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Answer to Assignment 3:

1. (b) 2. (c) 3. (c) 4. (d) 5.(d) 6. (a) 7.(b) 8.(b) 9.(c) 10.(b)
Detailed Solution:
1. The steady flow energy equation for a single stream entering and a single stream
leaving the control volume can be written as

Vi 2 Q V2 W
hi + + gzi + =ho + o + gzo +
2 m 2 m
where subscript i indicates the inlet conditions and subscript o indicates the outlet
conditions
2. The steady flow energy equation for the nozzle gives
V2 2
h=
1 h2 +
2

or V2 2 = 2h

Substituting the respective values, we get

V2 2 =2 45 103

or V2 = 300 m/s
3. Properties of steam are found to be
Pressure (kPa) Temperature (C) Enthalpy (kJ/kg) Specific volume
(m3/kg)

1000 400 3263.9 0.282

300 300 3069.3 0.875

From the mass balance, the mass flow rate can be found as
AV 0.1 70
=
w =1 1
= 23.97 kg/s
v1 0.292

CS
Q = 30 kW

1 2

Fig.
The steady flow energy equation for the control volume as shown in Fig. gives
V12 Q V2 2 W
w h1 + + gz1 + = w h2 + + gz2 +
2 2
W
Since the nozzle is horizontal, z1 = z2 , and work transfer is zero ( = 0 ). The energy

equation reduces to
V 2 Q V2
w h1 + 1 + = w h2 + 2
2 2
Substituting the respective values, we get
702 V2 2
23.97 3263.9 103 + 30 10 =
3
23.97 3069.3 10 3
+
2 2
or V2 = 625.78 m/s
4.
Pressure (kPa) Temperature (C) Enthalpy (kJ/kg)

20000 500 3238.2

5000 300 2924.5

The specific enthalpy of water at 75 kPa and 90% quality is 2514.4 kJ/kg.
There is one inlet and two exit for the control volume as shown in Fig.1. From the mass
balance, we can write
w=
1 w2 + w3
or w3 = w1 w2 = 120 30 = 90 kg/s

Q = 3 kW
1
WT

3
CS
2

Fig.1

The steady flow energy equation for the control volume as shown in Fig.5.16 gives

V2 Q V2 V2 W
w1 h1 + 1 + gz1 + = w2 h2 + 2 + gz2 + w3 h3 + 3 + gz3 +
2 2 2
For negligible changes in kinetic and potential energy, the energy equation reduces to
Q W
w1h1 + = w2 h2 + w3h3 + h =h
1 2
Substituting the respective values, we get
W
120 3238.2 103 3 103 =30 2924.5 103 + 90 2514.4 103 +

W
or =
W = 74550000W = 74.55 MW

T

5. The thermal efficiency of a reversible heat engine is


T
= 1 2
T1
Here T1= 600C= 873K
T1 = 20C = 293K
293
= 1
873
Wnet
Again =
Q1
when Wnet = 1 kW , we have
Wnet 293
= = 1
Q1 873
1 293
or = 1
Q1 873
or= =
Q1 1.505 kW 1505 W

Q2
= 1
Q1
6. Two reversible heat engines operating in series between two reservoirs maintained at
TH and TL , respectively as shown in Fig.. Reservoir TH

Let the intermediate temperature be T.


QH

Heat engine 1 W1

Q
T

Heat engine 2 W2

QL

Reservoir TL

Fig.
The efficiencies of the two engines are
T T
1 = 1 and2 = 1 L
TH T
According to the given condition, 1 = 2
T TL
=
TH T
or T= TH TL = 900 400 = 600 K

7. Perpetual motion machine of the Second kind violates the KelvinPlanck statement of
second law of thermodynamics.
8. Carnot engine operating between two reservoirs at TH and TL , respectively.

The efficiency of a Carnot engine is given by,


T
= 1 L
TH
Let TH be increased by T , keeping TL constant. Then, efficiency becomes
TL
1 = 1
TH + T
If TL be decreased by same T , keeping TH constant. Then, efficiency becomes
T T
2 = 1 L
TH
T T TL
2 1 = 1 L 1+
TH TH + T
T T (TH + T )(TL T )
= H L
TH (TH + T )
(TH TL )T + (T ) 2
=
TH (TH + T )
Since TH > TL , 2 1 > 0
The more effective way to increase the efficiency of Carnot engine is to decrease the lower
temperature, TL .

9. The coefficient of performance (COP) of the refrigerator and that of a heat pump
operating between the same two reservoirs can be written as

[COP
= ]HP [COP ]ref + 1
Thus, [COP ]HP = 4 +1 = 5

10. The COPof a refrigerator can be expressed as follows:


Q
[COP ]ref = 2
W
Here Q1 = 120 kW , W = 30 kW

Again, Q1 Q2 =
W

or Q2 = Q1 W = 90 kW

Q2 90
[COP ]ref= = = 3
W 30