad Pauzi Abdul Ghani, July 2006 64

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