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SYSC-5606 Introduction to Mobile Communications antennas-sysc5606-F17.

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Types of antennas1

Wire antennas
There are various shapes of wire antennas such as straight wire, loop and helix.

Dipole Loop

Helix

Wire Antennas

Aperture antennas:
Some forms are the pyramidal horn, conical horn and rectangular waveguide. They
can be covered with a dielectric material for protection from the environment.

Pyramidal Horn
Conical Horn Rectangular Waveguide

Aperture Antenna Configurations

1. Main reference: Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design, 3rd Edition, Constantine A. Balanis (Arizona
State Univ.), ISBN: 978-0-471-66782-7

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SYSC-5606 Introduction to Mobile Communications antennas-sysc5606-F17.fm

Microstrip patch antennas
Popular for space born, and lately for commercial applications. Consist of a metallic
patch on a grounded substrate. The rectangular and circular patches are most com-
mon.

Rectangular patch
ground plane

Dielectric Substrate
Circular Patch

Rectangular and Circular Microstrip patch antennas

Array antennas
Many applications require radiation characteristics that can not be met by a single
element. In such cases, a number of elements in a certain electrical and geometrical
arrangement may be used to approximate the desired radiation characteristics.

Microstrip Patch Array

Aperture Array
Reflectors
directors

Slotted Waveguide Array
Yagi-Uda Array

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.SYSC-5606 Introduction to Mobile Communications antennas-sysc5606-F17. Parabolic Reflectors Corner reflector Fundamental Parameters of Antennas Radiation Pattern An antenna radiation pattern is defined as “A mathematical function or graphical representation of the radiation properties of the antenna as a function of space coor- dinates.fm Reflector Antennas These are used when very high gain is important. z elevation plane  y coordinate system for antenna analysis r  x azimuth plane 3 of 20 .

Directional and Omni-directional Patterns An isotropic radiator: “a hypothetical lossless antenna having equal radiation in all directions”. A directional antenna is one “having the property of radiating or receiving electro- magnetic waves more effectively in some directions than others”. A back lobe is “a radiation lobe whose axis makes an angle of approximately 180 degrees with respect to the beam of the antenna”. Radiation Pattern Lobes A radiation lobe is “a portion of the radiation pattern bounded by regions of rela- tively weak radiation intensity”. An omni-directional antenna is defined as an antenna whose radiation pattern is essentially non-directional in a given plane (say the azimuth plane) and directional in elevation. 4 of 20 . Often taken as a reference for expressing the directive properties of actual antennas.SYSC-5606 Introduction to Mobile Communications antennas-sysc5606-F17.fm Isotropic. A side lobe is “a radiation lobe in any direction other than the intended lobe”. A major lobe is defined as ”the radiation lobe containing the direction of maximum radiation”.

2 0.SYSC-5606 Introduction to Mobile Communications antennas-sysc5606-F17.49834 30 0.7 radiation intens ity 0.24917 Radiation lobes of a 180 0 hypothetical antenna pattern 210 330 240 300 270 linear plot of power pattern 1 0. 0.6 Linear plot of a hypo.4 antenna pattern.9 0.3 0.7475 150 0.fm 90 0.99667 120 60 0.5 thetical [abs(sinx/x)] 0.8 0.1 0 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 azimuth in radians 5 of 20 . 0.

e is the instantaneous electric field vector (V/m) and h is the magnetic field vector (A/m). For a closed surface. Example The radial component of the radiated power density of an antenna is given by sin  W rad = â r W r = â r A 0 ----------. of the power density.W/m2 2 r where â r is a unit radial vector.SYSC-5606 Introduction to Mobile Communications antennas-sysc5606-F17.62(D3/)1/2 reactive near field region R2 = 2D2/ D R1 R2 Radiation Power Density The quantity used to describe the power associated with an electromagnetic wave is the instantaneous Poynting vector: w = e  h where w is the instantaneous Poynt- ing vector (W/m2). To find the total radiated power. integrate the radial component. over the surface of the sphere. â r r sin   d  d =  A 0 2 2 P rad = 0 0 2  r 6 of 20 . 2   sin    â r A 0 ----------.fm Field Regions Far-Field Region radiating near field region R1 = 0. choose a sphere of radius r. A0 is the peak value of the power density. Deter- mine the total radiated power.

= A 0 sin  2 r and the radiated power can then be calculated as: 2  0 0 2 2 P rad = A 0  sin    d  d =  A 0 7 of 20 . In mathematical form: 2 U = r W rad where U is the radiation intensity (W/unit solid angle) and Wrad is the radiation den- sity (W/m2). One steradian is defined as the solid angle with its vertex at the center of a sphere of radius r that is subtended by a spherical surface area equal to that of a square with each side of length r.SYSC-5606 Introduction to Mobile Communications antennas-sysc5606-F17. U is also related to the far-zone electric field of the antenna by: 2 r 2 2 U  -----. the power intensity is given by: 2 sin  U = r A 0 ----------. and  is the intrinsic impedance of the medium (   120 for free space). 2  P rad = 0 0 U sin   d  d where d = sin dd is the element of solid angle. The measure of a solid angle is a steradian.fm Radian and Steradian The measure of a plane angle is a radian. One radian is defined as the plane angle with its vertex at the centre of a circle of radius r that is subtended by an arc whose length is r. Radiation Intensity Radiation intensity in a given direction is defined as “the power radiated from an antenna per unit solid angle.” The radiation intensity is a far-field parameter. E   r    + E   r     2 where E and E are the far-zone electric field components. The total power is obtained by integrating the radiation intensity over the entire solid angle of 4. Example For the previous example.

fm Directivity This is defined as “The ratio of the radiation intensity in a given direction from the antenna to the radiation intensity averaged over all directions. If the direction is not specified.= --- P rad 2 A 0  ------ 8  3 8 of 20 . and  is the usual spherical coordinate.” In other words. A0 is the peak value of the power density. assume the direction of maximum directiv- ity U max 4U max D max = ------------ .SYSC-5606 Introduction to Mobile Communications antennas-sysc5606-F17. Therefore Umax = A0. the direction of maximum intensity is implied.= ----------------. The total radiated power is given by: 2  0 0 A0  sin   sin   d  d = A 0  ------ 2 8 P rad =  3 Therefore. the direc- tivity of a non-isotropic antenna is equal to the ratio of its radiation intensity in a given direction over that of an isotropic source. Determine the maximum directivity of the antenna.= ------------------. the maximum directivity is: 4U max 4A 0 3 D max = -------------------. U U 4U D = ------. which has a maxi- mum at. 2 2 The radiation intensity is given by U = r W r = A 0  sin   . and express the directivity as a function of the directional angles and . = ------------------- - U0 P rad Example The radial component of the radiated power density of an infinitesimal dipole of length L <<  is given by: 2  sin   W rad = â r W r = â r A 0 ------------------ 2 r where â r is a unit radial vector.= ----------- U0 P rad P rad  ---------- -  4  and when the direction is not specified.

and can be represented graphically as shown.67  sin   Therefore.fm and the directivity in any other direction is represented by: 2 2 D = D 0  sin   = 1.67 120 60 1. The radiation intensity corresponding to the isotropically radiated power is equal to the power accepted (input) by the antenna divided by .” In other words: 9 of 20 .55667 180 0 210 330 240 300 270 Directivity pattern of a half-wave dipole.1133 150 30 0. 90 1. the antenna’s maximum directivity is 1.SYSC-5606 Introduction to Mobile Communications antennas-sysc5606-F17.5  sin   Another example The directivity of a half-wave dipole is approximated by: 3 D = 1. but takes into account the antenna efficiency.2 dB). Gain This is directly related to directivity. The absolute gain is defined as “the ratio of the intensity in a given direction to the radiation intensity that would be obtained if the power accepted by the antenna were radiated isotropically.67 (about 2.

and Z0 is the characteristic impedance of the transmission line.fm radiation intensity U     gain = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. and is given by: Z in – Z 0  = -------------------- Z in + Z 0 where Zin is the antenna input impedance.= 4 ------------------  total input  accepted  power    4  P in Reflection. 2) I2R losses (conduction and dielectric in the antenna structure). The total efficiency can therefore be written as: 2 e o = e r e cd =  1 –  e cd where  is the reflection coefficient at the input terminals of the antenna. is con- 10 of 20 . Losses may be due to 1) reflections caused by mismatch between the transmission line and the antenna. con- duction and dielectric losses Antenna input terminals output terminals (gain reference) (directivity reference) Reference Terminals and losses of an antenna Antenna Efficiency The total antenna efficiency is used to account for losses at the input terminals and within the structure of the antenna. Example A lossless half-wave dipole antenna.SYSC-5606 Introduction to Mobile Communications antennas-sysc5606-F17. with input impedance of 73 ohms.

specifically the figure traced as a function of time by the extremity of the vector at a fixed location in space.g.5 to 102.5 MHz. For narrow-band antennas. E. the bandwidth is usually expressed as the ratio of the upper-to-lower frequencies of acceptable operation. For circular polarization. the circle is traced in a clockwise or counter-clockwise sense. There usually is a trade-off between the beam width and the sidelobe levels (nar- rower beamwidth goes with higher sidelobe levels). The 3 antenna pattern is given approximately by U = B 0  sin   . circular or elliptical. Polarization Polarization of the radiated wave is defined as “The property of an electromagnetic wave describing the time varying direction and relative magnitude of the electric field vector.e. and the sense in which it is traced. conforms to a specific standard” For broadband antennas. with respect to some characteristic. the ability to distinguish between two sources) is approximated by half the first null beamwidth. the angle between the two directions in which the radiation intensity is one half the maximum value of the beam”. For example a 10:1 bandwidth indicates that the upper frequency is ten times greater than the lower operating fre- quency. Half Power Beamwidth Defined as “In a plane containing the direction of the maximum of a beam. Clockwise rotation of the electric field vector is designated as right-hand 11 of 20 . the field is said to be linearly polarized.SYSC-5606 Introduction to Mobile Communications antennas-sysc5606-F17. a 5% bandwidth.fm nected to a transmission line whose characteristic impedance is 50 ohms. for an antenna operating at 100 MHz indicates the antenna operation is acceptable over the range 97.” Polarization may be classified as linear. the bandwidth is expressed as a percentage of the centre operating frequency of the antenna. If the vector that describes the electric field at a point in space as a function of time is always directed along a line. as observed along the direction of propagation. Find the overall maxi- mum gain of this antenna. Bandwidth Defined as “The range of frequencies within which the performance of the antenna. The resolution capability of an antenna (i.

For orthogonal polarizations. The amount of power extracted by the antenna under mismatch conditions will not be maximum. So if the antenna is polarization matched to the received wave.fm polarization and counter-clockwise as left-hand polarization. p p PLF = 1 PLF = cos 2 p PLF = 0 PLF for transmitting and receiving aperture antennas p p PLF = 1 PLF = cos p 2 PLF = 0 PLF for transmitting and receiving linear wire antennas 12 of 20 . the PLF will be equal to unity.SYSC-5606 Introduction to Mobile Communications antennas-sysc5606-F17.  p is the angle between the two unit vectors. Polarization Loss Factor and Efficiencies In general the polarization of the receiving antenna will not be the same as the polarization of the incoming wave. and unit vector (polariza- tion vector) of the receiving antenna respectively. The polarization loss factor is defined as: ˆ ˆ 2 2 PLF =  w   a = cos  p where ˆw and ˆa are the unit vector of the incident wave. This is generally stated as polarization mis- match. PLF = 0.

the power sup- plied to the antenna will be equal to the power dissipated in the source resistance.  r) ^ Geometrical Orientation of transmitting and Receiving antennas for Friis transmission formula This equation relates the received signal power to the transmitter power. Dr.” Friis Transmission Equation (r. Antenna effective Areas The effective area (in a given direction) is defined as “the ratio of the available power at the terminals of a receiving antenna. The input impedance of an antenna is generally a function of frequency. ecdt. or the ratio of voltage to current at a pair of terminals. assuming the wave being polar- ization matched to the antenna. ecdr.” The maximum power delivered to the antenna occurs when the antenna impedance presents a conjugate match to the source impedance. In this case. to the power flux density of a plane wave incident on the antenna (from that direction). Dt.fm Input Impedance This is defined as “the impedance presented by an antenna at its terminals. and vari- ous Tx and Rx antenna parameters as follows: 13 of 20 . t) Transmitting antenna (Pt. t. r) (t.  t) ^ Receiving antenna (Pr. Thus the antenna will be matched to the interconnecting transmission line and other associ- ated equipment only within a bandwidth. or the ratio of the appropriate com- ponents of the electric to magnetic fields at a point. r. Gr.SYSC-5606 Introduction to Mobile Communications antennas-sysc5606-F17. Gt.

 1 –  t e cdt D t -----. the above equation is reduced to: Pr  2  2 ----. 1 –  r e cdr D r ˆt  ˆr = 2 2 2 4 4R  2 e cdt e cdr  1 –  t   1 –  r   ---------- D t   t  t D   r  r   t   r P t 2 2 ˆ ˆ 2  4R r Pr  2 ----.G t -----. 14 of 20 .= e cdt e cdr  ---------- D t   t  t D   r  r  =  ---------- G t   t  t G   r  r  P  4R r  4R r t   2 The factor --------- . and when the polarization of the Rx antenna is matched to the polarization of the incident wave.is known as the free space loss factor and it accounts for the  4R spherical spreading of the energy by the antenna.= e cdt e cdr  1 –  t   1 –  r   ---------- D t   t  t D   r  r  ˆt  ˆr 2 2 2 Pt  4R r When the Tx and Rx antennas are matched to their respective loads.G r = 2 4 4R Pt 2  2 ------------.fm Pt 2  P r = W t A r = ------------.SYSC-5606 Introduction to Mobile Communications antennas-sysc5606-F17.

fm Linear Arrays Two Element Array Two Infinitesimal Dipoles z 1 r1 Equal magnitude excitations r phase excitations differ by d/2  r2  y 2 r1 z 1 d/2 r Far Field Observation  y d/2 r2 2 phase = /2 0 phase = /2 15 of 20 .SYSC-5606 Introduction to Mobile Communications antennas-sysc5606-F17.

and that of the array factor.fm The total field at the observation point is given by: total field = field due to the reference element  Array factor   j  --. kd cos  +   2 where k is the wavenumber and is given by 2 k = ------  The pattern of the array is obtained by the multiplication of the element pattern. to place a null in the = 450 direction. 2 2 N-Element Linear Array. An array of identical elements all of identical magnitude and each with a progres- 16 of 20 .cos  d d 2 2  2 2  1 Array factor = e +e = 2 cos --. dcos()  r3 3 r2 2 d r1 1 y-axis Far Field Geometry of N-element Array of isotropic sources. For example.+ k --.when the element spacing is /4. The element spacing is fixed.SYSC-5606 Introduction to Mobile Communications antennas-sysc5606-F17.+ k --. Uniform Amplitude and Spacing The array factor is obtained by assum- ing all elements are point sources z axis rN (which radiate uniformly in all direc- N tions). By varying the relative phases of the feed current to the individual elements we are able to place nulls in the radiation pattern in certain directions. we simply set the relative  phase of the elements to  =  – ---------.cos  – j  --.

kd cos  1 2  Example Plot the array-factor patterns for a 10-element broadside array.  = kd cos  +  The maximum value of the array factor above is equal to N. 1 2  Broadside Array In many applications it is desirable to have the maximum radiation of an array directed normal to the axis of the array. (i. the array factor becomes: sin  ---. the normalized array factor is defined as: sin  ---.------------------------------------ N sin  --. The array factor for the geometrical configuration under consideration is: sin  ---. In this case.SYSC-5606 Introduction to Mobile Communications antennas-sysc5606-F17.fm sive phase is referred to as a uniform array.e. with element spac- ings of /4 17 of 20 . 1 2  where it was assumed that the reference point is the physical center of the array. a maximum for the array factor when q = 900) b is set to zero. N 2  AF = ---------------------- sin  --. For broadside radiation. the number of ele- ments. N 1 2  AF n = ---. For convenience. the maxima of the single element and of the array factor should both be directed toward q = 900.kd cos  N 1 2  AF n = ---.---------------------- N sin  --. To optimize the design.

SYSC-5606 Introduction to Mobile Communications antennas-sysc5606-F17. then:  = kd cos  +  = – kd +  = 0   = kd  = 180 18 of 20 . due for example to physical constraints. Uniform Amplitude Broadside Array. d = /4 and  = 0.fm Broadside Array Pattern: lambda/wavelength=1/4 0 degrees 10 dB 20 dB 30 dB 90 degrees 90 degrees 180 degrees Array Factor Pattern of a 10-Element Linear. Ordinary End-Fire Array It is sometimes desirable to direct the maximum radiation along the axis of the array.  = kd cos  +  = kd +  = 0   = – kd =0 If the maximum is desired toward  = 1800. To direct the maximum radiation towards  = 00.

d = /4 and  = +kd. Relating Power to Electric Field P z d   y elevation plane L r  x azimuth plane 19 of 20 .fm End-Fire Array Pattern: beta = kd 0 degrees 10 dB 20 dB 30 dB 90 degrees 90 degrees 180 degrees Array Factor Pattern of a 10-Element Linear.SYSC-5606 Introduction to Mobile Communications antennas-sysc5606-F17. Uniform Amplitude End-Fire Array.

+ ----2.+ ----2. If a current i0 flows through this antenna.e 4 0 c  d d j c d  i 0 L sin   j c c  jc  t – --c- d H  = ------------------.fm Consider a small linear radiator of length L. all 1  d 2 terms represent the induction field component and all the 1  d 3 represent the electrostatic field compoent. the Power flux density. In free space.e 2 0 c  d j c d  2  – j c  t – --- d i 0 L sin   j c c c c E  = ------------------2.= -------------2-  4d 4d The gain of an antenna is related to the effective aperture by: 4A e G = ------------ 2 20 of 20 . -------. -------. and its centre is at the origin.+ -------------3.e 4c  d d  with E  = H r = H  = 0 . In the equations above. in W/m2. placed coincident with the z-axis. all 1  d terms represent the radiation field component.+ -------------3.SYSC-5606 Introduction to Mobile Communications antennas-sysc5606-F17. it launches elec- tric and magnetic fields that can be expressed as:   d i 0 L cos   1 c  jc  t – --c- E r = -------------------. At distances far away from the antenna only the radia- tion field components are significant. is given by: E2 Pt Gt EIRP P d = --------.= -----------2. ----2.