Solution_Assignment_Laws of Thermodynamics_3rd Week (1)

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Solution_Assignment_Laws of Thermodynamics_3rd Week (1)

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1. (b) 2. (c) 3. (c) 4. (d) 5.(d) 6. (a) 7.(b) 8.(b) 9.(c) 10.(b)

Detailed Solution:

1. The steady flow energy equation for a single stream entering and a single stream

leaving the control volume can be written as

Vi 2 Q V2 W

hi + + gzi + =ho + o + gzo +

2 m 2 m

where subscript i indicates the inlet conditions and subscript o indicates the outlet

conditions

2. The steady flow energy equation for the nozzle gives

V2 2

h=

1 h2 +

2

or V2 2 = 2h

V2 2 =2 45 103

or V2 = 300 m/s

3. Properties of steam are found to be

Pressure (kPa) Temperature (C) Enthalpy (kJ/kg) Specific volume

(m3/kg)

From the mass balance, the mass flow rate can be found as

AV 0.1 70

=

w =1 1

= 23.97 kg/s

v1 0.292

CS

Q = 30 kW

1 2

Fig.

The steady flow energy equation for the control volume as shown in Fig. gives

V12 Q V2 2 W

w h1 + + gz1 + = w h2 + + gz2 +

2 2

W

Since the nozzle is horizontal, z1 = z2 , and work transfer is zero ( = 0 ). The energy

equation reduces to

V 2 Q V2

w h1 + 1 + = w h2 + 2

2 2

Substituting the respective values, we get

702 V2 2

23.97 3263.9 103 + 30 10 =

3

23.97 3069.3 10 3

+

2 2

or V2 = 625.78 m/s

4.

Pressure (kPa) Temperature (C) Enthalpy (kJ/kg)

The specific enthalpy of water at 75 kPa and 90% quality is 2514.4 kJ/kg.

There is one inlet and two exit for the control volume as shown in Fig.1. From the mass

balance, we can write

w=

1 w2 + w3

or w3 = w1 w2 = 120 30 = 90 kg/s

Q = 3 kW

1

WT

3

CS

2

Fig.1

The steady flow energy equation for the control volume as shown in Fig.5.16 gives

V2 Q V2 V2 W

w1 h1 + 1 + gz1 + = w2 h2 + 2 + gz2 + w3 h3 + 3 + gz3 +

2 2 2

For negligible changes in kinetic and potential energy, the energy equation reduces to

Q W

w1h1 + = w2 h2 + w3h3 + h =h

1 2

Substituting the respective values, we get

W

120 3238.2 103 3 103 =30 2924.5 103 + 90 2514.4 103 +

W

or =

W = 74550000W = 74.55 MW

T

T

= 1 2

T1

Here T1= 600C= 873K

T1 = 20C = 293K

293

= 1

873

Wnet

Again =

Q1

when Wnet = 1 kW , we have

Wnet 293

= = 1

Q1 873

1 293

or = 1

Q1 873

or= =

Q1 1.505 kW 1505 W

Q2

= 1

Q1

6. Two reversible heat engines operating in series between two reservoirs maintained at

TH and TL , respectively as shown in Fig.. Reservoir TH

QH

Heat engine 1 W1

Q

T

Heat engine 2 W2

QL

Reservoir TL

Fig.

The efficiencies of the two engines are

T T

1 = 1 and2 = 1 L

TH T

According to the given condition, 1 = 2

T TL

=

TH T

or T= TH TL = 900 400 = 600 K

7. Perpetual motion machine of the Second kind violates the KelvinPlanck statement of

second law of thermodynamics.

8. Carnot engine operating between two reservoirs at TH and TL , respectively.

T

= 1 L

TH

Let TH be increased by T , keeping TL constant. Then, efficiency becomes

TL

1 = 1

TH + T

If TL be decreased by same T , keeping TH constant. Then, efficiency becomes

T T

2 = 1 L

TH

T T TL

2 1 = 1 L 1+

TH TH + T

T T (TH + T )(TL T )

= H L

TH (TH + T )

(TH TL )T + (T ) 2

=

TH (TH + T )

Since TH > TL , 2 1 > 0

The more effective way to increase the efficiency of Carnot engine is to decrease the lower

temperature, TL .

9. The coefficient of performance (COP) of the refrigerator and that of a heat pump

operating between the same two reservoirs can be written as

[COP

= ]HP [COP ]ref + 1

Thus, [COP ]HP = 4 +1 = 5

Q

[COP ]ref = 2

W

Here Q1 = 120 kW , W = 30 kW

Again, Q1 Q2 =

W

or Q2 = Q1 W = 90 kW

Q2 90

[COP ]ref= = = 3

W 30

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