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Advertising is an important tool of promotion. . Advertisement is a non-personal presentation of an idea
or a product (where as personal selling or salesmanship help in personal promotional.) Advertisement
supplements personal selling to a great extent. Advertising has, acquired great importance in the modern
India characterized by tough competition in the market and fast changes in technology, and fashion and
taste customers. In this chapter, we shall study the nature, functions and media of advertisement used by
modern business firms.
Advertising is used for communicating business information to the present and prospective customers. It
usually provides information about the advertising firm, its product qualities, place of availability of its
products, etc. Advertisement is indispensable for both the sellers and the buyers. However, it is more
important for the sellers. In the modern age of large scale production, producers cannot think of pushing
sale of their products without advertising them.

What is advertising
Advertising is the dissemination of information concerning an idea, product. or service to induce action
in accordance with the intent of the advertiser. According to William J. Stanton, "Advertising consists of
all the activities involved in presenting to an audience a non-personal, sponsor-identified, paid-for
message about a product or organization.”
Advertising is any paid form of non-persona: presentation and promotion of ideas, goods or services of
an identified spocsor. The message which is presented or disseminated is known as ‘advertisement'.

Features of Advertising
American Marketing Association has defined advertising as "any paid form of non-personal presentation
and promotion of ideas goods and services of an identified sponsor". This definition reveals the following
features of advertising:

1. It is a paid foam of communication. Advertisements appear in newspapers, magazines, television

or cinema screens because the advertiser has purchased some space or time to communicate information
to the prospective customers.

2. It is non-personal presentation of message. There is no face-to-face direct contact with the

customers. That is why, it is described as non-personal salesmanship. It; is a non-personal form of
presenting products and promoting ideas and is complementary to personal selling. It simplifies the task
of sales-force by creating awareness in the minds of potential customers

3. The purpose of advertising is to promote idea about the products and service, of a business. It
is directed towards increasing the sale of the products and services of a business unit.

4. Advertisement a issued by an identified sponsor Non disclosure of the name of the sponsor in
propaganda may lead to distortion, deception and manipulation. Advertisement should disclose or
identify the sources of opinions and ideas it presents.

Publicity and Public Relations

Publicity is a part of marketing and customer relations.. Publicity comes from news reporters, columnists
and journalists. It comes to the receiver as the truth rather than as a commercial. Public relations and
publicity taken together are one of the four major ingredients of promotion-mix. These activities are,
however, not controllable by the firm. Every from tries to create a good public relations so as to get good
publicity through press and electronic media. Publicity has a peculiar feature that it is not a paid form of
communication. Publicity refers to the mention of company/product in any published or non-published
media. For example, a new product is launched, and due to its unique feature, the product may become a
point of discussion among various groups. This mention adds to the promotion and hence, the product
gets publicized.This publicity is mainly due to good response of customers, or due to quality or can be
even due to some controversies. Any way, such public exposure of a product forms a crucial part of
promotion mix. If a product is able to draw a lot of attention by the media, the firm will have to spend
less on advertisement and sales promotion activities.

Achieving goal.
Public relations is an important marketing functions in the present-day business environment. The total
process of building goodwill and securing a bright public image of the company a called public relations.
It creates a favorable atmosphere for conducting business. There are four groups of public : (I) customer,
(2) shareholders (3) employees (4) the community. The marketers should have the best possible
relations with these groups.Public relation, complement advertising by creating product and service
credibility. Effective marketing communication is not without establishing and maintaining mutual
understanding between the company and its customers. The lubricant making the wheel of marketing
run smoothly is public relations. Bright image is created and maintained only by public relations. That is
why, modern business houses attach great significance to the public relations activities.

Difference between Advertising and Publicity

Advertising differs from publicity in regard to the following points :
(1) Paid/non-paid from.
Advertisement is a paid form of communication. Its cost is borne by the advertiser But publicity is any
non-paid mention of an organization or its ideas or products in the news Media. Publicity cannot be
purchased in the usual sense of the term. Any institution can come to the attention of the public by being
newsworthy. It has not to pay anything for the publicity, but has to supply the necessary information to
the news media.
(2) Identification of sponsorer.
Advertisement is issued by an identified sponsor. Publicity does not need an identified sponsor
(3) Control over message. In advertising, the advertiser exercises control over the type, size,
duration, and frequency of the message But in case of publicity, the control lies with the publicity media.
Difference between Advertisement and Personal Selling
The points of distinction between advertisement and salesmanship are listed below;
(1) Personal/Non-personal form. Advertising is a non-personal form of communication. There is no
contact between the advertiser and the buyer. But salesmanship means personal selling. The salesman
has face-to-face contact with the buyer.
(2) Mass vs. Individual communication. Advertising is mass communication. It is addressed to a
large number of people. But salesmanship is individual communication. The impact of salesmanship is
visible on the buyer who come into contact with the salesman.
(3) Purpose.
Advertisement may aim at enhancing the goodwill of the advertiser. It may have no immediate purpose
to sell the goods or services. But salesmanship always aims at effecting sales.
Objectives of Advertising
The fundamental purpose of advertising is to sell something - a product, a service or an idea. In addition
to this general objective, advertising is also used by the modern business enterprises for certain specific
objectives which are listed below :
1. To introduce a new product by creating interest for it among the prospective customers.
2. To support personal selling programme. Advertising maybe used to open customers' doors for
salesman ..
3. To reach people inaccessible to salesman.
4. To enter a new market or attract a new group of customers.
5. To light competition in the market and to increase the sales as seen in the fierce competition
between Coke and Pepsi.
6. To enhance the goodwill of the enterprise by promising better quality products and services.
7. To improve dealer relations. Advertising supports the dealers in selling he product. Dealers are
attracted towards a product which is advertised effectively.
8. To warn the public against imitation of an enterprise's products.

Functions of Advertising
Advertising has become an essential marketing activity in the modern era of large scale production and
serve competition in the market. It performs the following functions:
1. Promotion of Sales. It promotes the sale of goods and services by informing and persuading the
people to buy them. A good advertising campaign helps in winning new customers both in the national as
wet] as in the international markets.
2. Introduction of New Product. It helps the introduction of new products in the market. A business
enterprise can introduce itself and its product to the public through advertising. A new enterprise can't
make an impact on the prospective customers without the help of advertising. Advertising enables quick
publicity in the market.

3. Creation of Good Public Image. It builds up the reputation of the advertiser. Advertising enables
a business firm to communicate its achievements in an effort to satisfy the customers' needs. This
increases the goodwill and reputation of the firm which is necessary to fight against competition in the
4. Mass Production. Advertising facilitates large-scale production. Advertising encourages production
of goods in large-scale because the business firm knows that it will be able to sell on large-scale with the
help of advertising. Mass production reduces the cost of production per unit by the economical use of
various factors of production.
5: Research. Advertising stimulates research and development activities. Advertising has become a
competitive marketing activity. Every firm tries to differentiate its product from the substitutes available
in the market through advertising. This compels every business firm to do more and more research to
find new products and their new uses. If a firm does not engage in research and development activities, it
will be out of the market in the near future.
6. Education of People. Advertising educate the people about new products and their uses.
Advertising message about the utility of a product enables the people to widen their knowledge. It is
advertising which has helped people in adopting new ways of life and giving-up old habits. It has
contributed a lot towards the betterment of the standard of living of the society.
7 Support to Press. Advertising provides an important source of revenue to the publishers and
magazines. It enables to increase the circulation of their publication by selling them at lower rates.
People are also benefited because they get publications at cheaper rates. Advertising is also a source of
revenue for TV network. For instance, Doordarshan and ZeeTV insert ads before, in between and after
various programmes and earn millions of rupees through ads. Such income could be used for increasing
the quality of programmes and extending coverage.

Advertising helps in spreading information about the advertising firm, its products, qualities and place of
availability of its products, and so on. It helps to create a non-personal link between the advertiser and
the receiver of the message. The significance of advertising has increased in the modern era of large scale
production and tough competition in the market. Advertising is needed not only by the manufacturers
and traders but also for the customers and the society. The benefits of advertising to different parties are
discussed in the following paragraphs.
Benefits to Manufacturers and Traders
It pays to advertise. Advertising has become indispensable for the manufacturers and distributors
because of the following advantages:
(i) Advertising helps in introducing new products. A business enterprise can introduce itself and its
products to the public through advertising.
(ii) It can create new taste among the public and stimulate them to I purchase the new product through
effective advertisement.
(iii) Advertising assists to increase the sale of existing products by entering into new markets and
attracting new customers.
(iv) Advertising helps create steady demand of the products. For in-stance, a drink may be advertised
'during summer as a product necessary to fight tiredness caused by heat and during winter as an
essential thing to resist cold.
(v) Advertising help in meeting the forces of competition in the market-place. If a product is not
advertised continuously, the competitors may snatch its market through increased advertisement
ments. Therefore, in certain cases, advertising is a necessity to remain in the market and remind the
customer as done by soft drink companies.
(vi)Advertising is used to increase the goodwill of firm by promising good quality to the customers.
(uii) Advertisements increase the morale of the employees of the firm. The salesmen feel happier because
their task becomes easier if the product is advertised and known to the public
(viii). Advertising facilitates direct distribution of the product through the retailers. Retailers are
encouraged to purchase and sell the advertised products.
Benefits to Customers
Advertising offers the following advantages to customers
(i)Advertising helps the customers to know the the existence of various products and their prices. They
can choose from the various brands to satisfy their wants. Thus they cannot be exploited by the sellers.
(ii) Advertising educates the people about new products and their diverse uses.
(iii) Advertising increased the utility of products for many people adds to the amount of satisfaction
which they are already enjoying.
(iv) Advertising induces the manufacturers to improve the quality of their products through research and
development This ensures supply of the products of better quality to the consumers
Benefits to Society
The society at large is also benefited because of advertisement:
(i) Advertising provides employment to persons engaged in writing, designing and issuing
advertisements. Increase in employment brings additional income with the people which stimulates
more demand. Employment is further generated to meet the increased demand.
(ii) Advertising promotes the standard of living of the people by increasing the variety and quality in
consumption as a result of sustained research and development activities by the manufacturers.
Advertising educates the people about the various uses of different products and this increases their
knowledge. Advertising also helps in finding customers in the international market which is essential for
earning foreign exchange.
Advertising sustains the press, and other media. It provides, all important source of income to the press,
radio and television network. The customers are also benefited because they get newspapers and
magazines at cheaper rate. The publishers of newspapers and magazine; are benefited because of
increased circulation of their publication;. Lastly advertising also encourages commercial art.


Advertising is often criticized as a wasteful activity and an unnecessary evil. Its critics offer the following
arguments to prove their contention.
1. Multiplies the needs. Advertising multiplies the needs of the people by inducing them to buy even
those things which are not required by them. Since an advertisement is continuously repeated, it creates
a desire in the mind of the public to buy the advertised product.
2. Makes the product more costly. The amount of money spent by an advertiser on his product's
advertisement is added to the distribution cost of the product. Thus, the customers have to pay more for
the product advertised.
3. Increase in demand at the cost of another manufacturer. Advertising does not always
increase the demand of the product. When the demand is inelastic, advertising shifts demand from one
producer to another. That means a large amount of money spent on advertising by the manufacturers
goes waste.
4. Creates brand monopoly. Advertising may lead to monopoly of a brand. It is argued that big
manufacturers who can afford large amount of money on advertising can create brand monopoly and
eliminate the small producers.
5. Every advertisement is not creative A large number of advertisements either escape the
attention of the people or are ignored by them. This leads to waste of money spent on advertisement.
6. Undermines moral values. Sometimes, advertising undermines ethical and aesthetic values. It
may make the people start bothering for appearance and design of the product rather than the physical
utility. Some advertisers also use indecent language and photographs to advertise their products which is
highly objectionable from the society's point of view.
7. Corrupt the minds of youngsters. It is felt that advertisement can corrupt the minds of
youngsters. Young minds run the risk of being carried away by the advertisements promoting smoking,
wine, etc. In some cases, advertisements have promoted the youths to commit crimes and undertake
ventures at the risk of their lives
Despite its drawbacks, advertising is a necessary marketing activity in the present business environment.
It is not a social waste. It enables a manufacturer to introduce his products in the market and sell them.
Advertising helps in educating the people regarding new uses of various products. It also strengthens the
freedom of choice of the people. It sustains the press and gives employment to people. Advertising
increases the standard of living of the people by informing them about the availabiiity of new products.
Thus, we can say that advertising is a useful marketing activity. Its drawback: could be removed if the
people and the Government keep a, watch on the advertisers. People should satisfy themselves about the
claims made by a producer before they purchase his products. The manufacturers or the advertisers
should also avoid wasteful advertising and keep advertising expenditure within limits. They should also
follow the ethical standards while advertising their products.
1. Consumer. oriented or Persuasive Advertising. Persuasive adver-tising surrounds our daily lives, telling
us to buy particular products or services. It helps in creating and maintaining regular demand in the
market. Persuasive advertising also helps attract the attention and preference of the customers. It
informs the target audience about the various schemes of sales promotion. Examples. Rs. 200 off on
every purchase of TITAN watches, free. stickers with every pack of three Maggie packets and 20 per cent
off onBombay Dyeing. The objectives of consumer-oriented advertising areas under
(i) To inform consumers about new products.
(ii) ,To hold consumer patronage against intensified campaign.
(:iii)To teach how to use the product. ,iv) To promote a contest or a premium offer. (v) To establish a new
trade character.

2. Informative Advertising, Purchases of durable products are made once in s life-time. These are
often expensive, so the potential buyer requires detailed information about them e.g., TV sets,
refrigerators, air-conditioners and washing machines The manufacturers spend a lot on informative
3. Institutional or Corporate Advertising. The main objective of this type of advertising is building
a corporate image. Corporate advertising highlights, therefore, the objectives and achievements of a
company. Big companies such as Godrej, TELCO, Reliance, JK Cement, Bomaby Dyeing, etc. resort to
this type of advertising.
The institutional advertising campaigns have the following objectives :
(i)To create a corporate personality of image.
(ii) To build a company prestige.
(iii)To emphasize company services and facilities.
(iv) To enable company salesman to see top executives of various organizations when making sales calls.
(v) To increase consumer friendliness and goodwill towards the company.
4. Financial Advertising. Financial advertising refers to advertisements issued by financial
institutions like banks, UTI, GIC. LIC and company's/corporation's sale of shares. These advertisements
provide information about investment opportunities, with its attendant risks and benefits.
5. Classified Advertising. Classified advertisement refers to the messages which are placed under
specific or particular headings and columns in newspapers and magazines e.g.,. Situations Vacant, For
Sale and Matrimonial.
6. Govt Advertising. It is conducted by Govt. DepartmentslUndertakings to promote public awareness
with a view to overcome social problems like dowry, drinking, AIDS, environmental pollution and
overpopulation. Since such advertising has a social purpose, it is also known as social advertising.
A manufacturer or a trader can make use of the following advertising media to spread his message to the
people : (i) Press advertising, (ii) Outdoor advertising, (iii) Film advertising, (iv) Radio advertising, (v)
Television advertising, (vi) Direct mail advertising, (vii) Display advertising, and (viii) Speciality
advertising: The merits and demerits of these media are discussed below.
Press Advertising or Print Media
Press advertising, i.e„ advertising through newspapers, magazines, journals, etc. is commonly used by
modern businessmen- It may be noted that advertising is an important source of finance for the press or
print media. Because of advertisements, the subscribers get newspapers and periodicals at subsidized
Newspaper Advertising. Newspaper reading is a common habit among most of the educated people.
Besides daily newspapers, there are bi-weekly and weekly newspapers also Newspapers reach almost
every place and are read by all kinds of people. Therefore, newspaper can be used as a medium of
advertisement with great advantage. While selecting a newspaper for this purpose, an advertiser has to
take into consideration the strength of circulation, the class of readers it serves, the geographical region
over which it is popular, and the cost of space.
Advertising through newspapers has the following merits :
(i) A newspaper has large circulation and a single advertisement in a newspaper can reach a large number
of people-
(ii) Continuous advertisement is possible because newspaper is published daily. Art advertiser can repeat
his advertisement either daily or weekly,
(iii) Newspapers provide flexibility in advertising in the sense that advertisement campaign can be
initiated and stopped quickly One day's notice is sufficient for this purpose- Similarly, advertising
message can be changed promptly whenever needed.

Newspaper advertising has the following limitations :

(i) The life of newspaper advertisement is very short. Moreover, people devote only insignificant part of
their day's time in reading the newspaper. Thus, advertisement: are likely to draw the reader's attention
only casually or marginally.
(ii) Newspaper advertisement is successful only when the people to be communicated the message are
(iii) Newspaper is scarcely used for coloured advertisement. The advertisements are generally printed in
black and white. This makes the identification of products more difficult.

Magazine Advertising. Magazine or periodicals are an excellent medium of advertisement when a

high quality of printing in colour is desired. Magazine advertisements can be directed towards a
particular class of people. . Thus, marketers can avoid wasteful expenditure on advertising.
Magazine advertising is considered to be superior to newspaper advertising because of the following
merits :
(i) Magazines are read more carefully and at greater leisure. Advertising through magazines is more
(ii) The life of the magazine advertisements is longer. Magazines are preserved for a long period of time
and are read time and again.

2. Outdoor Advertising
Outdoor advertising has gained wide popularity these days. Its purpose is to attract the attention of the
people at busy roads and markets. It includes the use of poster displays, bill board displays and electric
or electronic displays.

Poster Displays. Posters are fixed on walls of buildings, bridges, and other public places. It is also quite
common to write slogans and other message about the products in bold letters on the walls to arrange
the attention of the people even from a long distance. That is why, it is also known as `Mural Advertising'
. Mural advertising is frequently used to advertise fans, fertilizers, tonics, beauty aids and other
consumer items
Bill Board Displays. Painted or bill board displays involve the advertisements directly painted on
the boards meant for this purpose. They are quite big in size and are fixed at outstanding locations like
busy markets and crossings. They are also erected on tops of bridges and important buildings.

Electrical Displays. Electrical display involves the use of electric electronic lights or neon tubes to
attract the attention of people, particularly during night. Generally, a short message is illuminated in
tubes of different colours so that it is conspicuous and attractive. Electrical displays are fixed at heavy
traffic consumer centres.

Vehicular Displays. It has become a fashion these days to use modes of public transport for
advertising. Outdoor advertising has the following merits ,
(i) Outdoor advertising is highly flexible and is a low cost medium.
(ii) It is very useful for advertising consumer products because posters, etc. can be displayed at various
crowded centres.
(iii) Outdoor advertisement attracts quick attention and requires very less time and effort on the part of
the readers. A complete picture of the product can be shown through outdoor displays.
Out door adverting is criticized on the following grounds :
(i) It can't carry long messages as posters, hoardings, etc. are read bv the people at a glance,
(ii; It has a low retention value because people don't devote special time to read the message
(iii) It distracts the attention of the passers-by and may even c accidents on busy roads.

3. Film Advertising
Films are an important medium of advertisement. Business concerns usually get a short motion picture
prepared and distribute it to different cinema houses for displaying it before the commencement of the
regular shows or during the periods of intermission. Such films are accompanied by running
commentary to explain the features, uses and superiority of the product But film advertisement, can be
adopted only by the well-established firms. Since it involves high cost, small business firms can get
cinema slides prepared for display in the cinema halls.
The merits of film advertising are as under :
(i) Film advertisement is very effective since it combines spoken words and visual presentation of picture.
(iii It helps in selective advertisement A trader can advertise his products in the areas from where he
wants to attract the customers.
The demerits of film advertising are as under :
(i) It is usually ignored by people when they are busy in talking.
(ii)Its effectiveness is limited as only a few people are present in the hall before the start of the feature
film and during the interval

4. Radio Advertising
Radio advertisements are gaining greater popularity these days. Advertisements are broadcast from the
transmitting stations of the commercial service of All India Radio and FM Radio and picked-up by the
receiving sets owned by the public. Radio advertisements are normally broadcast along with popular
programmes of music. Even the sponsored programmes of music, interviews and plays can be broadcast
over the radio.

Radio advertising has the following merits :

(i) Radio advertisements carry an effective appeal and cover numerous listeners of different tastes.
(ii) Radio advertisements reach the illiterate people who cannot read the newspapers and magazines.
(ii:) Radio provides selectivity (i.e. market segmentation) to some ex-tent because advertisements can be
included in different programmes meant for different types of people.
(iv) Radio advertisements are very much suitable for the promotion of mass-scale consumer goods.
The demerits of radio advertising are as under :
iil Detailed message can't be announced over the radio, people may not remember the message.
;ii) it is non-visual. Thus, the usual impact of illustrating the products not possible.
(iii) Sometimes, the message is not understood properly by the listeners. Many people switch off thei
radio sets when it is the time for commercials or advertisements.

5. Television Advertising
Television is the fast growing medium of advertisement because Of huge expansion of electronic media
and cable network. It makes its appeal through both the eye and the ear. Products can be demonstrated
as well as explained as in film advertisement. Advertising may take the form of short commercials and
sponsored programmes.
T.V. advertising has all the merits of film advertising. It has greater effectiveness as the message is
conveyed at their homes to the people Selectivity of message can also be achieved. Commercials may be
given during that time period when the prospective buyers are supposed to watch television programmes.
T.V advertising has got all the demerits of film advertising. Television is a very costly medium of
advertisement and can be made use of by -he well established companies only. Another limitation of
television advertisement is that once it is presented, its back reference is not possible.

6. Direct Mail Advertising

Direct mail is probably the most selective of all the advertising media. It is used to send the message
directly to the customer. For this purpose, the advertiser has to maintain a mall list which can be
expanded or contracted by adding or removing names from the list. But a severe limitation is posed by
the difficulty of getting and maintaining a good mailing list.
Advertisements that are sent by direct mail maybe in the form of circular letters, leaflet folders,
calendars, booklets and catalogues. Circular letters are sent to the prospective customers to inform them
about the merits of the product and to create their interest in the product. Booklets and catalogues
contain the information about the products advertised. Information about the terms of sale and prices of
different varieties of the product is given to the prospective customers through catalogues.
Merits of direct mail advertising are as under:
(i) Mail advertising has a personal appeal since it is addressed to a particular person.
(ii) It maintains secrecy in advertising. The competitors do not get the information about the advertised
(iii) It gives flexibility in advertising. The message can be changed whenever the need arises. The mailing
list can also be revised whenever the need arises.
(iu) It gives an opportunity to the advertiser to provide detailed and illustrated information about the
product to the prospects.
(u) It is the most selective medium of advertisement. The advertiser saves money also by directing his
advertisement to the selected people.

Demerits of direct mail advertising are given below ;

(i) The coverage of direct mail advertisement is limited.
(ii) It is not possible to get the names and addresses of all the prospects when the advertisement material
should be sent by mail.
(iii)Its effectiveness is doubtful as it does net create a mass appeal

7. Window Display
Window display is an on sight method of advertising. Goods can be exhibited in artistically laid out.
windows at the shop fronts or at important busy centres like railway stations and bus stops. Large show
rooms are organized by big manufacturers and wholesalers in the main markets to advertise their
product; and attend to the queries of the prospective customers. The retailers also organize attractive
display of goods in the windows of their shops. Window displays are very popular with the retailers since
it helps in informing the customer. about the types of goods available with them.
The main objective of window display is to draw the attention of the public and arouse their interest in
the. products displayed. Almost all the manufacturers insist that their products should be displayed at
the retail shops. If a product is displayed properly at the point-of-purchase (FOP) by the customers, it
can attract many customers. Many people having no preference for a particular brand may discover a
particular brand quite appealing and attractive and may purchase it. Thus, window display creates the
demand for the product. Window display acts as silent salesman. In order to achieve the purpose of
window display, cleanliness and a well-furnished appearance for the window are essential. Articles
should be arranged in a systematic way and if possible price tags should also be attached with the
articles. It is better if window displays are changed regularly to make the customers look at the displays
every time they visit the shop.

8. Speciality Advertising
Many business firms (like Jiyaji Suitings, Vimal, etc.) offer speciality articles to the present and
prospective customers. These articles may be diaries, pen holders, desk trays, key chains, purses, paper
weights, cigarette cases and calendars. The name and address of the advertiser is printed in or inscribed
on the speciality items. They also bear the brand name of the firm. Since these articles are of daily use,
they have greater capacity to remind their users about the brand name of the firm offering such articles.


For the purpose of choosing the appropriate medium or media or advertisement, following factors should
be taken into consideration.
(i) Nature of Product. Nature of the product to be advertised has an important bearing on the
medium of advertisement. Products should be classified into two broad categories, namely, consumer
and industrial goods. Consumer goods can be advertised in newspapers, magazines, radio and television
and through outdoor displays, But industrial goods can be advertised profitably in the specialized trade,
technical and professional journals.
(ii) Nature of Market. Nature and extent of market can be determined by various factors like
geographical region, size of population and purchasing power of the population. The market may be
either local or national. Film advertising and outdoor advertising are more suitable for local products.
Newspapers are the most suitable for advertising products which can be sold throughout the country.
(iii) Objectives o/' Advertising. The objectives of the advertising programme are very important to
determine the choice of advertising media. The objectives may be introduction of new product, to
increase demand of an existing product, or to avoid competition by the rivals. If advertising is not to be
carried on a mass scale to have big impact in the short and long run, a combination of various advertising
media may be chosen. Sometimes advertisements are inserted in the newspapers and magazines to
complement the readers in order to enhance the goodwill of the advertiser.
(iv) Circulation of Media. If the media have greater circulation, the message of the advertiser will
reach a larger number of people. It may be mentioned that newspapers have the widest circulation, but
other media have limited circulation.
(v) Financial Consideration. The cost of advertising media is an important consideration and it-
should be considered in relation to (a) the amount of funds available, and (b) the circulation of the
media. In the first instance, the amount of funds available may dictate the choice of a medium or a
combination of media of advertisement, and secondly the advertiser should try to develop some
relationship between the cost of the medium and its circulation. The cost-benefit analysis will enable the
advertiser to take right decision in regard to selection of the advertising media.
(ui) Type of Audience. If the message is to be conveyed to illiterate or less literate people, radio,
television and cinema advertisement will serve the purpose in a better way. Newspapers, magazines,
displays and direct mail may be used to convey the message to the educated people, Since different
languages are popular in different regions, advertisements in different languages may be given to
popularize the product.
(vii) Life of Advertisements Outdoor display and magazines and direct mail have sufficiently longer
life but the life of newspaper, radio and television advertisements is very short unless they are repeated
regularly. Therefore, the advertiser should also take into consideration the duration for which he wants
to create the impression in the minds of the prospective customers.
(viii) Media used by Competitors. The choice of advertising media also depends upon the media
used by the competitors. If a product is being advertised in a newspaper, the producers of its substitutes
will find it better to advertise them in the same newspaper. This practice has become more common
these days in order to fight competition in the market.
The Ultimate Impact. Usually big firms do not depend upon a single medium of advertisement. They
choose a battery of advertising media in order to popularize their products and to sell on a massive scale.
Subject to the availability of finance, they like to advertise their products through all the advertising
media. It is because of this fact that advertising has become competitive these days and it is essential to
advertise continuously in various media not only to increase the sales but also to remain in the market.
Many people judge the superiority of a product from the point of view of the nature of the advertisement.
However, advertisement expenses should be kept under control under the normal conditions. For this
purpose a comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of various advertising media is necessary in order
to choose the best combination of advertising media .