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SCIENCE Matter in Our Surroundings CLASS - IX
In-Text Questions (Page 3) Q.3 Give reasons:
(a) A gas fills completely the vessel in which it is kept.
Q.1. Which of the following are matter? Chair, air, love, smell, (b) A gas exerts pressure on the walls of the container.
hate, almonds, thought, cold, cold-drink, smell of perfume. (c) A wooden table should be called a solid.
Ans. Chair, air, almonds, cold-drink and smell of perfume are matter. (d) We can easily move our hand in air, but to do the same
Q.2. Give reasons for the following: through a solid block of wood we need a karate expert.
The smell of the hot sizzling food reaches you several metres Ans. (a) The intermolecular forces in gases are very weak. As a result,
away, but to get smell from cold food, you have to go close. gas molecules have large kinetic energy and are free to move
Ans. The rate of diffusion of a gas increases as its temperature throughout the container. Therefore, gases fill entirely fill the
increases. Therefore, when the food is hot, diffusion of its container.
smell is faster and we can smell it metres away. But, in case of (b) Gas molecules have large kinetic energy and are in random
cold food, diffusion is slower. Hence, we have to go close to continuous motion. Upon striking the walls of the container, these
the cold food to inhale its smell. molecules exert some force on the walls. And we know that pressure
Q. 3. A diver is able to cut to through water in a swimming pool. is force per unit area. That is why gases exert pressure on the
Which property of matter does this observation show? walls of their container.
Ans. A diver is able to cut through water in a swimming pool. It (c) A table is rigid, incompressible and has definite shape and
shows that the attractive force between water molecules is volume. Thus, it is solid.
not very strong. (d) Gases have almost negligible intermolecular forces and large
Q. 4. What are the characteristics of particles of matter? intermolecular spaces. As a result, there is very small resistance
Ans. The main characteristics of particles of matter are as following: when we move our hand through air. But the intermolecular forces
(a) Particles of matter have vast empty spaces between them. solid are very large and the intermolecular spaces, very small. As a
(b) These particles possess kinetic energy. Therefore these are result, a lot of force is required to separate the molecules of a solid.
continuously in motion. It is for the same reasons that we need karate expert to break a block
(c) The particles of matter are held together by the attractive force of wood.
between them. The strength of these forces varies from matter
to matter. Q. 4. Liquids generally have lower density as compared to solids.
But you must have observed that ice floats on water. Find out
In-Text Questions (Page 6) why?
Ans. When water freezes (i.e. becomes ice), its volume increases. As a
Q.1. The mass per unit volume of a substance is called density
result, its density decreases. Ice, being lighter than water, therefore
(Density = Mass/Volume). Arrange the following in the order
floats on it.
of increasing density: air, exhaust from chimneys, honey, water,
chalk, cotton and iron.
Ans. Air, exhaust from chimneys, cotton, water, honey and iron. In-Text Questions (Page 9)
Q.2. Tabulate the differences in the characteristics of states of Q. 1. Convert the following temperatures to Celsius scale :
matter by commenting upon the following: (a) 300 K (b) 573 K.
Rigidity, compressibility, fluidity, filling a container, shape, Ans. We know that
kinetic energy and density. Temperature in °C = Temperature in Kelvin – 273.
Ans. Therefore,
(a) 300 K = (300 – 273) = 27°C
Sol
ids Li
qui
ds Gas
es
(b) 573 K = (573 – 273) = 300°C
Rigidity Very high rigidity. Very low rigidity Not rigid at all
Q. 2. What is the physical state of water at:
Compressibility Incompressieble Very low compressibility Highly compressible
(a) 250°C? (b) 100°C?
Do not flow at normal Flow from higher to
Fluidity Flow in all directions Ans. (a) At 250 °C, water is in gaseous (steam).
temp lower level.

Filling a container Container not needed
Container filled equal to Fill the entire (b) At 100 °C, water is in liquid state. But, if we continue to
volume of liquid poured container
heat it at this temperature, it starts vaporizing while temperature
Take the shape of
Shape Definite shape
container
Gases are shapeless remains at 100°C.
More KE than solid
Kinetic energy Molecules have least KE Maximum KE
molecules. Q.3 For any substance, why does the temperature remain
Gases have least
Density
Solid have maximum Liquid have lesser density
Density
constant during change of state?
density than solids

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Ans. When a solid is heated it becomes liquid at a temperature Hence,
called its melting point. Temperature represents the average 25 °C = (25 + 273) = 298 K.
kinetic energy of the molecules of a substance. At the melting 373°C = (373 + 273) = 646 K.
point or boiling point of a substance, all the heat energy supplied
goes into increasing the inter- molecular spaces. This in turn Q 2. Give reason for the following observations:
decreases the intermolecular forces and hence the state changes (a) Naphthalene balls disappear without leaving any solid.
from a solid to liquid or liquid to gas. (b) We can get the smell of perfume sitting several metres
However the the average kinetic energy of the molecules does not away.
increase. Therefore, temperature remains constant during the change Ans. (a) Sublimation is the direct conversion of a solid into gaseous state
of state. without the intervening liquid state. Naphthalene balls take heat
from their surroundings, which cause their sublimation. Thus,
Q. 4. Suggest a method to liquefy atmospheric gases. solid naphthalene just disappears without any trace.
Ans. First, the gases should be compressed to a very high pressure (b) Perfumes are highly volatile i.e. their molecules rapidly
and then allowed to expand suddenly through a small nozzle. The diffuse into air. Thus, we can smell the perfume sitting several
sudden expansion will cool down the gases. When repeated metres away.
many time, this process will liquefy the atmospheric gases.
Q3. Arrange the following substances in the increasing order of
In-Text Questions (Page 10) forces of attraction between the particles: water, sugar and
Q.1. Why does a desert cooler cool better on a hot, dry day? oxygen.
Ans. The rate of evaporation depends upon the temperature of air and the Ans. Oxygen, water, sugar.
humidity. In hot and dry air, evaporation is very fast. Hence, desert
cooler is very effective on such days. Q4. What is the physical state of water at
During rainy season, atmospheric moisture i.e. humidity is very (a) 25°C (b) 0°C (c) 100°C
high. Thus, the rate of evaporation is very low. This makes Ans. (a)At 25°C, water is in liquid state.
desert coolers ineffective during rainy season. (b)At 0°C, water can be in solid or liquid state depending upon
how much it has been cooled.
Q.2. How does the water kept in an earthen pot (matka) become (c) At 100°C, water may be in liquid or gaseous state, depending
cool? upon how much it has been heated.
Ans. As the water oozes through the fine pores in the earthen pot, it The change of state from a liquid to a gas or vapour occurs at
evaporates, taking away some of the heat energy from the water in a constant temperature called the boiling point.
the pot. As a result, water in the earthen pot cools down. Remember, during change of state, there is no change in temperature.

Q.3. Why does our palm feel cold when we put some acetone or Q5. Give two reasons to justify.
petrol or perfume on it? (a) Water at room temperature is a liquid.
Ans. Acetone, petrol, and perfume are highly volatile substances i.e. (b) An iron almirah is solid at room temperature.
these have a high evaporation rate even at room temperature. So, Ans. (a) Whether a substance will be in solid, liquid or gaseous state
when put on our palm, these take heat from the palm and quickly depends upon the strength of the intermolecular bonds. The strength
evaporate making our palm cool. of bonds in turn depends upon, among other things, the temperature
of the substance. As the temperature of a substance is gradually
Q4. Why are we able to sip hot tea or milk faster from a saucer than increased, the intermolecular bonds are weakened. As a result, the
a cup ? state of the substance changes from solid to liquid to gaseous. At
Ans. The rate of cooling of a liquid depends upon its surface area. A room temperature, the intermolecular bonds in water are
saucer has much larger surface area than a cup. When we pour hot considerably weak. At room temperature, intermolecular spaces in
tea or milk into a saucer, surface area of liquid increases, which water and the KE of water molecules are large.
results in its faster cooling. Thus, we are able sip hot tea or milk Hence, water is liquid at room temperature.
faster from a saucer than from a cup. (b) In an iron almirah at room temperature, the
(i) Intermolecular forces are very large, and
Q5. What type of clothes should we wear in summers? (ii) Intermolecular spaces as well as kinetic energy are very
Ans. During summer, we sweat a lot. Cotton is a good absorber of water. small.
So, cotton cloths absorb sweat and expose it to atmosphere for Thus, the molecules are held together very tightly. Therefore,
easy evaporation which makes our body cool. the almirah is solid at room temperature.

Q6. Why is ice at 273 K more effective in cooling than water at
Exercises (Page 12) the same temperature?
Q1. Convert the following temperatures to Kelvin scale: Ans. We have to remove 336000 J of heat energy from 1 kg of water (at
(a) 25°C (b) 373 °C. 273 K) to convert it into 1 kg of ice at 273 K. So, ice at 273 K would
Ans. We know that extract an equal amount of energy from its surroundings in order to
Temp in Kelvin = Temp in °C + 273 melt into water at 273 K. Therefore, it is more effective in cooling.

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During change of state, there is no change in temperature.

Q7. What produces more severe burns, boiling water or steam?
Ans. To convert 1 g of water at 100 °C into steam at the same temperature,
we need to give an extra 2260 J of energy. Therefore, steam contains
much more energy than boiling water. So, steam causes more severe
burns than boiling water does.

Q8. Name A, B, C, D, E and F in the following diagram showing
change in its state.

Increase heat and
decrease pressure
E

A B
SOLID LIQUID GAS
D C

F
Decrease heat and
increase pressure

Ans. A : Solid changes into liquid state by the process of fusion.
B : Liquid changes into gaseous state by the process of boiling or
vaporisation.
C : A gas changes into liquid state by the process of liquefaction.
D : A liquid changes into solid state by the process of freezing or
solidification.
E : Solid changes into gaseous state by the process of sublimation.
F : Gas change into solid state by the process of sublimation. Let’s
take some water at room temperature. As you start cooling it, its
temperature keeps dropping, till eventually it reaches 0. As soon as
you reach 0, if you stop, it will be in liquid state. Now if you keep
removing heat, the temperature remains 0, while the liquid starts
turning to solid by rejecting its latent heat fusion. As the last of the
liquid part turns to ice, you have a solid at 0 degrees Celsius.
Similarly, if you reverse the process and you heat ices and it reaches
0, it is solid at 0 degrees, and continue heating till you reach
completely liquid at 0 degrees Celsius.

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