Sony’s History -- Through The Eyes of the Company’s Leaders
Sony was founded in 1946 by Masaru Ibuka and Akio Morita. The two complemented each other with a unique blend of product innovation and marketing savvy, and formed a company that would eventually grow into a more than $60 billion global organization. In 1950, in post-war Japan, Ibuka and Morita created Sony’s first hardware device, a tape player/recorder called the GTYPE recorder. Materials were in such high demand that the first tapes were made of paper with hand painted magnetic material applied by Sony’s first engineers. Ibuka was a practical visionary who could foretell what products and technologies could be applied to everyday life. He inspired in his engineers a spirit of innovation and pushed them to reach beyond their own expectations. Ibuka also fostered an exciting working atmosphere and an open-minded corporate culture. In the founding prospectus, he wrote of his wish to build a company whose employees gained satisfaction and pleasure from their work and his desire to create a fun, dynamic workplace. Through Ibuka’s persistence, the magnetic tape recorder evolved from the G-TYPE recorder into the Model P (for "Portable"), which became the company’s first profitable product. In 1953, the company earned licensing rights to the transistor from Western Electric. Ibuka urged his engineers to improve production methods with the goal of creating a consumer product, the transistor radio. In 1955, the TR-55, Japan’s first transistor radio was launched. And, in 1957, Sony released the world’s first pocket transistor radio, establishing a market leadership position for the company. Akio Morita was a true marketing pioneer who was instrumental in making Sony a household name all over the world. He was determined to establish the Sony brand. In fact, he turned down an order of 100,000 radios from Bulova because they wanted the radios to carry Bulova’s name. Morita responded to Bulova saying, "Fifty years from now, I promise you that our name will be just as famous as your company name today." His words could not have been more prophetic. And it was after Morita’s first trip to the United States that he suggested to Ibuka that the company name be changed from Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo to one that was easily pronounceable and recognizable. The company name "Sony" was created by combining two words. One is "sonus" in Latin, which is the root of such words as "sound" and "sonic." The other is "sonny" meaning little son. The words were used to show that Sony is a very small group of young people who have the energy and passion toward unlimited creation. Video innovation was also a priority for Sony engineers. The road towards building a high quality color television set was quite a struggle, but on October 15, 1967, a new cathode-ray tube was completed. The new color television was named Trinitron® - derived from the word "trinity," meaning the union of three, and "tron" from electron tube. Since its introduction in 1968, the Trinitron television has set the standard for picture quality and design. As a proponent of global localization, Morita familiarized himself with local economies and set up manufacturing plants all over the world. When Sony constructed a Trinitron® color television assembly plant in San Diego, California, in 1972, it became the first Japanese-based consumer electronics manufacturing facility in the United States. Further, without Morita, the world would never have known the Walkman® personal stereo. His excitement and faith in the product’s future success was the true driving force behind its existence. At first, the Walkman was poorly received by retailers. Eight out of ten Sony dealers were convinced that a cassette player without a recording mechanism had no real future. However, the product’s compact size and excellent sound quality attracted consumers and, ultimately, ignited the personal audio revolution. Kazuo Iwama was a detail-oriented person, admired for his scientific knowledge and discipline. He was made president of Sony in 1976, and became thoroughly involved in developing the "charged coupled device" or CCD which paved the way for the camcorder and digital still camera. While he was president, Sony launched the Betamax® video cassette recorder. His tenure ended with his passing away in 1982, but not before the launch of the compact disc player – another Sony innovation that changed the way people listened to music. Norio Ohga was responsible for bringing Sony into the modern age and injecting it with a unique sense of style through product planning, stylish product design and innovative marketing. During his tenure from 1982 to 1995, Sony was transformed from an electronics company into a total entertainment company through the establishment of the music, pictures and gaming businesses. Sony acquired CBS Records in 1988 and Columbia Pictures in 1989, which today form Sony Music Entertainment (SME) and Sony Pictures Entertainment (SPE) – two of the world’s largest content producers. SME has produced a string of bestselling albums from artists such as Michael Jackson, Bruce Springsteen, Mariah Carey, Celine Dion, and Pearl Jam. Blockbuster films from SPE include Sleepless in Seattle, Jumanji, Air Force One, Men in Black and Stuart Little. Through Ohga’s persistence, the Sony PlayStation® game console was launched in Japan in 1994 with only eight titles. (It was launched worldwide in 1995.) Software companies were initially reluctant to support Sony’s new format because Nintendo and Sega were already firmly established. However, with PlayStation and, most recently, PlayStation2, Sony has become the most successful game manufacturer ever. Nobuyuki Idei, current Chairman and CEO, played a key role in moving Sony into the digital network era by emphasizing the integration of AV and IT products. He was responsible for Sony’s image campaign, "Do you dream in Sony?" and
helped coin the term "digital dream kids." The premise of the campaign was to provide shareholders, customers, employees, and business partners who come into contact with Sony with the opportunities to create and fulfill their dreams. Idei is credited with reinventing Sony’s business model for the networked society. By complementing Sony’s core competencies with partnerships and collaborations from other companies, Sony is on its way to becoming a Broadband Entertainment Company. Sony Corporation’s current President and COO Kunitake Ando is in charge of Sony’s global electronics operation. Previously, he was responsible for Sony’s introduction of the VAIO® personal computer in 1996, and helped Sony become one of Japan’s leaders in information technology products.
Sony: The Leader in Product Innovation
The new millennium is here and Sony has plenty to celebrate. The company’s approach – doing what others don’t – has paid off, in the form of great products that people covet. Throughout its history, Sony has demonstrated an ability to capture the imagination and enhance people’s lives. The company has been at the cutting edge of technology for more than 50 years, positively impacting the way we live. Further, few companies are as well positioned to drive the digital age into homes and businesses around the world for the next 50 years and beyond. Sony innovations have become part of mainstream culture, including: the first magnetic tape and tape recorder in 1950; the transistor radio in 1955; the world’s first all-transistor TV set in 1960; the world’s first color video cassette recorder in 1971; the Walkman personal stereo in 1979; the Compact Disc (CD) in 1982; the first 8mm camcorder in 1985; the MiniDisc (MD) player in 1992; the PlayStation game system in 1995; Digital Mavica camera in 1997; Digital Versatile Disc (DVD) player in 1998; and the Network Walkman digital music player in 1999. Today, Sony continues to fuel industry growth with the sales of innovative Sony products, as well as with the company’s convergence strategy. Examples include: VAIO notebooks that raise the bar in both form and function; digital cameras that capture pictures on a floppy disk, CD-R or Memory Stick; a handheld device that lets you store and view photos as well as moving photo; MiniDisc recorders with a digital PC Link to marry high quality digital audio with downloadable music; DVD/CD multi-disc changers that playback both audio and video; digital network recorders that pause, rewind and fastforward "live" television using a hard-disc drive; and Hi-Scan flat screen TVs that deliver near HDTV picture quality through Digital Reality Creation (DRC) circuitry. But Sony is not just the market leader in consumer electronics. Through research and development, the company has made considerable inroads in the areas of professional broadcasting (with the creation of the Betacam, DVCAM, HDCAM and 24P formats); mobile communications (with digital phones and the CLIE handheld); PCs (with VAIO notebook and desktop computers); storage and media (with the invention of the floppy disk, AIT and DTF drives, and the Memory Stick) and, now, the Internet. Sony’s future brand success will be determined by how the company meets the challenges of change. Sony has always led the market in terms of innovation. But in a digital networked world, products will no longer be developed with just hardware in mind. The convergence of technologies – consumer electronics, computing and telecommunications – is a reality, with new competitors forming and consumer mindshare up for grabs.
Broadband Network Era
Sony is a corporation with convergence at its very heart. Driven by an integrated business model, the company is well positioned to bring new benefits to consumers by combining hardware, software, content and services. Sony’s approach is to make it possible for consumers to enjoy various forms of content on both "home networks," consisting of connected electronic devices, and "mobile networks" that are accessible through mobile terminals. Products such as the i.LINK® interface and Memory Stick® digital storage media provide greater connectivity between digital devices and will help create seamless home and personal networks. From a hardware perspective, Sony’s strategy is focused on four gateways to the networked world: 1) Digital televisions and set-top boxes; 2) VAIO personal computers; 3) Mobile devices, such as the CLIE handheld devices and digital phones; and 4) PlayStation2 game consoles. The company’s software strategy includes the development of new audio-visual applications designed to personalize technology. Recent examples include updated Open MG Jukebox music management software, and digital video editing products, such as PictureGear, MovieShaker and DVGate. Sony’s vision is to give consumers easy, ubiquitous access to entertainment and information anytime, anywhere – no
Sony’s vision is not necessarily about refrigerators talking to toasters.com.eMarker. and grassroots consumer and public relations components. e-commerce site for everything Sony. Another example of Sony’s ability to reposition itself and its products is found in the MiniDisc. the brand had become generic. computer generated worlds. who is "quintessentially diverse and knows how to have fun. The service offers free online albums and eCards. including the recent launch of SonyStyle. However.) Sony promoted a new Walkman ideology based on personal freedom.Playground" where consumers can collect. With its inexpensive media and versatility (units are capable of recording Internet music. By pressing the button on the tiny eMarker device.
Promoting a World Class Brand
The phenomenal strength of the Sony brand worldwide is surely a testament to the company’s reputation for producing innovative products of exceptional quality and value. The result: New ways to enjoy Sony products. the company doesn’t just rely on brilliantly executed advertising campaigns to secure consumer attention. The star of the television commercial from the campaign is an alien character named Plato. Sony has the brand recognition and marketing savvy to create new product categories and revitalize mature ones. print and online advertising. Titled "The Walkman Has Landed. imagination and creativity in a way that appealed to new techno-savvy. Sony has been at the forefront of the movement to help consumers adopt digital lifestyles. games and music. style-conscious consumers who favor digital downloading and ripping CDs. more digitally inclined music lovers. terrestrial. community and connectivity options planned for the near future. content. integrated marketing campaign to relaunch the Walkman brand in June 2000. VAIO and Walkman sub-brands. independence. Designed to build a closer relationship between Sony and its customers.not knowing the title or the artist’s name. the company that changed the way the world listens to music with the introduction of the Walkman personal stereo. The company knew that it needed to reinvent the Walkman brand for today’s younger. representing "older. keepsakes and high-quality prints in a variety of sizes. eMarker. the Internet is an "e. The company utilizes world class public relations to enhance Sony’s value. Sony. Other new service offerings include www. This process ensures exposure for the
. until it was marketed as a digital music player that could record from the Internet. the campaign brought together an entirely new product line up comprised of CD Walkman.com and www.with the Trinitron. to name just a few. to digital images. in a broadband network era. technology and content to forge a direction in consumer entertainment that no other company can match. Additionally.S. one fact about Sony remains the same: the company’s fundamental philosophy of providing products that are fun to use. MD did not become a success in the U. each connecting with consumers across various lifestyle segments. Communications campaigns are conducted on both an individual product and strategic platform basis. packaged media or the Internet. share and enjoy digital pictures and video. (To many. reputation and brand image. movie clips and music. Look no further than what the company did with the Walkman brand and for the MiniDisc format." the marketing campaign. U.com helps consumers create.matter whether the content comes from cable. MD has become a gen Y favorite. Sony is also giving consumers new reasons to visit the Internet. A huge success in Japan. where it has become the dominant recording format. which. And while traditional brand theory says brand essence should be narrowed down to one element. MD Walkman and Network Walkman personal digital audio players. its primary target market. Sony celebrates brand diversity -.com. However.com store. satellite. even in this broadband network era. and members can share their favorite pictures as gifts. In the future. look for Sony to create entirely new forms of entertainment.ImageStation." analog-based cassette technology.S. people can "eMark" songs they hear on the radio and locate the information through the site. which included broadcast. strategically communicated the lifestyle attributes of the Sony Walkman line to generation Y. It’s about bringing to market products that capture the imaginations of consumers and enhance their lives in the process. ImageStation. means helping them maximize the power and control found within digital technology. Select Sony hardware and accessories are also available for purchase in the ImageStation. again set its sights on transforming the portable music landscape when it kicked off a comprehensive. In the company’s view. Sony has the vision. sales have increased by more than 40% since the MD to PC link was introduced.com is an online service that puts an end to the most frustrating part of hearing a song on the radio -. Internet and dealer events/promotions." His persona offers Gen Y a bit of humor and a good dose of enjoyment. the site will offer a variety of commerce. blending movies. share and manage everything from data and text information. a new information rich. tracks from personal CD collections and favorite songs off the radio).
S. S. including the Soundabout in the U. when you consider doing something.the primary touchpoint with consumers. and converging business opportunities. designed to foster a common understanding of the Sony brand among employees. INNOVATIONS that are easy to love. the Stowaway in the UK and the Freestyle in Australia
Sony Repositinoning Strategy
Sony Corporation of America is the United States subsidiary of Japan's Sony Corporation. to ensure the future of its brand. As noted. consider this quote from Chairman of the Board. O. I tell them.the company was once again rated the number one brand in the U. We invite new THINKING so even more fantastic ideas can evolve.000 Sony becomes the first Japanese company in the United States to make a public offering of 2 million shares of common stock in the form of American Depository Receipts (ADRs) in 1961. was necessitated because of expansive company growth.. the box manufacturer. so the UNEXPECTED can emerge. a Sony Corporation
. In 1986. company-wide initiative in the U.S. In essence. Sony." In the minds of consumers. yet driven by the venture spirit of Sony’s founding days. things that are not essential.. CREATIVITY is our essence. you must consider whether your action will increase the value of SONY. We take chances. Y. We’re here to pursue INFINITE possibilities.
We Help Dreamers Dream
Sony is a company devoted to the CELEBRATION of life. Products that stimulate the SENSES and refresh the spirit. Based on Inglewood. Norio Ohga: "In April of every year a large number of new employees join the company. California. Despite involvement in disparate businesses. the company recently embarked on an extensive. The most valuable asset of all are the four letters. Ideas that always surprise and never disappoint. while re-examining the unique relationship of the brand in American culture. it is a company under which all Sony companies operate here in United States. Sony is one of the world’s greatest brands -. In other words. an influx of new employees. make sure the basis of your actions is increasing the value of these four letters. including electronic music distribution and digital television. Walkman was included in the Oxford English Dictionary Before the Walkman personal stereo became a worldwide brand name. and EFFORTLESS to use. and add to the brand’s value by re-focusing it to the outside world. We help dreamers DREAM. it was introduced under a variety of names.S. or lower its value. We create things for every kind of IMAGINATION. customers and consumers. However. Sony Electronics Inc.company’s most important products as well as for the company’s role in key industry issues that cross multiple product categories and disciplines. is being replaced by a new Sony – a customer-centric entity centered around broadband entertainment. much of the brand equity Sony enjoys is rooted in product innovations. dubbed Being Sony. The project. the company’s desire is to leverage the brand beyond the products -. N. We EXCEED expectations.
Things You Didn’t Know About Sony
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Sony’s first product was a rice cooker Sony establishes its first major overseas operation in New York City (514 Broadway) in 1960 with a capital investment of $500. Sony executives felt the need to clearly articulate the meaning and values inherent in the Sony brand (to both internal and external constituencies). yet hard to live without. Or predictable. And what I always say to them is that we have many marvelous assets here. We are not here to be logical.
When remarking about the importance of the Sony brand name. by the 2000 Harris poll. We allow the BRIGHTEST minds to interact freely.
VAIOs are generally much more highly priced than other brands of notebooks. The main reason indentified by the researchers regarding this issue is price. Among them notebooks is one of them.. Therefore. But the consumers are not always rational when it comes to quality and price. it has rocketed into electronics and entertainment consumers' minds as the brand. and "tron" from electron tube. With this continuous increase in the size of company. compatibility among others. Since 1946. Sony has become an iconoclastic global brand. However.
.company. Sony Electronics Inc makes it all. Since its introduction in 1968. As we said earlier. Since then it has gained a respectable position in the field of notebook computers. when Masaru Ibuka started Sony. ease of use. So. This is again due to the level of quality of product." It's no small wonder that." meaning the union of three.. the company has to use a suitable market repositioning strategy in order to place itself on top of all other competing brands. The Sony is primarily focused on the Electronics (such as AV/IT products & components) and Game (such as PlayStation) and Entertainment (such as motion pictures and music). VAIOs are known for their attractive design. Sony launched its VAIO series of notebooks in 1996. because of this poor competitive performance. Sony has introduced many different product lines. and formed a company that would eventually grow into a more than $60 billion global organization. including: the first magnetic tape and tape recorder in 1950 and the introduction of the Walkman personal stereo in 1979 which changed the way the world listens to music. The two complemented each other with a unique blend of product innovation and marketing savvy. the Trinitron television has set the standard for picture quality and design. with such lofty original goals. one of Sony's founding purposes was "to reconstruct Japan and to elevate the nation's culture. a successful repositioning strategy for Sony should be analyzed. the main factor for small market capture of Sony VAIO notebooks is identified to be.
Sony Branding Strategy
1 Sony Sony is the kind of company that constantly launches so many great products that engineers and designers for competing companies must get little rest at night. produces and sells all kinds of electronics ranging anything from wireless headphones and mp3 players to hi-fi systems and computers. Another example of Sony innovation is on the creation of the new color television which was named Trinitron® derived from the word "trinity. But we can also see from the same figure that it has a very little market capture with regards to the quality of the products it provides. Sony innovations have become part of mainstream culture. 2 Sony History Sony was founded in 1946 by Masaru Ibuka and Akio Morita. They generally tend to place the price on top of the buying criteria followed by quality. VAIO's market position has not been as satisfactory as the company would like to see it. with nearly $46 billion in sales. Established in 1960. great functionality and high quality. Beginning right after the end of the war as it did. We can see from the positioning table that VAIO falls under expensive and quality notebook brands. this company has grown to be a huge company today.
Established in 1960. search
.3 Sony Name Origin Akio Morita was a true marketing pioneer who was instrumental in making Sony a household name all over the world. compatibility among others. Since then it has gained a respectable position in the field of notebook computers. This is again due to the level of quality of product. with nearly $46 billion in sales.. VAIOs are known for their attractive design. As we said earlier. Sony Electronics Inc. And it was after Morita's first trip to the United States that he suggested to Ibuka that the company name be changed from Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo to one that was easily pronounceable and recognizable. But the consumers are not always rational when it comes to quality and price. a successful repositioning strategy for Sony should be analyzed. Based on Inglewood. One is "sonus" in... Sony Electronics Inc makes it all. But we can also see from the same figure that it has a very little market capture with regards to the quality of the products it provides. produces and sells all kinds of electronics ranging anything from wireless headphones and mp3 players to hi-fi systems and computers. ease of use. the company has to use a suitable market repositioning strategy in order to place itself on top of all other competing brands. Among them notebooks is one of them. The company name "Sony" was created by combining two words. They generally tend to place the price on top of the buying criteria followed by quality. Apply now!
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From Wikipedia. this company has grown to be a huge company today. California. the main factor for small market capture of Sony VAIO notebooks is identified to be. With this continuous increase in the size of company. So. a Sony Corporation company.. Therefore. VAIO's market position has not been as satisfactory as the company would like to see it. He was determined to establish the Sony brand. VAIOs are generally much more highly priced than other brands of notebooks. We can see from the positioning table that VAIO falls under expensive and quality notebook brands. it is a company under which all Sony companies operate here in United States. because of this poor competitive performance. The main reason indentified by the researchers regarding this issue is price.. the free encyclopedia
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Sony Repositinoning Strategy
Sony Corporation of America is the United States subsidiary of Japan's Sony Corporation. Sony has introduced many different product lines. Sony launched its VAIO series of notebooks in 1996.
Tokyo. Ryoji Chubachi (Vice Chairman).This article contains Japanese text. President & CEO). Without proper rendering support. boxes. or other symbols instead of kanji and kana.
Sony Corporation ソニー株式会社
Public Type TYO: 6758 NYSE: SNE Industry Founded Founder(s) Headquarters Area served Consumer electronics Entertainment 1946 in Japan Masaru Ibuka Akio Morita Minato. you may see question marks. Japan Worldwide Howard Stringer (Chairman. Nobuyuki Oneda (Executive Vice President and
Consumer & professional electronic equipments Communication & information-related equipments Semiconductor Products Electronic devices & components Battery Chemicals Sony Pictures Entertainment Sony Music PlayStation Blu-Ray
019 billion (2009) ▲ $230. Sony Corporation Headquarters in Minato.5 billion (2009) ▲ $50 billion (2009)
180.8 billion / $2.500 (as of March 2008) List of the subsidiaries Sony.618 billion (2009) ▼ ¥ −98. Tokyo Sony Corporation (commonly referred to as Sony) (Japanese: ソニー株式会社 Sonī Kabushiki Gaisha?) (TYO: 6758) is a multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Minato. and one of the world's largest media
.730 trillion / $79. Tokyo
The Sony Building in the Ginza area of Chūō.9 billion / $1. Japan.087 billion (2009) Net income Total assets Total equity Employees Subsidiaries Website
Sony City.Services Revenue
Financial services Internet service
Operating income ▼ ¥ −227. Tokyo.
S. or $78. a loan word into Japanese which in the early 1950s connoted smart and presentable young men. and information technology products for the consumer and professional markets. games. Sony is among the Worldwide Top 20 Semiconductor Sales Leaders. financial services and other. Its founders Akio Morita and Masaru Ibuka derived the name from sonus. video.0 trillion. and also from the English slang word 'sonny'.believe
. These make Sony one of the most comprehensive entertainment companies in the world. (FY2008). communications. Sony Ericsson. Sony's principal business operations include Sony Corporation (Sony Electronics in the U. Sony Pictures Entertainment.). which is engaged in business through its five operating segments – electronics. Sony Computer Entertainment. entertainment (motion pictures and music). and Sony Financial. As a semiconductor maker. video game consoles.88 billion U.730. Sony is one of the leading manufacturers of electronics. Sony Corporation is the electronics business unit and the parent company of the Sony Group.S.conglomerates with revenue exceeding ¥ 7. since they considered themselves to be 'sonny boys'. Sony Music Entertainment. the Latin word for sound. The company's current slogan is make.
2 Malicious software (spyware) o 4.1 Mergers. Akio Morita.1 Origin of name 2 Products. The next year.5 Legal o 4.3 Criticism 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links
Masaru Ibuka.2 Manufacturing base 4 Controversy o 4.7 CCD o 4.6 Laptop batteries dysfunction o 4. acquisitions.8 Virtualization disabled on VAIO laptops 5 Environmental record o 5. technologies and proprietary formats 3 Management o 3. and they founded a company called Tokyo Tsushin
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1 History o 1.3 Digital Rights Management o 4.1 Fictitious movie reviewer o 4. after the end of World War II. he was joined by his colleague.1 Improvement efforts o 5.4 Controversial advertisements o 4. and joint ventures o 3.2 Green TV o 5. Masaru Ibuka started a radio repair shop in a bomb-damaged department store building in Nihonbashi of Tokyo. the co-founder of Sony In late 1945.
It was for the TR-6 that Sony first contracted "Atchan". but went on to represent the company in ads for a variety of products well into the mid-sixties. It was a worldwide commercial success. Ibuka and Morita looked to apply it to communications. While most American companies were researching the transistor for its military applications. The company built Japan's first tape recorder called the Type-G..
. Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo came out with the TR-63 model. a product that won favor both within Japan and in export markets. the Netherlands and Germany. Another early name that was tried out for a while was "Tokyo Teletech" until Morita discovered that there was an American company already using Teletech as a brand name. says. The TR-63 of 1957 cracked open the U.K. but its transistor radio was the most successful.. In May 1956. In August 1955. Although the American companies Regency and Texas Instruments built the first transistor radios.
 Origin of name
When Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo was looking for a romanized name to use to market themselves. The following year. In the early 1950s. which featured an innovative slim design and sound quality capable of rivaling portable tube radios. the character first appeared in a cartoon ad holding a TR-6 to his ear. to become its advertising character. "Sony was not first.Kogyo K. they strongly considered using their initials. it was Ibuka's company that made them commercially successful for the first time. including Canada. but during his visit to the United States. Australia. Featuring six transistors. the TR-72 continued to be a popular seller into the early sixties. University of Arizona professor Michael Brian Schiffer. Tokyo from Shinagawa. TTK. 1957. Morita discovered that Americans had trouble pronouncing that name. Tokyo around the end of 2006. the company released the TR-6. helping to propel the fledgling industry from an estimated 100. then the smallest (112 × 71 × 32 mm) transistor radio in commercial production. American teens had begun buying portable transistor radios in huge numbers. Ibuka traveled in the United States and heard about Bell Labs' invention of the transistor. a cartoon character created by Fuyuhiko Okabe. He convinced Bell to license the transistor technology to his Japanese company.D.S.000. market and launched the new industry of consumer microelectronics. The primary reason they did not is that the railway company Tokyo Kyuko was known as TKK. Japan's first commercially produced transistor radio. Ph.000 units by the end of 1968. push-pull output and greatly improved sound quality. (Tokyo Telecommunications Engineering Corporation). Now known as "Sony Boy"." By the mid 1950s. They followed up in December of the same year by releasing the Sony TR-72. The company occasionally used the acronym "Totsuko" in Japan. Sony's headquarters moved to Minato.000 units in 1955 to 5. Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo released the Sony TR-55.
The most infamous of these was the videotape format war of the early 1980s.
 Products. the TR-55 transistor radio." a familiar term used in 1950s America to call a boy. In 1979 the Walkman brand was introduced. appeared in 1955 but the company name didn't change to Sony until January 1958. They pushed for a name such as Sony Electronic Industries.25" floppy disks. Video8 and the follow-on hi-band Hi8 format became popular in the consumer camcorder
. Eventually. In 1968 Sony introduced the Trinitron brand name for its line of aperture grille cathode ray tube televisions and (later) computer monitors. The first Sony-branded product. 1982 saw the launch of Sony's professional Betacam videotape format and the collaborative Compact Disc format. Sony launched the Betamax videocassette recording format in 1975. In 1985 Sony launched their Handycam products and the Video8 format.The name "Sony" was chosen for the brand as a mix of two words. Sony discontinued the last Trinitron-based television set in the USA in early 2007.5" floppy disks gradually became obsolete as they were replaced by current media formats. in the form of the world's first portable music player. In the end. Trinitron displays are still produced. Bangladesh. One was the Latin word Sonus which is the root of "sonic" and "sound" and the other was "sonny. Trinitron computer monitors were discontinued in 2005. a professional-oriented component video format called Betacam that was derived from Betamax is still used today. when Sony marketed the Betamax system for video cassette recorders against the VHS format developed by JVC. India and China. In 1983 Sony introduced 90 mm micro diskettes (better known as 3. both Ibuka and Mitsui Bank's chairman gave their approval. or Sony Teletech. which it had developed at a time when there were 4" floppy disks and a lot of variations from different companies to replace the then on-going 5. it was extremely unusual for a Japanese company to use Roman letters instead of kanji to spell its name. In 1983 Sony launched the MSX. At the time of the change. a home computer system. In 1984 Sony launched the Discman series which extended their Walkman brand to portable CD products. Akio Morita was firm. 3. While Betamax is for all practical purposes an obsolete format. and introduced the world (with their counterpart Philips) to the Compact Disc or CD. The move was not without opposition: TTK's principal bank at the time. especially in the film and television industry. had strong feelings about the name. Mitsui. Sony had great success and the format became dominant. technologies and proprietary formats
Further information: List of Sony trademarks Sony has historically been notable for creating its own in-house standards for new recording and storage technologies. as he did not want the company name tied to any particular industry. instead of adopting those of other manufacturers and standards bodies. VHS gained critical mass in the marketplace and became the worldwide standard for consumer VCRs and Sony adopted the format. but only for markets such as Pakistan.5-inch (89 mm) floppy disks). however.
Sony has attempted to promote its own audio compression technologies under the ATRAC brand. supported by Toshiba and many others. Sony's Network Walkman line of digital portable music players did not support the MP3 de facto standard natively. Since the introduction of MiniDisc.market. Philips and Sony abandoned their MMCD format and agreed upon Toshiba's SD format with only one modification based on MMCD technology. In the early 1990s two high-density optical storage standards were being developed: one was the MultiMedia Compact Disc (MMCD). although the provided software SonicStage would convert MP3 files into the ATRAC or ATRAC3 formats. Until late 2004. after the launch of the CD Sony began development of commercially based recording media. In 1986 they launched Write-Once optical discs (WO) and in 1988 launched Magneto-optical discs which were around 125MB size for the specific use of archival data storage. and the other was the Super Density disc (SD). Sony introduced the MiniDisc format in 1993 as an alternative to Philips DCC or Digital Compact Cassette.
Sony Discman In addition to developing consumer-based recording media. viz EFMPlus. backed by Philips and Sony. In 1987 Sony launched the 4 mm DAT or Digital Audio Tape as a new digital audio tape standard. The unified disc format was called DVD which was marketed in 1997. against the more widely used MP3.
SDDS utilized a method of backup by having mirrored arrays of bits on both sides of the film which acted as a measure of reliability in case the film was partially damaged. Sony never intended to develop a home theatre version of SDDS.
The Slimline PlayStation 2 In 1998.1 at the time. SDDS was solely developed for use in the theatre circuit. It has seen little support outside of Sony's own products with Secure Digital cards (SD) commanding considerably greater popularity . SDDS has been vastly overshadowed by the preferred DTS (Digital Theatre System) and Dolby Digital standards in the motion picture industry. and significantly lower price per unit capacity compared to Memory Sticks available at the same time.
.Sony's BRAVIA series HDTV In 1993. flash memory cards for use in Sony lines of digital cameras and portable music players. Sony challenged the industry standard Dolby Digital 5.1) of audio opposed to just six used in Dolby Digital 5. Unlike Dolby Digital. Ultimately. This is due in part to the SD format's greater throughput (which allows faster devices). higher capacities. Sony has made updates to the Memory Stick format with Memory Stick Duo and Memory Stick Micro. This format employed eight channels (7. Sony launched their Memory Stick format.1 surround sound format with a newer and more advanced proprietary motion picture digital audio format called SDDS (Sony Dynamic Digital Sound).
At present. The PlayStation 2 has become the most successful video game console of all time.
Sony's retail store. The latter has since been entrenched in a format war with DVD-Audio. Sony developed the Universal Media Disc (UMD) optical disc medium for use on the PlayStation Portable.Sony and Philips jointly developed the Sony-Philips digital interface format (S/PDIF) and the high-fidelity audio system SACD. The PlayStation brand was extended to the portable games market in 2005 by the PlayStation Portable (PSP) and in 2009. the PSP go. In addition to saving audio on the discs. itself succeeded by the PlayStation 3 in 2006. videos and photos. Sony Style
Sony VAIO fashion show in 2008 In 2004. In 1994 Sony launched the PlayStation (later PS one). Although Sony tried to push the UMD format for movies. though as of 2009 some major-studio titles continue to be released on UMD. It was the first time since MiniDisc's introduction in 1992 that the ATRAC codec could be bypassed and lossless CD-quality audio could be recorded on the small discs. major-studio support for the format was cut back in spring 2006. Hi-MD allows the storage of computer files such as documents. Hi-MD allows the playback and recording of audio on newly-introduced 1 GB Hi-MD discs in addition to playback and recording on regular MiniDiscs. unlike earlier NetMD. CDs are preferred by consumers because of ubiquitous presence of CD drives in consumer devices. Recordings on the Hi-MD Walkmans can be transferred to and from the computer virtually unrestricted. neither has gained a major foothold with the general public. This successful console was succeeded by the PlayStation 2 in 2000. Hi-MD introduced the ability to record CD-quality audio with a linear PCM recording feature. Sony built upon the MiniDisc format by releasing Hi-MD. It has sold a total of over 140 million units and still going.
Sony has over the years introduced these standards: Umatic (~1968). president and chairman Sir Howard Stringer On 22 June 2005. On 10 September 2007 Sony unveiled Rolly. In summary. debuted in December 2006 with an MSRP of US $999. Minidisc (~90). which went on sale in Japan on 29 September 2007. The Blu-ray format's popularity continued to increase. Betamax (1975). and Toshiba announced its decision to stop supporting HD DVD on 19 February 2008. then Chairman and CEO of Sony Corporation of America. Toshiba's HD DVD. Sony also developed dog-shaped robots called AIBO and humanoids and QRIO. Nobuyuki Idei stepped down as Sony Corp. Betacam (81). Video8 (85). and Dreamworks. Digital Betacam (~90). the Sony BDP-S1. On the same date. DAT (87). Compact Disc (82). By the end of 2007 the format had the backing of every major motion picture studio except Universal.5 inch Floppy Disk (82). Movements along with the music downloaded from personal computers and Bluetooth can be set.95. Sony's decision to replace Idei with the British Howard Stringer marked the first time that a foreigner has run a major Japanese electronics firm. PSP Universal Media Disc (~2003). has one gigabyte of memory to store tunes. The first Blu-ray players became commercially available in June 2006. miniDV (92). Blu-ray Disc (2006).Sony was one of the leading developers and remains one of the strongest proponents of the Blu-ray Disc optical disc format. Digital8 (99).
. Corporate Executive Officer. and Sony's first Blu-ray player. Hi8 (88). Chairman and Group CEO and was replaced by Howard Stringer. Paramount. 3. solidifying its position as the dominant HD media format. an egg-shaped digital robotic music player which has colour lights that flash as it “dances” and has flapping wings that can twist to its tunes. Kunitake Ando stepped down as President and was replaced by Ryoji Chubachi. HDV (~2004).
Sony's current CEO. which eventually emerged as the market leader over the competing standard. Memory Stick (98). Rolly. Vice Chairman and COO Sony Entertainment Business Group. after a 2 year-long format war.
who gave consistently good reviews for releases from Sony subsidiary Columbia Pictures. (August 2009)
 Fictitious movie reviewer
In July 2000. it was revealed by Mark Russinovich of Sysinternals that Sony BMG's music CDs had installed a rootkit on the user's computer as a DRM measure (called Extended Copy Protection by its creator. personal computers. and joint ventures
This section requires expansion. flat panel televisions. which generally received poor reviews amongst real critics. which was
. semiconductors and components such as batteries and Memory Sticks. On 9 December 2008. The Americas and Europe together accounted for the remaining slightly less than 25% of total annual production. video cameras. the US and the EU.
 Malicious software (spyware)
Main article: Sony BMG CD copy protection scandal In October 2005.000 jobs. excluding Japan and China.1 billion a year. It may be better to integrate the material in those sections into the article as a whole. including the production of digital cameras. Global slowdown affects this year. Further information: List of acquisitions by Sony Corporation
 Manufacturing base
Slightly more than 50% of the electronics' segment's total annual production during the fiscal year 2005 took place in Japan. Mergers. Sony Corp suffered its first annual loss in 14 years and could be grimmer in upcoming years too. Asia. most of which was destined for local distribution and sale. David Manning. Sony Corp. British company First 4 Internet). acquisitions. Approximately 65% of the annual production in Japan was destined for other regions. accounted for slightly more than 10% of total annual production with approximately 60% destined for Japan.
This article's Criticism or Controversy section(s) may mean the article does not present a neutral point of view of the subject. China accounted for slightly more than 10% of total annual production. approximately 70% of which was destined for other regions. said it will cut 8. a marketing executive working for Sony Corporation created a fictitious film critic.000 contractors and reduce its global manufacturing sites by 10% to save $1. drop 8..
security firm F-Secure reported that the MicroVault USB thumb drive installs a rootkit in a hidden directory without consent on user computers. they paid businesses and building owners for the right to graffiti their walls.
 Digital Rights Management
In 2006 Sony started using ARccOS Protection on some of their film DVDs. As of early January 2006. This settlement required that Sony BMG allow consumers to exchange the CDs through 30 June 2007. After complaints. and to reimburse consumers for up to $150 for the repair of damage to their computers that they may have incurred while removing the software. In September 2009 Sony had its Mexican office raided by police to recover over 6000 CDs. however it can be used for malicious means as most virus scanners will not search for the directory or its contents. Sony advised it was conducting an investigation on the third-party product. and San Francisco. and would offer a fix by midSeptember. According to Sony. masters and artwork. In August 2007. The directory is intended to protect fingerprint data. Sony was forced to issue a recall. This constitutes a crime in many countries. saying that it was only trying to depict the contrast between the black PSP model and the new ceramic
. The mayor of Philadelphia filed a cease and desist order.
 Controversial advertisements
Sony admitted in late 2005 to hiring graffiti artists to spray paint advertisements for their PlayStation Portable game system in seven major U. A Sony spokesperson responded that the ad does not have a racist message. Sony had no plans to keep or withdraw them. Fernández's lawyers claimed that Sony was in breach of contract as Fernández had been contracted to Sony for seven albums and the recordings were an eighth album made after the contract had expired. but in turn installed a dial-home program that posed an even greater security risk. the U. The uninstaller Sony initially provided removed the rootkit. On 31 January 2007. S. Federal Trade Commission issued a news release announcing that Sony BMG had agreed to settle Federal Trade Commission charges that Sony BMG committed several offenses against United States federal law. Sony released a Dutch advertising campaign featuring a white model dressed entirely in white and a black model garbed in black. In July 2006. The ad has been viewed as racist by critics. by the popular Latin American artist Alejandro Fernández. Sony BMG faced several class action lawsuits regarding this matter.difficult to detect or remove. which caused compatibility problems with some DVD players – including models manufactured by Sony.S. cities including New York City. The first ad featured the white model clutching the face of the black model. Sony eventually provided an actual uninstaller that removed all of Sony's DRM program from the user's computer. Philadelphia. The words "White is coming" headlined one of the ads. and poses a major security risk to affected users.
 In November 2006. In an interview with next-gen. which was purportedly written by "Charlie". unlike Sony. The site has since been taken down. marketer of the popular PlayStation game consoles. a teenager attempting to get his friend "Jeremy"'s parents to buy him a PSP. a marketing company employed by Sony created a website entitled "All I want for Xmas is a PSP". a federal jury agreed with Immersion. and a selection of PlayStation 2 games that use Immersion's technology. district court judge ruled on the matter in March 2005 and not only agreed with the federal jury's ruling but also added another US$8.1 million laptop batteries in the largest computer-related recall to that point in history. was also sued for its Xbox controller. However. Other pictures of the ad campaign include the black model overpowering the white model. A Japanese couple in Tokyo sued both Sony and Apple Japan for over ¥2 million ($16. The site contained a blog. exposing the site on sites such as YouTube and digg. Dual Shock controllers. Sony and Dell admitted to major flaws in several Sony batteries that could result in the battery overheating and catching fire. was sued by Immersion Corporation of San Jose.7 million in damages. Sony Computer Entertainment America. A U. Microsoft Corp. and Sony was forced to admit the site's true origin in a post on the blog. This recall also prompted Japan's Ministry of
. however. A California judge ordered Sony to pay Immersion a licensing fee of 1. Christmas cards.
In 2002. California which claimed that Sony's PlayStation "Dual Shock" controllers infringed on Immersion's patents.700 USD) regarding the incident. As a result they recalled over 4. stating that they would from then on "stick to making cool products" and that they would use the website for "the facts on the PSP". providing links to t-shirt iron-ons. a Sony laptop battery exploded in Japan and caught fire. In 2004. visitors to the website soon discovered that the website was registered to a marketing company. Dell also confirmed that one of its laptops caught fire in Illinois. The cost of this recall is being shared between Dell and Sony. and his wife had to be treated for mental distress due to the incident. awarding the company US$82 million in damages. designed to promote the PSP through viral marketing. The suit argues that the man suffered burns on his finger when the battery burst into flames while being used.
 Laptop batteries dysfunction
In April 2006. reintroducing rumble capabilities.white PSP.S. they settled out of court so they could continue using the technology for the follow-up Xbox 360. The DualShock 3 has since been made available for the PlayStation 3. and a "music video" of either Charlie or Jeremy "rapping". This is likely the reason that the Sixaxis controller for the PlayStation 3 had no rumble feature.biz. On 14 August 2006. Sony admitted that the idea was "poorly executed".37 percent per quarter based on the sales of PlayStation units.
the Yomiuri Shimbun (a Japanese Newspaper) reported that Sony was aware of faults in its notebook PC batteries in December 2005 but failed to fully study the problem. On 16 October 2006. Hewlett-Packard. On 23 September 2006. No injuries or other accidents have been reported. It was also reported that Fujitsu. including two customers who suffered minor burns.000 batteries produced by Sony was announced by Dell. On 25 April 2007. and in use on Dell laptop computers.Economy. and additional reports of property damage. This recall. Lenovo and IBM made the global recall of 526. as the batteries are known to cause the laptops to sometimes run out of power. Sony announced a global battery exchange program in response to growing consumer concerns. came to light. On 19 September 2006.8 million Sony built batteries after receiving nine reports of batteries overheating.000 laptop batteries.000 batteries from TravelMate and Aspire series notebooks sold from May 2004 to November 2006 were recalled due to 16 reports of overheating and explosions. On 28 September 2006. or face a fine under consumer safety laws.
Ten days later on 24 August 2006. On 30 October 2008. On 24 August 2007. On 2 October 2006. Apple Computer recalled 1. Hewlett-Packard (HP) determined that it was not necessary for them to join the global battery replacement program. On 28 September 2006. and Toshiba due to around forty cases of batteries overheating being reported globally.000 Sony laptop batteries.
. an incident that was confirmed by Lenovo. The ministry said they must report on their findings and draw up a plan to prevent future problems by the end of August. is not related to the recalls by Apple and Dell. the recall of an additional 100. Acer announced that 27. Sony announced its investigation of a Lenovo ThinkPad T43 laptop which overheated and caught fire in Los Angeles International Airport on 16 September. and Hitachi may seek compensation from Sony over the battery recalls. Toshiba announced it was recalling 340. Fujitsu announced it was recalling 278. may be at risk of catching fire and exploding. Toshiba. Trade and Industry to order the companies to investigate the troubles with the batteries.000 Sony laptop batteries. it emerged that some of Sony's batteries that were not recalled. however. On 3 October 2006. as another case of a Dell laptop with a Sony battery in it. according to Toshiba spokesman Keisuke Omori.
VirtualBox and others are unable to make use of Intel's or AMD's virtualization technology embedded in their CPUs. DSC-U40 and DSC-U50. DSC-T11. including Canon. possibly as many as 100 models or more. the environment. Since Sony is one of the largest producers of CCD chips. Sony did indicate that they will repair or replace the affected camera at no charge. Sony's policies address their effects on global warming. Their achievements in the way of energy and environmental conservation have earned them respect for their green campaign despite bad press from a low ranking on Greenpeace's greener electronics report. Xavier Lauwaert.
 Environmental record
Sony has received numerous awards and much recognition for their environmental efforts throughout the world. DSC-T3.
 Virtualization disabled on VAIO laptops
Previously Sony has disabled hardware virtualization on their high end VAIO laptops. it was reported by Sony that there were problems with the charge-coupled devices (CCD) in 20 models of digital still cameras. DSC-M1.S. with the new BIOS that are being released. The problem appears to manifest itself mostly when the camera is used in areas with hot weather. responded that "our engineers and QA people were very concerned that enabling VT would expose our systems to malicious code". Sony has said that they have signed on to have about 75 percent of their Sony Building running on geothermal power. However. In late November 2006. Olympus or Fuji have indicated they will replace faulty CCDs in their respective models of cameras if necessary. the recall was broadened to eight additional models of digital cameras sold between 2003 and 2005. The company has also developed a biobattery that runs on sugars and carbohydrates that works similarly to the way living creatures work. The problems can prevent the cameras from taking clear pictures. possibly prevent a picture to be taken at all. and resources.Initially. This means that the Windows 7 operating system as well as virtualization software such as VMWare. this recall may affect other manufacturer's and models of cameras. This includes Vaio Z models with BIOS R2170M3 and R4043M3. and in some cases. most of the new laptops are now officially being enabled with this feature. Sony's senior manager for product marketing. They are taking steps to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases that they put out as well as regulating the products they get from their suppliers in a process that they call "green procurement". DSC-T1. This is the most powerful small biobattery to date. in October 2005. Nikon.
 Improvement efforts
Since 1976. Sony has had an Environmental Conference. DSC-T33. The "Sony Take Back Recycling Program" allows consumers to recycle the electronics products that they buy from Sony by taking them to eCycle (Recycling) drop-off points around the U. Other manufacturers of digital cameras. The eight models affected are the following: DSC-F88.
or other symbols instead of kanji and kana. for use as an urban combat trainer.
Sony portal This article contains Japanese text. Sony was ridiculed for a document entitled "NGO Strategy" that was leaked to the press. developed by Sony Pictures Imageworks and Pandemic Studios. boxes. Sony was able to reduce carbon dioxide emissions totaling 79 kilograms (174 pounds) a year.000 yen (US$ 1. Sony ranked 14th on the Greenpeace chart "Guide to Greener Electronics. you may see question marks. The TVs will have liquid crystal displays along with high-definition digital broadcast capabilities. € 900) Bravia KDL-32JE1 offers ecological consumers advantages of less energy consumption (70% less) than regular models with the same image quality. Not only was the simulation never used as intended. It specifically mentioned environmental groups that were trying to pass laws that held electronics-producing companies responsible for the clean up of the toxic chemicals contained in their merchandise. Without proper rendering support. Sony fell from its earlier 11th place ranking due to Greenpeace's claims that Sony had double standards in their waste policies. was paid for in whole by the United States Department of Defense.
In 2000.400. now an entertainment game.
Sony Corporation ソニー株式会社
Public Type TYO: 6758 NYSE: SNE Industry Consumer electronics Entertainment
. In early July 2007." This chart graded major electronics companies on their environmental work. Green TV
For sale in Japan on 30 July. In 2005. it was made public that the videogame Full Spectrum Warrior. The document involved the company's surveillance of environmental activists in an attempt to plan how to counter their movements. new flat-panel 32-inch (810 mm) TV 150. without sacrificing quality by developing a brighter back light and better filtering. 2008. Sony's green product. The wisdom of the Army's contract with both Sony and Pandemic was questioned in the press at the time. but the Army lost its full investment while Pandemic Studios went on to release the simulation. through THQ and it became a success. which produces light more efficiently.
5 billion (2009) ▲ $50 billion (2009)
180.500 (as of March 2008) List of the subsidiaries So
Operating income ▼ ¥ −227. Japan Worldwide Howard Stringer (Chairman.019 billion (2009) ▲ $230. President & CEO).730 trillion / $79. Nobuyuki Oneda (Executive Vice President and
Consumer & professional electronic equipments Communication & information-related equipments Semiconductor Products Electronic devices & components Battery Chemicals Sony Pictures Entertainment Sony Music PlayStation Blu-Ray Services Revenue Financial services Internet service
▲ ¥7.Founded Founder(s) Headquarters Area served
1946 in Japan Masaru Ibuka Akio Morita Minato.087 billion (2009) Net income Total assets Total equity Employees Subsidiaries Website
. Tokyo. Ryoji Chubachi (Vice Chairman).618 billion (2009) ▼ ¥ −98.9 billion / $1.8 billion / $2.