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GRD Journals- Global Research and Development Journal for Engineering | Volume 2 | Issue 10 | September 2017

ISSN: 2455-5703

Rural Wastewater Treatability Studies by Soil


Aquifer Treatment in Conjunction with
Magnifera indica
Harish Naik M D. P. Nagarajappa
PG Student Professor
Department of Civil Engineering Department of Civil Engineering
University B.D.T College of Engineering, Davangere, University B.D.T College of Engineering, Davangere,
Karnataka Karnataka

Abstract
Soil Aquifer Treatment System is one of method used for treating rural wastewater. SAT is used for treating various wastewaters.
SAT is a geo-purification system which utilizes physical, chemical, biological processes during infiltration of wastewater effluent
through soil strata to improve quality of water. A large section of people lives in villages and they are mainly engaged in agriculture.
The scarcity of water which creates more problems in living organisms. Due to this problem treatment is adopted for reuse of
water. SAT system provided maximum removal efficiencies for various parameters such as Total Suspended Solids 76.53%, for
Total Dissolved Solids 84.97%, for Chemical Oxygen Demand 87.55%, for Biological Oxygen Demand 85.08%.
Keywords- Soil Aquifer Treatment, Rural Wastewater, Adsorbents, Soils

I. INTRODUCTION
Water is naturally occurring in nature due to water many activities are carried in the world. Water is the major source for the living
and non-living organisms. Now a days peoples are facing shortage of water due to increasing in population, urbanization,
industriazation, modern agriculture practice causing more contamination in various water sources. The various countries public
communities faced these problems and they took decision for water resource management to meet the increasing needs of water
and maintain the sustainable environment.
To solve these problems the treatment of wastewater through land use has come into force as alternative technology other
wastewater treatment methods, in this treatment of wastewater by land. The wastewater which is pretreated is allowed to percolate
through an unsaturated aerated soil region although the soil which was purifying capacity of wastewater through operation and
process such as adsorption,
Filtration, chemical process and biological degradation. The wastewater is treated by soil flows in lateral direction for the
considerable amount of space through an underlying aquifer (saturated Zone) where it receives more purification by means of
dilution and dispersion. In this type of land treatment soil and aquifer involve in recovery process, hence this treatment process is
called as soil aquifer treatment (SAT) system.
Soil aquifer treatment is an economical and aesthetic wastewater recovery system. The soil and aquifer acts as a natural
filter. SAT system can eliminate suspended solids, biodegrable materials, bacteria, viruses and other microorganisms. Significant
reductions of phosphorous and nitrogen were reported and removal of heavy metals from wastewater is also possible with the
sorption and physic-chemical stabilization. Due to shortage of water, re-use of discharged water from the sewage treatment plant
can be an alternative water resource considering the huge amount of discharged water from the plant it is directly discharged to
river and the sea without reuse and the cost effective and easy operation of SAT system, application of SAT to reuse wastewater
can be a good way to secure water resource.

II. MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY

A. Waste Water Sample Collection


Rural wastewater was collected from a gutter flowing near Lakshmipura village Davangere district, Southern part of India. Sample
was collected from single point where water was not stagnant.
Collected Location-Lakshmipura village,Davangere
Collection season-Summer
Date and Time-15th march 2017 at 4:20 pm
Temperature-30

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Rural Wastewater Treatability Studies by Soil Aquifer Treatment in Conjunction with Magnifera indica
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Fig. 1: Waste Water Sample Collection

B. Soil Samples used for the Experiment


Two soil samples were used to evaluate the suitability of soils in treating wastewater. Soils fitting two classes were used. Based
on investigation, soil samples sites from SS layout in Davangere and other from J.H.patel nagara in Davangere were identified as
in fig 1 and fig 2 and samples are from these sites as collected as per standard procedure. Based on the study of samples collected,
soil samples were classified as Silty Sand and Clayey sand.

C. Preparation of Adsorbents
Mango leaves and Coconut leaves are the adsorbents which are available naturally and abundantly and these were used for present
work to develop low cost adsorbents.
Mango Leaves
Mango leaves were collected and each leaf was washed thoroughly under running tap water to remove dust and any adhering
particles. These leaves were then dried under sunlight and then in oven at 80C.The dried leaves were crushed and blended to
powder form using a blender. The mango leaves powder was boiled and washed for several times until it was free of color and
turbidity .Then the powder was dried in oven at 80C overnight and stored in an airtight plastic for further use to avoid contact
with moisture in atmosphere. The powder was sieved with IS sieve 75.

Fig. 2: Prepared Mango Leaves Adsorbent

D. Parameters Monitored and Analyzed


The soil samples and wastewater samples properties were analyzed by laboratory method.
Table 1: Monitoring and Analysis of Parameters
Sl.
Type of soil Parameter
No.
Geotechnical properties of soil such as
1 Soil sample In-situ dry density, Specific gravity ,Differential free swell, Liquid limit, Plastic limit, Plasticity index,
Compaction test, Sieve analysis, Hydrometer test, Permeability
Wastewater: Influent
2 TSS, TDS, COD, BOD,
and Effluent

E. Experimental Setup of SAT System


To evaluate the effect of soil texture and primary treatment of the sewage on Soil aquifer Treatment it is proposed to carry out
series of experiments in the following manner. Three PVC pipes of diameter 20cm and 80cm length are used as soil columns. At
end of each column a reducer is fitted with a 60 micron mesh inside it in order to prevent soil flow. Each column is sealed with
PVC end plugs and fixed to sand Soil is packed in columns such that bulk density of column packed soil is same as field density.

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The adsorbents were placed in each column at three different positions from the bottom of the soil column.12cm of pending depth
of sewage was maintained above the top of soil column with the help of constant head mechanism. The renovated water after its
passage through the soil column is collected through the hole made in the PVC end plugs. The renovated water samples were
collected from the bottom of column and were analyzed for various parameters. For each predetermined condition of
experimentation, the soil and adsorbents will be fresh in the column. Volume of effluent thus collected will be measured and
thereby of rate of filtration will be calculated.

Fig. 3: Line Diagram for Soil Aquifer Treatment

III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


The experiments are conducted to do the studies on the performance of SAT for the treatment of rural wastewater with and without
adsorbents. Two soils are used for used for this experiment namely Silty Sand and Clayey Sand and adsorbents used that are Mango
leaves and Coconut leaves. The procedure is continued by varying height of adsorbent in the column. The soils are filled in the
column by calculating the volume of pipe with respect to depth of soil filling is considered. Performance of SAT is considered
without adsorbent for the soil at the depth of 60cm and SAT is carried at different heights of adsorbents. The removal efficiency
are noted at different height of adsorbents such as 20%, 40%, and 60% that is mango leaves and coconut leaves.

A. Analysis of Wastewater
The rural wastewater collected from source as mentioned in chapter 3 were analyzed for various parameters and are shown in table.
The rural wastewater characteristics to be analyzed that are total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), chemical
oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD)
Table 2: Characteristics of Wastewater used for Experimentation
Sl.No. Parameters Values
1 pH 7.79
2 Total Suspended Solids, mg/l 212.32
3 Total Dissolved Solids, mg/l 704.6
4 Chemical Oxygen Demand, mg/l 417.82
5 Biological Oxygen Demand, mg/l 261.52

B. Analysis of Adsorbents
The Mango leaves physic-chemical properties were analyzed in the laboratory as shown in table 3.The parameters that are to be
analyzed are pH, total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, chemical oxygen demand, and biological oxygen demand.
Table 3: Physico-Chemical Properties of Adsorbents used for Experimentation
Sl.No. Parameter Mango leaves
1 pH 4.3
2 Total Suspended Solids, mg/l 0.084
3 Total Dissolved Solids, mg/l 17.65
4 Chemical Oxygen Demand, mg/l 63.2
5 Biological Oxygen Demand, mg/l 54.7

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C. Performance of SAT System in Conjunction with Adsorbents


The results of experimentation under varied experimentation conditions like type of soil, type of adsorbents and positioning of
adsorbents were considered as shown in the following tables. The parameters like pH, Total suspended solids, Total dissolved
solids, chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, were analyzed.
The Silty Sand soil is positioned at different heights such as 20%, 40%, and 60% in conjunction with adsorbents. Similarly
clayey sand soil with adsorbents also analyzed. The depth of adsorbent taken as experimental works as 10cm.For each experimental
setup the varied experimental conditions are indicated in the title of respective table. The related graphs are drawn thereafter with
results and discussions.
Table 4: Performance of SAT With Adsorbents [Silty Sand] Rural Wastewater, Soil Depth: 50cm, Positioning of Adsorbent: at 20%
Height from Bottom, Adsorbent Depth: 10cm

Renovated Wastewater Concentration


Sl.No. Parameter Initial Wastewater Concentration Removal Efficiency (%) Mango leaves
Mango leaves
1 Ph 7.79 7.88 -
2 TSS, mg/l 212.32 146.27 31.10
3 TDS, mg/l 704.6 383.1 45.62
4 COD, mg/l 417.82 179.91 56.94
5 BOD, mg/l 261.52 117 55.26
Table 5: Performance of SAT with Adsorbents [Silty Sand] Rural Wastewater, Soil Depth 50cm, Positioning of Adsorbent at 40%,
Height from Bottom, Adsorbent Depth 10cm
Renovated Wastewater Concentration
Sl.No. Parameter Initial Wastewater Concentration
Mango leaves Removal Efficiency (%)Mango leaves
1 pH 7.79 7.69 -
2 TSS, mg/l 212.32 157.21 25.95
3 TDS, mg/l 704.6 329.2 53.27
4 COD, mg/l 417.82 170.23 59.25
5 BOD, mg/l 261.52 168 35.76
Table 6: Performance of SAT System With Adsorbents [Silty Sand] Rural Wastewater, Soil Depth: 50cm, Positioning of Adsorbents
at 60% Height from Bottom, Adsorbent Depth: 10cm

Renovated Wastewater Concentration


Sl.No. Parameter Initial Wastewater Concentration Removal Efficiency (%)Mango leaves
Mango leaves
1 pH 7.79 7.44 -
2 TSS, mg/l 212.32 162.84 23.30
3 TDS, mg/l 704.6 502.4 28.69
4 COD, mg/l 417.82 194.53 53.44
5 BOD, mg/l 261.52 170 34.99
Table 7: Performance of SAT System With Adsorbents [Clayey Sand] Rural Wastewater, Soil Depth:50cm, Positioning of Adsorbent
at 20% Height from Bottom, Adsorbent Depth:10cm

Renovated Wastewater Concentration


Sl.No. Parameter Initial Wastewater Concentration Removal Efficiency (%) Mango leaves
Mango leaves
1 pH 7.79 6.49 -
2 TSS, mg/l 212.32 150.73 29.008
3 TDS, mg/l 704.6 202.8 71.21
4 COD, mg/l 417.82 184.70 33.08
5 BOD, mg/l 261.52 138 47.23
Table 8: Performance of SAT with Adsorbents [Clayey Sand] Rural Wastewater, Soil Depth 50cm, Positioning of Adsorbent at 40%
Height from Bottom, Adsorbent Depth 10cm

Renovated Wastewater Concentration


Removal Efficiency (%)
Sl.No. Parameter Initial Wastewater Concentration Mango leaves
Mango leaves
1 pH 7.79 6.83 -
2 TSS, mg/l 212.32 50.21 76.35
3 TDS, mg/l 704.6 105.89 84.97
4 COD, mg/l 417.82 51.7 87.55
5 BOD, mg/l 261.52 39 85.08
Table 9: Performance of SAT System With Adsorbents [Clayey Sand] Rural Wastewater, Soil Depth: 50cm, Positioning of
Adsorbents 60% Height From Bottom, Adsorbent Depth 10cm

Renovated Wastewater Concentration


Removal Efficiency (%) Mango leaves
Sl.No. Parameter Initial Wastewater Concentration Mango leaves

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Rural Wastewater Treatability Studies by Soil Aquifer Treatment in Conjunction with Magnifera indica
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1 pH 7.79 6.67 -
2 TSS, mg/l 212.32 127.32 40.03
3 TDS, mg/l 704.6 190.69 72.93
4 COD, mg/l 417.82 161.78 61.27
5 BOD, mg/l 261.52 118 54.87

Fig. 4: Variation of TSS with Respect to Adsorbents Positioning in Columns Containing Silty Sand Soil

Fig. 5: Variation of TSS with Respect to Adsorbents Positioning in Columns Containing Clayey Sand Soil

Fig. 6: Variation of TDS with Respect to Adsorbents Positioning in Columns Containing Silty Sand Soil

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Rural Wastewater Treatability Studies by Soil Aquifer Treatment in Conjunction with Magnifera indica
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Fig. 7: Variation of TDS with Respect Adsorbents Positioning in Columns Containing Clayey Sand Soil

Fig. 8: Variation of COD with Respect to Adsorbents Positioning in Columns Containing Silty Sand Soil

Fig. 9: Variation of COD with Respect to Adsorbents Positioning in Columns Containing Clayey Sand Soil

Fig. 10: Variation of BOD with Respect to Adsorbents Positioning in Columns Containing Silty Sand Soil

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Rural Wastewater Treatability Studies by Soil Aquifer Treatment in Conjunction with Magnifera indica
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Fig. 11: Variation of BOD with Respect to Adsorbents Positioning in Columns Containing Clayey Sand Soil

IV. CONCLUSIONS
The maximum removal efficiency is shown for mango leaves compared to coconut leaves and treating rural wastewater.
It is concluded that compared to 20% and 60% position of adsorbent from the bottom 40% is more effective.
It is concluded that Clayey Sand Soil shows more efficiency compared to Silty Sandy Soil in treating rural wastewater

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
This research was supported by the Dr. D.P. Nagarajappa, Professor and all Faculties of Department of Studies in Civil
Engineering, University B.D.T College of Engineering, Davangere, India. I would like to thank all the staff of University B.D.T
college of Engineering, Davangere, India.

REFERENCES AND FOOTNOTES


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