EME2056 Theory of Machines

LBK/1/2010/11

Introduction to Mechanisms and Kinematics   Machines are defined as the devices used to alter, transmit, and direct forces to accomplish a specific objective. A chain saw is a familiar machine that directs forces to the chain with the objective of cutting wood.

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Mechanism is the mechanical portion of a machine that has the function of transferring motion and forces from a power source to an output. It is the heart of a machine. For the chain saw, the mechanism takes power from a small engine and delivers it to the cutting edge of the chain. Another example is an adjustable height platform that is driven by hydraulic cylinder is called a machine.

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The mechanism for this case is the part that takes the power from the cylinder and drives the raising and lowering of the platform. Therefore from these two examples, a mechanism can be defined as an assemblage of rigid parts that are arranged and connected so that they produce the desired motion of the machine. To ensure that the motion of a machine will exhibit the desired motion, the mechanism analysis of the machine is required.

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EME2056 Theory of Machines

LBK/1/2010/11

Kinematics  Kinematics deals with the way things move. Formally defined, it is a study of the geometry of motion, which involves determination of position, displacement, rotation, speed, velocity and acceleration. Consider the lift platform above. Kinematics analysis provides insight into significant design questions, such as: o What is the significance of the length of the legs that support the platform? o Is it necessary for the support legs to cross and be connected at their midspan, or is it better to arrange them so that they cross closer to the platform? o How far must the cylinder extend to raise the platform 10cm? o How fast the platform will raise if the cylinder is extended at the rate of 0.3 m/s? o …… As a second step, dynamic force analysis of the platform could provide insight into another set of important design questions: o What capacity (maximum force) is required of the hydraulic cylinder? o Is the platform free of any tendency to tip over? o What cross-sectional size of legs and material is required of the support legs so that they don’t fail? o …… A majority of mechanisms exhibit motion such that the parts move in parallel planes, called planar mechanism because their motions are limited to two-dimensional space. Planar mechanisms are the focus in this subject.

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Terminologies    A linkage is a mechanism where all parts are connected together to form a closed chain. One part is designated the frame because it serves as the frame of reference for the motion of all other parts. The frame is typically a part that exhibits no motion. Links are individual parts of a mechanism. They are assumed to be completely rigid and are connected with other links to transmit motion and forces from the input link (driver) to the output link (follower). But in real life, a true rigid body does not exist, therefore mechanism links that are designed to have minimal deformation can be considered as rigid body. A simple link is a rigid body that contains only two joints. A crank is a simple link that is able to complete a full rotation about a fixed centre. A rocker is a simple link that oscillates through an angle, reversing its direction at certain intervals. A complex link is a rigid body that contains more than two joints. A rocker arm is a complex link, containing three joints, that is pivoted near its centre.

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The unit typically contains a rod and piston assembly that slides in a cylinder. velocity and accelerations of that point are determined. Cam joint and gear joint are called higher-order joint or half-joint. 3 . A common component used to drive a mechanism is a hydraulic or pneumatic cylinder. engines. It allows linear sliding between the links that it connects. cylinders (hydraulic and pneumatic) and solenoids. The sliding joint is also called a piston or prism joint. An actuator is the component that drives the mechanism. Common actuators include motors (electric and hydraulic).     A point of interest is a point on a link where the motion is of special interest. Thus forming a sliding joint. The revolute joint is also called a pin or hinge joint and it allows pure rotation between the two links that it connects.EME2056 Theory of Machines LBK/1/2010/11   A joint is a movable connection between links and allows relative motion between the links. the displacement. They allow both rotation and sliding between the two connected links or meshed gears. And at both ends of the unit usually has provisions for pin joints. are the revolute and sliding joint. Once kinematic analysis is performed. called full joints. The kinematic representation of the unit is shown as below. The two primary joints.

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A simple link is a rigid body that contains only two joints. The crank pin (another revolute joint) connects the crank and the connecting rod.      Bearings (represented by a revolute joint) connect the casing (frame) and crank. The piston and cylinder (frame) constitute a sliding connection (sliding joint).EME2056 Theory of Machines LBK/1/2010/11 Identify all the connections used in the slider crank mechanism of a vertical compressor. The connecting rod and crosshead are joined at the wrist pin (a third revolute joint). which connect the link to other links. 5 . The simple link is also called a binary link.

EME2056 Theory of Machines LBK/1/2010/11 Kinematic Diagrams  In analyzing the motion of a machine. For convenient reference. These “stripped down” sketches of mechanisms are often referred to as kinematic diagrams. it is often difficult to visualize the movement of the components in a full assembly drawing. A kinematic diagram should be drawn to a scale proportional to the actual mechanism.    It is easier to represent the parts in skeleton form so that only the dimensions that influence the motion of the mechanism are shown. the links are numbered. 6 . the joints should be lettered. starting with the frame as link number 1. To avoid confusion.

EME2056 Theory of Machines LBK/1/2010/11 7 .

The motion of all other links is determined relative to the base. In this problem. Identify the Frame The first step in constructing a kinematic diagram is to decide the part that will be designated as the frame. In addition. Solution: 1. 5. the large base that is determined as the frame. the motion of the end of the handle is desired. The kinematic diagram is given 8 . This sliding joint is lettered D. the cutter slides up and down. In some cases. along the base. Identify All Other Links Careful observation reveals three other moving parts: Link 2: Handle Link 3: Cutting blade Link 4: Bar that connects the cutter with the handle 3. These joints are lettered A through C. The base is numbered as link 1. 2. This is designated as point of interest X. 4. Identify Any Points of Interest Finally. its selection is obvious as the frame is firmly attached to the ground.EME2056 Theory of Machines LBK/1/2010/11 Example 1 Figure shows a shear that is used to cut and trim electronic circuit board laminates. Draw a kinematic diagram. Identify the Joints Pin joints are used to connect these three different parts. Draw the Kinematic Diagram. The motion of all other links will be determined relative to the frame.

no parts are attached to the ground. The top handle is numbered as link 1. These joints are lettered A through D. Identify the Joints Four pin joints are used to connect these different parts. Identify the Frame The first step is to decide the part that will be designated as the frame. In this problem. the selection of the frame is rather arbitrary. Draw a kinematic diagram. The motion of all other links is determined relative to the top handle. 9 . Finally. 2. This is designated as points of interest X. The top handle is designated as the frame. Therefore. 4. the motion of the end of the lower handle is also desired. This is designated as point of interest Y. Solution: 1. Identify All Other Links Careful observation reveals three other moving parts: Link 2: Bottom handle Link 3: Bottom jaw Link 4: Bar that connects the top and bottom handle 3.EME2056 Theory of Machines LBK/1/2010/11 Example 2 Figure shows a pair of vice grips. Identify Any Points of Interest The motion of the end of the bottom jaw is desired.

1) . It is used to calculate DOF of a planar mechanism. therefore DOF also yields the information regarding the number of actuators needed to use to drive the mechanism to yield a desired motion. If the links are connected by jp of primary joints and jh of higher-order joints. each primary joint will remove 2 DOF from the system and each higher-order joint will remove 1 DOF from the system. It is possible to determine the mobility of a mechanism directly from the number of links and the number of joints used to connect the links. 10 . Since in a mechanism. Most mechanisms used in machines are constrained. Since input to a mechanism is an actuator.EME2056 Theory of Machines LBK/1/2010/11 5.jh   This equation is called Gruebler's Equation. Because primary joint has 1 DOF and higher-order joint has 2 DOF. Draw the Kinematic Diagram. Thus we have 3n-3 = 3(n-l) DOF before any joints are connected. A constrained mechanism is shown below. Each link will have 3 DOF. Mechanism with 1 DOF is called constrained mechanisms. Consider we have a system of n unconnected links in a plane. The number of degree of freedom of a mechanism is also called the mobility and is given by the symbol F. therefore all three of its DOF will be removed. two translations and one rotation. It is defined as the number of independent inputs required to precisely position all links of the mechanism with respect to the ground. The kinematic diagram is given Mobility    An important property in mechanism analysis is the number of degrees of freedom of the mechanism. one link must be chosen as a frame.2jp . Therefore the remaining DOF of the mechanism is     F = 3(n .

Also compute the degrees of freedom for the clamp. using the clamping surface and the handle as points of interest. These mechanisms need more than one actuator to operate them. Solution: 1. These joints are lettered A through D. Finally the motion of the end of the handle is also desired. The motion of all other links is determined relative to this frame. Draw the kinematic diagram The kinematic diagram is detailed as follows: 11 . Identify all other links Careful observation reveals three other moving parts: Link 2: Handle Link 3: Arm that serves as the clamping surface Link 4: Bar that connects the clamping arm and handle 3. The frame is numbered as link 1. This is designated as point of interest X. This is designated as point of interest Y. 2. Real life examples of unconstrained mechanisms are commonly referred to as open-loop linkages/mechanisms. Example 3 Figure shows a toggle clamp. 4. These mechanisms are unable to move and thus form a structure. Identify any points of interest The motion of the clamping surface is desired. Identify the Frame The component that is bolted to the table is designated as the frame. Mechanisms with more than 1 DOF are called unconstrained mechanism. Draw a kinematic diagram. 5. Identify the joints Four pin joints are used to connect these different parts.EME2056 Theory of Machines LBK/1/2010/11   Mechanisms with zero or negative DOF are called locked mechanisms.

n = 4. Draw a kinematic diagram. The motion of all other links is determined relative to this frame. Also compute the degrees of freedom for the device.EME2056 Theory of Machines LBK/1/2010/11 6. There are also four pin joints. using the end of the handle as a point of interest. Moving only one link. 2. the clamp mechanism is constrained. Therefore. jp = 4 pins. Example 4 Figure shows a beverage can crusher used to reduce the size of cans for easier storage prior to recycling. the handle. Identify the Frame The back portion of the device serves as a base and can be attached to a wall. Calculate Mobility It is seen that there are four links. This component is designated as the frame. precisely positions all other links in the clamp. The frame is numbered as link 1. jh = 0 F = 3(n-1) – 2jp – jh = 3(4-1) – 2(4) – 0 = 1 With one degree of freedom. Solution: 1. Identify all other links Careful observation reveals three other moving parts: Link 2: Handle Link 3: Block that serves as the crushing surface Link 4: Bar that connects the crushing block and handle 12 .

the handle. The third pin connects the crushing block and link 4. 13 . This is designated as point of interest X. There are also three pin joints and one slider joint. Identify the joints Three pin joints are used to connect these different parts. precisely positions all other links and crushes a beverage can placed under the crushing block. 5. The crushing block slides vertically during operation. This joint is labelled as A. Draw the kinematic diagram The kinematic diagram is given: 6. Calculate Mobility It is seen that there are four links. jp = 3 pins + 1 slider = 4. This joint is labelled D. n = 4.EME2056 Theory of Machines LBK/1/2010/11 3. This joint is labelled C. Identify any points of interest The motion of the handle is desired. a sliding joint connects the crushing block to the base. Moving only one link. One pin connects the handle to the base. Therefore. A second pin is used to connect link 4 to the handle. jh = 0 F = 3(n-1) – 2jp – jh = 3(4-1) – 2(4) – 0 = 1 With one degree of freedom. Therefore. 4. This joint is labelled B. the can crusher mechanism is constrained.

The motion of the cutting surface is also desired. 4. Identify the Frame The base is bolted to a working surface and can be designated as the frame. This joint is labelled as A.EME2056 Theory of Machines LBK/1/2010/11 Example 5 Figure shows another device that can be used to shear material. One pin connects the cutting lever to the frame. 5. Identify all other links Careful observation reveals two other moving parts: Link 2: Gear/Handle Link 3: Cutting lever 3. compute the degrees of freedom for the shear press. Solution: 1. Also. This joint is labelled C. Identify the joints Two pin joints are used to connect these different parts. using the end of the handle and the cutting edge as points of interest. A second pin is used to connect the gear/handle to the cutting lever. Draw the kinematic diagram The kinematic diagram is detailed as follows: 14 . The motion of all other links is determined relative to this frame. The frame is numbered as link 1. 2. Identify any points of interest The motion of the handle end is desired. This is designated as point of interest X. Draw a kinematic diagram. The gear/handle is also connected to the frame with a gear joint. This is designated as point of interest Y. This joint is labelled B.

Also compute the degrees of freedom. Therefore. the shear press mechanism is constrained. There are also two pin joints and one gear joint. jh = 1 F = 3(n-1) – 2jp – jh = 3(3-1) – 2(2) – 1 = 1 With one degree of freedom. using the bottom of the stabilizing foot as a point of interest. Moving only one link. Calculate Mobility It is seen that there are three links. n = 3. precisely positions all other links and brings the cutting edge onto the work piece. Draw a kinematic diagram. jp = 2 pins.EME2056 Theory of Machines LBK/1/2010/11 6. the handle. 15 . Example 6 Figure shows an outrigger foot to stabilize a utility truck.

This connects the piston/rod with the cylinder. A second pin is used to connect outrigger leg to the cylinder rod. 5. precisely positions all other links in the outrigger. n = 4. One sliding joint is present in the cylinder unit. This joint is labelled D. The third pin connects the cylinder to the truck frame. Identify the joints Three pin joints are used to connect these different parts. jp = 3 pins + 1 slider = 4. Identify all other links Careful observation reveals three other moving parts: Link 2: Outrigger leg Link 3: Cylinder Link 4: Piston/rod 3. The motion of all other links is determined relative to this frame. There are also three pin joints and one slider joint. placing the stabilizing foot on the ground. The frame is numbered as link 1. Identify the Frame During the operation of the outriggers. Identify any points of interest The stabilizer foot is part of link 2 and a point of interest located on the bottom of the foot is labelled as point of interest X. This joint is labelled as A. the piston. 4. This joint is labelled C. Draw the kinematic diagram The kinematic diagram is given: 6. 2. Therefore the truck is designated as the frame. This joint is labelled B. jh = 0 F = 3(n-1) – 2jp – jh = 3(4-1) – 2(4) – 0 = 1 With one degree of freedom.EME2056 Theory of Machines LBK/1/2010/11 Solution: 1. 16 . One pin connects the outrigger leg to the truck frame. Moving only one link. Therefore. the utility truck is stationary. the outrigger mechanism is constrained. Calculate Mobility It is seen that there are four links.

EME2056 Theory of Machines LBK/1/2010/11 Special Cases of the Mobility Equation a) Coincident Joints  Some mechanisms have three links that are all connected at a common pin joint. Thus. if all pivoted links were the same size. in analysis this commonly pinned configuration must be modeled as two separate joints. The second joint will then connect the second and third links. by definition. at times. The mobility equation. One joint will connect the first and second links. For example. a designer must be aware that the mobility equation can. lead to inconsistencies. figure shows a structure (DOF=0) with complex link of arbitrary shape. it can give misleading. a pin joint connects only two links. predicts 0 DOF as expected for a structure. This situation may bring some confusion of using the equation. There are other examples of mechanisms that violate the Gruebler equation because of unique geometry. F=3(n-l)-2jp-jh = 3(5-1)-2(6) = 0. This linkage contains five links and six pin joints. then this mechanism would be able to move with 1 DOF as contrary to predicted value. Thus. Physically. and the distance between the joints on the frame and coupler were identical. 17 . Three rotating links Two rotating and one sliding link b) Exception due to link sizes or shapes  Because of mobility equation does not account for link sizes or shapes. However. However. one pin may be used to connect all three links.

Another connects link 4 to the base and is labelled as C. Identify any points of interest The motion of the end of the handle is desired and is labelled as point of interest X. The frame is numbered as link 1. 5. They are labelled as E and F. Draw the kinematic diagram The kinematic diagram is given: 18 . A sliding joint connects the press head with the base. this must be modelled as two separate joints. Another connects link 3 to the handle and is labelled as joint B. 2. Also compute the degrees of freedom. It appears that a pin is used to connect the three arms – link 3. Because three separate links are joined at a common point. 4 and 6 – together. Draw a kinematic diagram. Therefore this bottom base is designated as the frame. Solution: 1. Another connects link 6 to the press head and is labelled as D. using the end of the handle as a point of interest. Identify all other links Careful observation reveals three other moving parts: Link 2: Handle Link 3: Arm that connects the handle to the other arms Link 4: Arm that connects the base to the other arms Link 5: Press head Link 6: Arm that connects the head to the other arms 3. This joint is labelled as G. The motion of all other links is determined relative to this frame. Identify the joints Pin joints are used to connect the several different parts. Once connects the handle to the base and is labelled as joint A.EME2056 Theory of Machines LBK/1/2010/11 Example 7 Figure shows a mechanical press used to exert large forces to insert a small part into a larger one. Identify the Frame The bottom base for the mechanical press sits on a workbench and remains stationary during operation. 4.

the mechanical press mechanism is constrained. n = 6. jh = 0 F = 3(n-1) – 2jp – jh = 3(6-1) – 2(7) – 0 = 1 With one degree of freedom. 19 . Calculate Mobility It is seen that there are six links as well as six pin joints and one slider joint.EME2056 Theory of Machines LBK/1/2010/11 6. jp = 6 pins + 1 slider = 7. Moving only one link. Therefore. precisely positions all other links in the press. the handle. sliding the press head onto the work piece.

Depending on the arrangement and the lengths of the links. the two pivoted links are both able to rotate through a full revolution.2jp . one being designated as the frame. crank-rocker. change point mechanism or triple rocker mechanism.jh = 3(4-1) -2(4) .    It has mobility of one n = 4. When one of the pivoted links rotates continuously. rocker or lever. Thus. Double Crank The crank-crank or double crank has the shortest link of the 4 bar mechanism configured as the fixed link or frame. the pivoted link that is connected to the driver or power source is called the crank or input link.0 = 1 Because the mechanism has 1 DOF. The crank-crank mechanism is also called a drag link mechanism. it is fully operated with one driver (DC electric motor) In mechanism. double rocker. and connected by four pin joints. jp = 4. The other pivoted link that is attached to the frame is designated as output link. follower. the other pivoted link also rotates continuously. jh = 0 F = 3(n-l) .EME2056 Theory of Machines LBK/1/2010/11 The Four-Bar Mechanism    The simplest and most common linkage is the four-bar linkage. Usually the shorter links is chosen as an input link. It is a combine of four links. a four-bar mechanism can be classified as double crank. 20 . And the link that connects the crank and the lever is called connecting rod or coupler. The mechanism for an automobile window wiper system is an example of 4-bar linkage.

Triple Rocker None of the links in triple rocker are able to complete a full revolution. the shortest link of the mechanism is a driver. the output link oscillates between limits. When this shortest link continuously rotates. Double Rocker The rocker-rocker or double rocker has the link opposite to the shortest link of the four bar mechanism configured as the frame. the output link oscillates or rock. crank-crank or rocker-rocker must also meet Grashof's criteria. oscillating the wiper across a windshield. a four-bar mechanism behaves either as a crankrocker. The wiper arm and blade are firmly attached to the output link. Change Point Mechanism A change point mechanism can be positioned such that all the links become collinear. The frame and coupler are the same length. neither link connected to the frame is able to complete a full revolution. The wiper system as shown above is designed to be a crank-rocker. The most familiar type of change point mechanism is a parallelogram linkage. 21 . Categories of four-bar mechanisms In addition to the condition given above. All three moving links rock. and the two pivoting links are the same length.EME2056 Theory of Machines LBK/1/2010/11 Crank-Rocker For a crank-rocker mechanism. In this configuration. Thus both input and output links are constrained to oscillate or rock between limits. As the motor continuously rotates the input link.

Therefore. numbering and labelling the links. Distinguish the links based on length In an analysis that focuses on the landing gear. Figure shows the kinematic diagram for the wheel assembly. Solution: 1. The tip of the wheel was designated as point of interest X. Classify the motion of this four-bar mechanism based on the configuration of the links. the aircraft body is designated as the frame.EME2056 Theory of Machines LBK/1/2010/11 Where s = length of shortest link l = length of longest link p = length of one of the intermediate length links q = length of the other intermediate length links Example 8 A nose wheel assembly for a small aircraft is shown. the motion of the wheel assembly is determined relative to the body of the aircraft. 22 .

Check the Crank-Rocker Criteria s+l<p+q 12 +32 < 26 + 30 (O. 23 .EME2056 Theory of Machines LBK/1/2010/11 The lengths of the links are: s = 12in. 3. the nose wheel assembly is a crank-rocker mechanism. An example of this mechanism is manual water pump. However. change point or a triple rocker. p = 30 in. or adjacent to the frame. Slider-Crank Mechanism     Another mechanism that is commonly encountered is a slider-crank. q = 26 in 2. Compare to Criteria The shortest link is a side. This mechanism also consists of combination of four links with one being designated as the frame. l = 32 in. it is connected by 3 pin joints and one sliding joint.K) Because the criteria for a crank-rocker is valid. Therefore this mechanism can be either a crank-rocker.

This is represented by piston/rod of the pump.2jp-jh n = 4 jp= 3 pins + 1 sliding = 4. In general. it is fully operated with one driver.0 = 1    Because the mechanism has 1 DOF.2(4) .EME2056 Theory of Machines LBK/1/2010/11  The mobility of the mechanism is F = 3(n-l) . jh = 0 F = 3(4-1) . The pump is activated manually by pushing on the handle. the pivoted link connected to the frame and activated by driver is called crank. This link is not always capable of completing a full revolution. 24 . The coupler or connecting rod couples the motion of the crank to the slider. The link that translates is called the slider.

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