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Microstrip patch antennas became very popular in mobile and radio wireless communication.
This is because of ease of analysis and fabrication, and their attractive radiation
characteristics. However, they have some drawbacks of low efficiency, narrow bandwidth
and surface wave losses. In order to overcome these limitations of microstrip antennas such
as narrow bandwidth (< 5%), lower gain (-6 dB), excitation of surface waves etc, a new
solution method; using electromagnetic bandgap (PBG) materials, as substrates has attracted
increasing attention. To improve the characteristics of microstrip antenna we use various
methods. In this thesis here we use photonic band gap structure to enhance the bandwidth of
proposed antenna. PBG structure recently is developed rapidly due to its ability to suppress
the propagation of surface wave at the certain operational frequency. This structure is also
has ability to block the effect of mutual coupling effect in array application. Unlike other
methods, this new method utilizes the inherent properties of dielectric materials to enhance
microstrip antenna performance. These periodic structures have the unique property of
preventing the propagation of electromagnetic waves for specific frequencies and directions
which are defined by the shape, size, symmetry, and the material used in their construction.
Some PBG structures include drilled holes in dielectrics, patterns etched in the ground plane,
and metallic patches placed around microstrip structures. The aim of this project are to
design, simulate and fabricate the new PBG structure operating at 2.4 GHz frequency and
study the performance of the rectangular microstrip antenna with and without PBG structure.
Those designs were simulated with IE3D software.

Here design one square microstrip patch antenna on different feed point and one square
microstrip patch with PBG structure. After optimal results both square microstrip patch has
been fabricated and tested by using Spectrum analyzer. The PBG structure then has been
compared with square microstrip antenna to see how the antennas perform by introducing this
PBG structure.

Key points-IE3D software, microstrip patch antenna, PBG structure, Bandwidth