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Take & analyze measurements

Distance, angle & positions
Horizontal distance, slope distance & vertical distance
Angle in horizontal & vertical plane


1. The 2D position of point on/near the surface of the earth referenced to a defined certesion
grid/ to a geographic grid (latitude & longitude) & elevation dimensions referenced to
mean sea level (MSL)
2. The 3D position of point on/near the earth surface referenced to a defined ellipsoidal
model of the earth called Geodetic Reference System [GRS80].

Surveying: The art & Science of measuring distance, angle & positions, on/near the surface of
the earth.

Art: The ability of determining the most efficient methods needed to obtain optimal results over
a wide variety of surveying problems.

Science: Rigorous Mathematical Techniques are used to analyze & adjust the field survey data
(which determine the accuracy & reliability of the survey)

1. Plane Survey
The earths surface is considered to be a plane for all X & Y dimensions.
All Z dimensions (height) are referenced to the earth mean surface (MSL) or to the
surface of the earth reference ellipsoid [GRS80].
Most engineering & properly surveys are classed as plane surveys.
2. Geodetic Surveying
The earth surface is considered to be an ellipsoid of revolution for X & Y dimensions.
The Z dimensions (height) can be referenced to GRS80 or converted to refer to MSL.
Very precise surveys of great magnitude (national boundaries & control network)
data gathering, control & layout which utilize satellite positions.
Must be converted mathematically to local coordinate grids & to MSL elevations for
leveling & other local surveying projects.

Used to reference both preliminary & layout survey
Horizontal control can be arbitrarily placed, but usually tied directly to property lines,
roadway centerlines or coordinated control stations.
Vertical is often a series of benchmarks, permanents points whose elevations above a
datum e.g. MSL: that hare been carefully determined
It is an acceptable practice to take more care in control survey with repect to precision &
Grent care is also taken to ensure that the control used for a preliminary survey can be
readily re-established at a later date.
1. Preliminary Surveys (Data Gathering)
a. Gather geospatial data (distances, position & angles) to locate physical features,
e.g trees & roads.
b. Therefore the data can be plotted to scale on a map/plan.
c. Include the determination of different in elevation so that elevation & contours
may also be plotted.
2. Layout Survey
a. Marking on the ground (using nails, split etc) the features shown on a design plan
b. Can be for boundary lines (land divisions surveying) or for construction surveys
c. Besides marking the proposal elevation will also be given reference to MSL.


1. Satellite Positioning Receiver
a. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is a team used worldwide to describe
the various satellites positioning system rows in use or various stages of
implementation & planning.
b. Global Positioning System (GPS) : used to describe the U.S. NAVSTAR
positioning system (Fully Operational).
c. GLONASS: describe the European union satellite positioning system
d. Bei dou (or compass): describe the Republic of chinas Regional Satellite System-
rapidly expanded to a global positioning system.
e. A satellite positioning receives are already programmed to capture signals from
GPS, GLONASS & soon to be implemented Galileo.
2. Total Station
a. Measure horizontal & vertical angles, as well as horizontal & vertical distances,
b. All data can be captured into attached (cable/wireless) electronic field book or
into on board storage as the data are received.

3. Theodolite
a. Are instruments designed for use in measuring horizontal & vertical angle & for
establishing linear & curved alignments in the field.
b. Evolued from an open-faced, vernier- equipped optical electronic thedolities.
4. Level & Rod
a. Used to determine elevations in a wide variety of surveying, mapping &
engineering applications.
5. Steel Tapes
a. Are relatively precise measuring instrument & are use mostly for short
measurement in both preliminary & layout surveys.
6. Others Instruments
a. Remote-: sensing techniques, panchromatic, multispectral scanning, radar &
LIDAR imaging, based on both airborne & satellite platforms.


The earth reference system is composed of the surface divisions denoted by geographic lines of
latitude & longitude

Line run east/ west are parallel to the equator, formed by projecting the latitude
angle out from the centre of the earth to its surface.
Angle is measured (90 max) at the earths centre north or south from the
equatorial plane.
Lines ( meridians) run north / south & converging at the poles, formed by
projecting the longitude angle out to the earth surface
Angle is measured (180 max) at the earth centre, east or west from the plane of 0
longitude ( arbit ramily placed through Greenwich)
This system of geographic coordinate is used in navigation & geodesy, but in
plane surveying, coordinate grid system / original township fabric is used for

North Pole N
Line of longitude= west

Line of latitude= N

(, )
equater palne

Line of 0o longitude

180o Longitude


Distance between 2 points can be horizontal slope/vertical
Recorded in feet (foot unit) or meter (S.I. Units)
Horizontal & slope distance can be measured with fibre glass /steel tape/ with an
electronic distance measuring device.
Vertical distance can be measured with a tape as in construction work: with a surveyor
level & leveling rod / total station.

1. Linear Measurement Food Units

1 mile = 5 250 feet 1 foot = 12 inches
= 1 760 yar 1 yard = 3 feet
= 320 rods 1 rod = 161/2 feet
= 80 chains 1 chain = 66 feet
1 chain = 100 link

1 arce = 43 560 ft2 = 102 chain

2. Linear Measurement Metric (S.J. Units)

1 hectare (ha) = 10 000 m2 1 km = 1000 m
1 square km = 100 000 m2 1m = 100 cm
= 100 ha 1 cm = 10 mm
1 decimeter = 10 cm