PRELIMINARY SHIP DESIGN

PARAMETER ESTIMATION
Shi p desig n cal cul ati ons – Sele cti on of Mai n pa rame ters
START
Read : owner’s requirements
(ship type dwt/TEU, speed)
Define limits on L, B, D, T
Define stability constraints
First estimate of main dimensions
Estimate freeboard
=LBTCb (1 + s)
Estimate form coefficients
& form stability parameters
Estimate power
Estimate lightweight
Estimate stability parameters
Estimate required minimum section modulus
Estimate hull natural vibration frequency
Estimate capacity : GRT, NRT
S
Change parameters
No
D = T+ freeboard + margin
No
No
Estimate seakeeping qualities
Yes Is D >= T + freeboard
Yes
Yes
Is= Lightweight + dwt
& Is Capacity adequate?
Stability constraints satisfied
1.0 The choice of parameters (main dimensions and coefficients) can be based on
either of the following 3 ship design categories (Watson & Gilafillon, RINA 1977)
A. Deadweight carriers where the governing equation is
( ) t lightweigh deadweight s T B L C
B
+ · + × × × × · ∆ 1 ρ
where
s
: shell plating and appendage displacement (approx 0.5 to 0.8 % of
moulded displacement)
and
ρ
: density of water (= 1.025 t/m
3
for sea water )
Here T is the maximum draught permitted with minimum freeboard. This is also the
design and scantling draught
B. Capacity carriers where the governing equation is
m
s
u r
BD h
V
s
V V
D B L C V +


· ′ ·
1
. . .
where
D′ = capacity depth in m
m m
S C D + + ·
m
C
= mean camber [ ] camber parabolic for C .
3
2
·
]
]
]

·
. L . C at Camber : C where
2
1
camber line straight for
C
m
S
= mean sheer
( )
]
]
]
]
]

·
· + ·
shear aft S
shear ford S
shear parabolic for
S S
c
f a f
6
1
BD
C = block coefficient at moulded depth
( ) ( ) [ ] T T D C C
B B
3 8 . 0 1 − − + · [1]
h
V
= volume of ship in m
3
below upper deck and between perpendiculars
r
V = total cargo capacity required in m
3
u
V
= total cargo capacity in m
3
available above upper deck
m
V
= volume required for c m , tanks, etc. within
h
V
s
S
= % of moulded volume to be deducted as volume of structurals in cargo
space [normally taken as 0.05]
Here T is not the main factor though it is involved as a second order term in
BD
C
C. Linear Dimension Ships : The dimensions for such a ship are fixed by
consideration other than deadweight and capacity.
e.g.
Restrictions imposed by St. Lawrence seaway
6.10 m ≤ Loa ≤ 222.5 m
Bext ≤ 23.16 m
Restrictions imposed by Panama Canal
B ≤ 32.3 m; T ≤ 13 m
Restrictions imposed by Dover and Malacca Straits
T ≤ 23 m
Restrictions imposed by ports of call.
Ship types (e.g. barge carriers, container ships, etc.) whose dimensions are
determined by the unit of cargo they carry.
Restrictions can also be imposed by the shipbuilding facilities.
2.0 Parameter Estimation
The first estimates of parameters and coefficients is done
(a) from empirical formulae available in published literature, or
(b) from collection of recent data and statistical analysis, or
(c) by extrapolating from a nearly similar ship
The selection of parameters affects shipbuilding cost considerably. The order in
which shipbuilding cost varies with main dimension generally is as follows:
The effect of various parameters on the ship performance can be as shown in the
following table [1]
Speed
Length
Breadth
Depth
Block coefficient
Table: Primary Influence of Dimension
Parameter Primary Influence of Dimensions
Length
Beam
Depth
Draft
resistance, capital cost, maneuverability, longitudinal strength,
hull volume, seakeeping
transverse stability, resistance, maneuverability, capital cost, hull
volume
hull volume, longitudinal strength, transverse stability, capital
cost, freeboard
displacement, freeboard, resistance, transverse stability

2.1 Displacement
A preliminary estimate of displacement can be made from statistical data analysis,
as a function of deadweight capacity. The statistical

dwt
ratio is given in the
following table [1]
Table: Typical Deadweight Coefficient Ranges
Vessel Type C
cargo DWT
C
total DWT
Large tankers
Product tankers
Container ships
Ro-Ro ships
Large bulk carriers
Small bulk carriers
Refrigerated cargo ships
Fishing trawlers
0.85 – 0.87
0.77 – 0.83
0.56 – 0.63
0.50 – 0.59
0.79 – 0.84
0.71 – 0.77
0.50 – 0.59
0.37 – 0.45
0.86 – 0.89
0.78 – 0.85
0.70 – 0.78

0.81 – 0.88

0.60 – 0.69

where
nt Displaceme
DWT Total or DWT o C
C
arg
·
2.2 Length
A. Posdunine’s formulae as modified by Van Lammeran :
( )
3
1
2
2

]
]
]

+
·
T
T
BP
V
V
C ft L
C = 23.5 for single screw cargo and passenger ships where V = 11 to 16.5 knots
= 24 for twin screw cargo and passenger ships where V = 15.5 to 18.5 knots
= 26 for fast passenger ships with V≥ 20 knots
B. Volker’s Statistics :
3
, 5 . 4 5 . 3
3
1
3
1
m in disp
m L
s m in V
g
V
C
L
→ ∇


+ ·
,
`

.
|


where C = 0 for dry cargo ships and container ships
= 0.5 for refrigerated ship and
= 1.5 for waters and trawler
C. Schneekluth’s Formulae : This formulae is based on statistics of optimization
results according to economic criteria, or length for lowest production cost.
C V L
PP
∗ ∗ ∆ ·
3 . 0 3 . 0
Lpp in metres, ∆is displacement in tonnes and V is speed in knots
C = 3.2, if the block coefficient has approximate value of
C
B
=
Fn
145 . 0
within the range 0.48 – 0.85
It the block coefficient differs from the value
Fn
145 . 0
, the coefficient C can be
modified as follows
( ) 5 . 0
145 . 0
5 . 0
2 . 3
+
+
·
Fn
C
C
B
The value of C can be larger if one of the following conditions exists :
(a) Draught and / or breadth subject to limitations
(b) No bulbous bow
(c) Large ratio of undadeck volume to displacement
Depending on the conditions C is only rarely outside the range 2.5 to 2.8.
Statistics from ships built in recent years show a tendency towards smaller value
of C than before.
The formulae is valid for 1000 ≥ ∆ tonnes, and
n
F
between 0.16 to 0.32
2.3 Breadth
Recent trends are:
L/B = 4.0 for small craft with L ≤ 30 m such as trawlers etc.
= 6.5 for L ≥ 130.0 m
= 4.0 + 0.025 (L - 30) for 30 m ≤ L ≤ 130 m
B = L/9 + 4.5 to 6.5 m for tankers
= L/9 + 6.0 m for bulkers
= L/9 + 6.5 to 7.0 m for general cargo ships
= L/9 + 12 to 15 m for VLCC.
or B = L/5 – 14m for VLCC
B = m
Dwt
2828 . 0
1000
78 . 10
]
]
]

2.4 Depth
For normal single hull vessels
5 . 2 / 55 . 1 ≤ ≤ D B
D B/ = 1.65 for fishing vessels and capacity type vessels (Stability limited)
= 1.90 for dwt carries like costers, tankers, bulk carriers etc. such vessels
have adequate stability and their depth is determined from the hull
deflection point of view. (3)
D =
5 . 1
3 − B
m for bulk carriers (5)
Recent ships indicate the following values of D B/
D B/ = 1.91 for large tankers
= 2.1 for Great Lakes ore carriers
= 2.5 for ULCC
= 1.88 for bulk carriers and
= 1.70 for container ships and reefer ships
2.5 Draught
For conventional monohull vessels, generally
75 . 3 / 25 . 2 ≤ ≤ T B
However, T B/ can go upto 5 in heavily draught limited vessels.

For ensuring proper flow onto the propeller
[ ]
B
C
T
B
5 . 7 625 . 9 − ≤
Draught – depth ratio is largely a function of freeboard :
D T / = 0.8 for type A freeboard (tankers)
( D T / < 0.8 for double hull tankers)
= 0.7 for type B freeboard
= 0.7 to 0.8 for B – 60 freeboard
T = m
dwt
290 . 0
1000
536 . 4
]
]
]

T = 0.66 D + 0.9 m for bulk carriers
2.6 Depth – Length Relationship
Deadweight carriers have a high D B/ ratio as these ships have adequate stability
and therefore, beam is independents of depth. In such case, depth is governed by
D L/ ratio which is a significant term in determining the longitudinal strength.
D L/ determines the hull deflection because b.m. imposed by waves and cargo
distribution.
D L/ =10 to 14 with tankers having a higher value because of favourable
structural arrangement.
3.0 Form Coefficients
M P B
C C C . ·
and
WP VP B
C C C . ·
where C
p
: Longitudinal prismatic coefficient
and C
VP
: Vertical prismatic coefficient
L A
C
M
P
.

·
T A
C
WP
VP
.

·
3.1 Block Coefficients
( ) [ ]
n B
F C − + ·

23 . 0 25 tan 7 . 0
1
8
1
where
gL
V
F
n
·
: Froude Number
A. Ayre’s formulae
C
B
= C – 1.68 F
n
where C = 1.08 for single screw ships
= 1.09 for twin screw ships
Currently, this formulae is frequently used with C = 1.06
It can be rewritten using recent data as
CB = 1.18 – 0.69
L
V
for 0.5
≤ ≤
L
V
1.0 ,
V: Speed in Knots and
L: Length in feet
C
B
=
]
]
]

+
26
20 14 . 0
B
L
n
F
or
C
B
=
]
]
]

+
26
20 14 . 0
3
2
B
L
n
F
The above formulae are valid for 0.48 ≤ C
B
≤ 0.85, and 0.14 ≤ F
n
≤ 0.32

Japanese statistical study [1] gives C
B
for
32 . 0 15 . 0 ≤ ≤
n
F
as
3
6 . 46 1 . 39 8 . 27 22 . 4
n n n B
F F F C + − + − ·
3.2 Midship Area Coefficient
C
B
= 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70
C
M
= 0.96 0.976 0.980 0.987
Recommended values of C can be given as
C
M
= 0.977 + 0.085 (C
B
– 0.60)
= 1.006 – 0.0056
56 . 3 −
B
C
=
( ) [ ]
1
5 . 3
1 1

− +
B
C
[1]
Estimation of Bilge Radius and Midship area Coefficient
(i) Midship Section with circular bilge and no rise of floor
( )
π −

·
4
. . 1 2
2
T B C
R
M
=2.33 (1 – C
M
) B.T.
(ii) Midship Section with rise of floor (r) and no flat of keel
( )
8584 . 0
. 1 2
2
r B C BT
R
M
− −
·
(iii) Schneekluth’s recommendation for Bilge Radius (R)
( )
2
4
B B
L
k
C
BC
R
+
·
C
k
: Varies between 0.5 and 0.6 and in extreme cases between 0.4 and 0.7
For rise at floor (r) the above C
B
can be modified as
( )
2
r
B
B
T
T C
C

· ′
(iv) If there is flat of keel width K and a rise of floor F at
2
B
then,
( ) ( ) [ ] { ¦ BT r r F C
K B K B
M
/ 4292 . 0 / 1
2
2 2
2
2 2
+ − − − − ·
From producibility considerations, many times the bilge radius is taken equal to
or slightly less than the double bottom height.
3.3 Water Plane Area Cofficient
Table 11.V
Equation Applicability/Source
C
WP
= 0.180 + 0.860 C
P
Series 60
C
WP
= 0.444 + 0.520 C
P
Eames, small transom stern warships (2)
C
WP
= C
B
/(0.471 + 0.551 C
B
) tankers and bulk carriers (17)
C
WP
= 0.175+ 0.875 C
P
single screw, cruiser stern
C
WP
= 0.262 + 0.760 C
P
twin screw, cruiser stern
C
WP
= 0.262 + 0.810 C
P
twin screw, transom stern
C
WP
= C
P
2/3
schneekluth 1 (17)
C
WP
= ( 1+2 C
B
/C
m

½
)/3 Schneekulth 2 (17)
C
WP
= 0.95 C
P
+ 0.17 (1- C
P
)
1/3
U-forms hulls
C
WP
= (1+2 C
B
)/3 Average hulls, Riddlesworth (2)
C
WP
= C
B

½
- 0.025 V-form hulls
4.0 Intial Estimate of Stability
4.1 Vertical Centre of Buoyancy, KB [1]
( ) 3 / 5 . 2
VP
C
T
KB
− · :Moorish / Normand recommend for hulls with 9 . 0 ≤
M
C
( )
1
1

+ ·
VP
C
T
KB
:Posdumine and Lackenby recommended for hulls with 0.9<C
M
Regression formulations are as follows :
T
KB
= 0.90 – 0.36 C
M
T
KB
= (0.90 – 0.30 C
M
– 0.10 C
B
)
T
KB
= 0.78 – 0.285 C
VP

4.2 Metacenteic Radius : BM
T
and BM
L
Moment of Inertia coefficient C
I
and C
IL
are defined as
C
I
=
3
LB
I
T
C
TL
=
3
LB
I
L
The formula for initial estimation of C
I
and C
IL
are given below
Table 11.VI Equations for Estimating Waterplane Inertia Coefficients
Equations Applicability / Source
C
1
= 0.1216 C
WP
– 0.0410 D’ Arcangelo transverse
C
IL
= 0.350 C
WP
2
– 0.405 C
WP
+ 0.146 D’ Arcangelo longitudinal
C
I
= 0.0727 C
WP
2
+ 0.0106 C
WP
– 0.003 Eames, small transom stern (2)
C
1
= 0.04 (3C
WP
– 1) Murray, for trapezium reduced 4% (17)
C
I
= (0.096 + 0.89 C
WP
2
) / 12 Normand (17)
C
I
= (0.0372 (2 C
WP

+ 1)
3
) / 12 Bauer (17)
C
I
= 1.04 C
WP
2
) / 12 McCloghrie + 4% (17)
C
I
= (0.13 C
WP
+ 0.87 C
WP
2
) / 12 Dudszus and Danckwardt (17)

·
T
T M
I
B

·
L
L M
K
B
4.3 Transverse Stability
KG / D= 0.63 to 0.70 for normal cargo ships
= 0.83 for passenger ships
= 0.90 for trawlers and tugs
KM
T
= KB + BM
T

GM
T
= KM
T
– KG
Correction for free surface must be applied over this. Then ,
GM’
T
= GM
T
– 0.03 KG (assumed).
This GM’
T
should satisfy IMO requirements.
4.3 Longitudinal Stability
B
L I
B
L I
L
L L
C T
L C
C LBT
B L C
I
BM GM
.
2 3
· ·

· ≅
100 . . 100
. . .
100
1
2 2
B L C
L C T
L C C T B L
L
GM
cm MCT
L I
B
L I B
BP
L
· ·

·
4.5 Longitudinal Centre of Buoyancy (1)
The longitudinal centre of buoyancy LCB affects the resistance and trim of the
vessel. Initial estimates are needed as input to some resistance estimating
algorithms. Like wise, initial checks of vessel trim require a sound LCB estimate.
In general, LCB will move aft with ship design speed and Froude number. At low
Froude number, the bow can be fairly blunt with cylindrical or elliptical bows
utilized on slow vessels. On these vessels it is necessary to fair the stern to
achieve effective flow into the propeller, so the run is more tapered (horizontally
or vertically in a buttock flow stern) than the bow resulting in an LCB which is
forward of amidships. As the vessel becomes faster for its length, the bow must be
faired to achieve acceptable wave resistance, resulting in a movement of the LCB
aft through amidships. At even higher speeds the bow must be faired even more
resulting in an LCB aft of amidships.
Harvald
8 . 0 0 . 45 70 . 9 t − · Fn LCB

Schneekluth and Bestram
Fn LCB 9 . 38 80 . 8 − ·
P
C LCB 4 . 19 5 . 13 + − ·
Here LCB is estimated as percentage of length, positive forward of amidships.
5.0 Lightship Weight Estimation
(a) Lightship weight =
64 . 0
1000
1128
]
]
]

dwt
(4)
(b) Lightship = Steel Weight + Outfil weight + Machinery Weight +
Margin.
5.1 Steel Weight
The estimated steel weight is normally the Net steel. To this Scrap steel weight
(10 to 18 %) is added to get gross steel weight.
Ship type Cargo Cargo cum
Passenger
Passenger Cross Channe
Pass. ferry
( )
weight
Steel ×

100 20 28 30 35
For tankers, 18
100
· ×

weight Steel
5.1.1 Steel weight Estimation – Watson and Gilfillan
From ref. (3),
Hull Numeral E =
2 2 1 1
75 . 0 85 . 0 ) ( 85 . 0 ) ( h l h l L T D T B L
∑ ∑
+ + − + +
in
metric units where
1 1
h and l : length and height of full width erections
2 2
h and l : length and height of houses.
( ) [ ] 70 . 0 5 . 0 1
1 7
− + ·
B s s
C W W
where
s
W
: Steel weight of actual ship with block
1 B
C at 0.8D
7 s
W
: Steel weight of a ship with block 0.70

( )

,
`

.
| −
− + ·
T
T D
C C C
B B B
3
8 . 0
1
1
Where
B
C : Actual block at T.
36 . 1
7
. E K W
s
·
Ship type Value of K For E
Tanker 0.029 – 0.035 1,500 < E < 40, 000
Chemical Tanker 0.036 – 0.037 1,900 < E < 2, 500
Bulker 0.029 – 0.032 3,000 < E < 15, 000
Open type bulk and
Container ship
0.033 – 0.040 6,000 < E < 13, 000
Cargo 0.029 – 0.037 2,000 < E < 7, 000
Refrig 0.032 – 0.035 E 5,000
Coasters 0.027 – 0.032 1,000 < E < 2, 000
Offshore Supply 0.041 – 0.051 800 < E < 1, 300
Tugs 0.044 350, E < 450
Trawler 0.041 – 0.042 250, E < 1, 300
Research Vessel 0.045 – 0.046 1, 350 < E < 1, 500
Ferries 0.024 – 0.037 2,000 < E < 5, 000
Passenger 0.037 – 0.038 5, 000 < E < 15, 000
5.1.2 From Basic Ship
Steeel weight from basic ship can be estimated assuming any of the
following relations :
(i)
× ∞ L W
s
weight per foot amidships
(ii)
. . . D B L W
s

(iii)
) ( . D B L W
s
+ ∞
To this steel weight, all major alterations are added / substracted.
Schneekluth Method for Steel Weight of Dry Cargo Ship
u

= volume below topmost container deck (m
3
)
D
∇ = hull volume upto main deck (m
3
)
s

= Volume increase through sheer (m
3
)
b

= Volume increase through camber (m
3
)
u v
s s ,
= height of
s
hear at FP and AP
s
L
= length over which sheer extends (
pp s
L L ≤
)
n = number of decks
L
∇ = Volume of hatchways
L L L
h and b ;  are length, breadth and height of hatchway
u

=
( )
    
                
L
b s D
L L L u s BD
h b l C b B L C s s B L C D B L

∇ ∇ ∇

+ + + +
3 2 ϑ
C
BD
= ( )
B B
C
T
T D
C C −

+ 1
4
Where C
4
= 0.25 for ship forms with little flame flare
= 0.4 for ship forms with marked flame flare
C
2
=
( )
b
C
BD
3
2
; C
3
= 0.7 C
BD
W
st
( ) t
=
u

C
1

( ) [ ] ( ) [ ]
4
06 . 0 1 12 033 . 0 1
D
D
L
n − + − +
( ) [ ] ( ) [ ] 85 . 0 2 . 0 1 85 . 1 05 . 0 1 − + − +
D
T
D
B
( ) [ ] ( ) [ ] 98 . 0 75 . 0 1 1 92 . 0
2
− + − +
M BD BD
C C C
Restriction imposed on the formula :
9 <
D
L
, and
C
1
the volumetric weight factor and dependent on ship type and measured in
3
m
t

C
1
= ( ) [ ]
6 2
10 110 17 1 103 . 0

− + L
3
m
t
for
m L m 180 80 ≤ ≤
for normal ships
C
1
= 0.113 to 0.121
3
m
t
for
m L m 150 80 ≤ ≤
of passenger ships
C
1
= 0.102 to 0.116
3
m
t
for
m L m 150 100 ≤ ≤
of refrigerated ships
5.1.3 Schneekluth’s Method for Steel Weight of container Ships
( ) [ ]
3 2
10 120 002 . 0 1 093 . 0

− + ∇ · L W
u st
( )
2
1
14
30
12 057 . 0 1
]
]
]

+
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
− +
D D
L
( ) [ ]
2
2
1 92 . 0 85 . 0 02 . 0 1 1 . 2 01 . 0 1
BD
C
D
T
D
B
− +
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
− +
]
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
− +
Depending on the steel construction the tolerance width of the result will be
somewhat greater than that of normal cargo ships. The factor 0.093 may vary between
0.09 and 0 the under deck volume contains the volume of a short forecastle for the
volume of hatchways
The ratio
D
L
should not be less than 10
Farther Corrections :
(a) where normal steel is used the following should be added :
( ) ( )
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
− + − · 12 1 . 0 1 10 5 . 3 %
D
L
L W
t s
δ
This correction is valid for ships between 100 m and 180 m length
(b) No correction for wing tank is needed
(c) The formulae can be applied to container ships with trapizoidal midship sections.
These are around 5% lighter
(d) Further corrections can be added for ice-strengthening, different double bottom
height, higher latchways, higher speeds.
Container Cell Guides
Container cell guides are normally included in the steel weight. Weight of container
cell guides.

Ship type Length
(ft)
Fixed Detachable
Vessel 20 0.7 t / TEU 1 t / TEU
Vessel 40 0.45 t / TEU 0.7 t / TEU
Integrated 20 0.75 t / TEU -
Integrated 40 0.48 t / TEU -
Where containers are stowed in three stacks, the lashings weigh :
for 20 ft containers 0.024 t / TEU
40 ft containers 0.031 t / TEU
mixed stowage 0.043 t / TEU
5.1.4 Steel Weight Estimations : other formulations
For containce Ships :
374 . 0 712 . 0 759 . 1
. . 007 . 0 D B L W
pp st
·
[K. R. Chapman]

st
W
steel weight in tonns
→ D B L
pp
, ,
are in metres.
st
W
=
( )
]
]
]
]

+
,
`

.
|
− ∗
,
`

.
|
+ 939 . 0 3 . 8 00585 . 0
2
675 . 0 000 , 100 340
8 . 1
9 . 0
D
L C
LBD
B
[D. Miller]

st
W
tonnes
→ D B L , ,
metres
For Dry Cargo vessels
7
10 73 . 5
0832 . 0


·
x
st
e x W
where
3
2
12
B
pp
C
B L
x ·
[wehkamp / kerlen]
]
]
]
]

+
,
`

.
|
· 1 002 . 0
6
2
72 . 0
3
2
D
L
D
LB
C W
B st
[ Ccmyette’s formula
as represented by
watson & Gilfillan ]

st
W
tonnes
→ D B L , ,
metres
For tankers :
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
− ∗ ∗
,
`

.
|
− + ∆ ·
D
L
B
L
W
T L st
7 . 28 06 . 0 004 . 0 009 . 1 α α
DNV – 1972
where
78 . 0
100
189 . 0
97 . 0 004 . 0 054 . 0

,
`

.
|


,
`

.
|
+
·
D
L
B
L
L
α

,
`

.
| ∆
∗ + ·
100000
00235 . 0 029 . 0
T
α
for ∆< 600000 t
3 . 0
100000
0252 . 0
,
`

.
| ∆
∗ ·
T
α for ∆ > 600000 t
Range of Validity :
14 10 ≤ ≤
D
L
7 5 ≤ ≤
B
L
m L m 480 150 ≤ ≤
For Bulk Carriers
( )
8 . 0
4 . 0 5 . 0
2
1697 . 0
56 . 1
+

,
`

.
|
+ ·
B
st
C T
D
B
L W
[J. M. Hurrey]

,
`

.
| −
+
,
`

.
|
+
,
`

.
|
− ·
1800
200
1 025 . 0 73 . 0 035 . 0 215 . 1 274 . 4
62 . 0
L
B
L
B
L
L Z W
st

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
− ∗
D
L
D
L
0163 . 0 146 . 1 07 . 0 42 . 2
[DNV 1972]
here Z is the section modulus of midship section area
The limits of validity for DNV formulae for bulkers are same as tankers except
that is, valid for a length upto 380 m
5.2 Machinery Weight
5.2.1 Murirosmith
W
m
= BHP/10 + 200 tons diesel
= SHP/17 + 280 tons turbine
= SHP/ 30 + 200 tons turbine (cross channel)
This includes all weights of auxiliaries within definition of m/c weight as part of
light weight. Corrections may be made as follows:
For m/c aft deduct 5%
For twin-screw ships add 10% and
For ships with large electrical load add 5 to 12%
5.2.2 Watson and Gilfillan
W
m
(diesel)
. ] / [ 12
84 . 0
wt Auxiliary RPMi MCRi
i
+ ·

W
m
(diesel-electric) = 0.72 (M CR)
0.78
W
m
(gas turbine) = 0.001 (MCR)
Auxiliary weight = 0.69 (MCR)
0.7
for bulk and general cargo vessel
= 0.72 (MCR)
0.7
for tankers
= 0.83 (MCR)
0.7
for passenger ships and ferries
= 0.19 for frigates and Convetters
MCR is in kw and RPM of the engine
5.3 Wood and Outfit Wight (W
o
)
5.3.1 Watson and Gilfilla
W and G (RINA 1977): (figure taken from [1])
5.3.2. Basic Ship
W
o
can be estimated from basic ship using any of the proportionalities given
below:
5.3.3. Schneekluth
Out Fit Weight Estimation

Cargo ships at every type
N
o
= K. L. B., W
o

, tonnes →
L, B

meters
Where the value of K is as follows
Type K
(a) Cargo ships 0.40-0.45 t/m
2
(b) Container ships 0.34-0.38 t/m
2
(c) Bulk carriers without cranes
With length around 140 m 0.22-0.25 t/m
2
With length around 250 m 0.17-0.18 t/m
2
(d) Crude oil tankers:
With lengths around 150 m 0.25 t/m
2
With lengths around 300 m 0.17 t/m
2
Passenger ships – Cabin ships

∇ · K W
0
where


total volume 1n m
3
3 3
039 . 0 036 . 0 m t m t K − ·
Passenger ships with large car transporting sections and passenger ships carrying
deck passengers

∇ · K W
0
, where K = 0.04 t/m
2
– 0.05 t/m
2
B L W
o
× α
or
1
2
1
2 0
02
2 B
B
L
L L W
W × + ·
Where suffix 2 is for new ship and 1 is for basic ship.
From this, all major alterations are added or substracted.
5.4 Margin on Light Weight Estimation
Ship type Margin on Wt Margin on VCG
Cargo ships 1.5 to 2.5% 0.5 to ¾ %
Passenger ships 2 to 3.5% ¾ to 1 %
Naval Ships 3.5 to 7%
5.5 Displacement Allowance due to Appendages
( )
PP α

(i) Extra displacement due to shell plating = molded displacement x (1.005 do
1.008) where 1.005 is for ULCCS and 1.008 for small craft.
(ii) where C = 0.7 for fine and 1.4 for full bossings
d: Propeller diameter.
(iii) Rudder Displacement = 0.13 x (area)
9/2
tonnes
(iv) Propeller Displacement = 0.01 x d
3
tonnes
. app ext ext
∆ + ∆ · ∆
5.6 Dead weight Estimation
At initial stage deadweight is supplied. However,
PR E C FW LO DO HFO o C
W W W W W W W Dwt + + + + + + ·
& arg
Where W
Cargo
: Cargo weight (required to be carried) which can be calculated from
cargo hold capacity
W
HFO
= SFC x MCR x
in m
speed
range
arg ×

Where
SFC : specific fuel consumption which can be taken as 190gm/kw hr for DE and
215gm/kw hr for 6T (This includes 10% excess for ship board approx )
Range: distance to be covered between two bunkeriy port margin : 5 to 10%
W
DO
: Weight of marine diesel oil for DG Sets which is calculated similar to
above based on actual power at sea and port(s)
W
LO
: weight of lubrication oil
W
LO
= 20 t for medium speed DE
=15 t for slow speed DE
W
FW
: weight of fresh water
W
FW
= 0.17 t/(person x day)
W
C&E
: weight of crew of fresh water
W
C&E
: 0.17t / person
W
PR
: weight of provisions and stores
W
PR
= 0.01t / (person x day)
5.7 Therefore weight equation to be satisfied is
ext

= Light ship weight + Dead weight
where
light ship weight = steel weight + wood and out fit weight + machinery weight +
margin.
6.0 Estimation of Centre of Mass (1)
The VCG of the basic hull can be estimated using an equation as follows:
VCG
hull
= 0.01D [ 46.6 + 0.135 ( 0.81 – C
B
) ( L/D )
2
]
+ 0.008D ( L/B – 6.5 ), L≤ 120 m

= 0.01D [ 46.6 + 0.135 (0.81 – C
B
) ( L/D )
2
],
120 m < L
This may be modified for superstructure & deck housing
The longitudinal position of the basic hull weight will typically be slightly aft of
the LCB position. Waston gives the suggestion:
LCG
hull
= - 0.15 + LCB
Where both LCG and LCB are in percent ship length positive forward of
amidships. The vertical center of the machinery weight will depend upon the
inner bottom height h
bd
and the height of the engine room from heel, D. With
these known, the VCG of the machinery weight can be estimated as:
VCG
M
= h
db
+ 0.35 ( D’-h
db
)
Which places the machinery VCG at 35% of the height within the engine room
space. In order to estimate the height of the inner bottom, minimum values from
classification and Cost Guard requirements can be consulted giving for example:
h
db

32B + 190 T (mm) (ABS)
or
h
db


45.7 + 0.417 L (cm) Us Coast Guard
The inner bottom height might be made greater than indicated by these minimum
requirements in order to provide greater double bottom tank capacity, meet double
hull requirements, or to allow easier structural inspection and tank maintenance.
The vertical center of the outfit weight is typically above the main deck and can
be estimated using an equation as follows:
VCG
o
= D + 1.25, L ≤ 125 m
= D + 1.25 + 0.01(L-125), 125 < L ≤ 250 m
= D + 2.50,
The longitudinal center of the outfit weight depends upon the location of the
machinery and the deckhouse since significant portions of the outfit are in those
locations. The remainder of the outfit weight is distributed along the entire hull.
LCG
o
= ( 25% W
o
at LCG
M
, 37.5% at LCG dh, and 37.5% at amid ships)
The specific fractions can be adapted based upon data for similar ships. This
approach captures the influence of the machinery and deckhouse locations on the
associated outfit weight at the earliest stages of the design.
The centers of the deadweight items can be estimated based upon the preliminary
inboard profile arrangement and the intent of the designer.
7.0 Estimation of Capacity
Grain Capacity = Moulded Col. + extra vol. due to hatch (m
3
) coamings,edcape
hatched etc – vol. of structurals.
Tank capacity = Max. no. of containers below deck (TEU) and above dk.
Structurals for holds :
2
1
1 to 2% of mid vol.
Structurals for F. O. tanks : of to %
4
1
2
4
1
2 mid. Vol.(without heating coils):
of to %
4
9
2
2
1
2 mid vol. (with heating coils):1% for
cargo oil tanks
Structurals for BW/FW tanks:
2
1
2
4
1
2 to for d.b. tanks non-cemented;
%
4
3
2
2
1
2 to for d.b. tanks cemented;
1 to 1.5 % for deep tanks for FO/BW/PW.
Bale capacity 0.90 x Grain Capacity.
Grain capacity can be estimated by using any one of 3 methods given below as
per ref. MSD by Munro-Smith:
1. Grain capacity for underdeck space for cargo ships including machinery
space, tunnel, bunkers etc.:
Capacity = C
1
+ C
2
+ C
3

Where
C
1
: Grain capacitay of space between keel and line parallel to L
WL
drawn at
the lowest point of deck at side.
C
1
= L
BP
x B
ml
x D
mld
x C
C : capacity coefficient as given below
C
B
at 0.85D 0.73 0.74 0.75 0.76 0.77 0.78
C 0.742 0.751 0.760 0.769 0.778 0.787
C
B
at 0.85D can be calculated for the design ship from the relationship
T dT
dc
u
. 10
1
·
The C.G. of C
1
can be taken as 0.515 x D above tank top.
C
2
: Volume between WL at lowest point of sheer and sheer line at side.
C
2
: 0.236 X S X B X L
BP
/2 with centroid at 0.259S above WL at lowest point
of sheer
Where S = sheer forward + sheer aft.
C
3
= 0.548 x camber at midship x B x L
BP
/ 2 with centriod at 0.2365 + 0.381 x
camber at above WL at lowest point of sheer. Both forward and aft calculations
are done separately and added. C
2
and C
3
are calculated on the assumption that
deck line, camber line and sheer line are parabolic.
II. Capacity Depth D
C
D
C
= D
mld
+ ½ camber + 1/6 (S
A
+ S
F
) – (depth of d.b. + tank top ceiling)
Grain capacity below upper deck and above tank top including non cargo spaces
is given as:
LBD
C
.C
B
/100(ft
3
) 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000
Grain Cap. (ft
3
) 2000 3000 4000 5050 6100 7150 8200
III. From basic ship:
C
1
: Under dk sapacity of basic ship
= Grain cap. of cargo spaces + under dk non-cargo spaces – hatchways.
C
2
: Under deck capacity of new ship.
C
2=
2 2 2 2
1 1 1
1
B c
BL
C D B L
C D B L
C
− ×
Where C
B
is taken at 0.85 D
If D
H
: Depth of hold amidships and C
9
: cintoroid of this capacity above tank top
then, for
C
B
= 0.76 at 0.85 D,
1/6(S
F
+ S
A
)/D
H
0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12
C
9
/D
H
0.556 0.565 0.573 0.583
For an increase of decrease of C
B
by 0.02,
C
9
/D
H
is decreased or increased by 0.002.
From the capacity thus obtained, non cargo spaces are deducted and extra spaces
as hatchways etc. are added go get the total grain capacity.
8.0 Power Estimation
For quick estimation of power:
(a)
[ ]
5 . 0
3
0
1000 / 5813 . 0 DWT
V
SHP
·
(b) Admirality coefficient is same for similar ships (in size, form,
n
F
).
BHP
V
A
C
9 3 / 2

·
Where
Coefficent Admirality A
C
·
tons in nt Displaceme · ∆
Knots in Speed V ·
(c) In RINA, vol 102, Moor and Small Have proposed
L N
C K
L
V H
SHP
B
γ −

,
`

.
|
− − + ∆
·
1500
12 ) 1 ( 400
200
40
2 3 3 / 1
Where
RPM N:
on constructi welded for factor correction Hull H 9 . 0 : ·
. , , :
' :
tons in knots in V ft in L
formula s Alexander from beobtained To K

(d) From basic ship: If basic ship EHP is known. EHP for a new ship with
similar hull form and Fr. No.- can be found out as follows:
(i) Breadth and Draught correction can be applied using Mumford indices (moor
and small, RINA, vol. 102)
3 / 2 3 / 2 − −
Θ Θ

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
·
Y
b
n
X
b
n
T
T
B
B
basic new
Where x = 0.9 and y is given as a function of
L V γ /
as
L
V
γ
0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80
γ
0.54 0.55 0.57 0.58 0.60 0.62 0.64
Where
knots V tons andwhere
V
EHP
: , :
1 . 427 3 3 / 2


· Θ
×
(ii) Length correction as suggested by wand G (RINA 1977)
( )
4
1 2 2 1
10 4 @ @

− · − x L L L L
This correction is approximate where
. : ft L
(e) Estimation of EHP from series Data wetted surface Area S in
2
m is given as
m L m L S · · ∇ ∆ · , , .
2
3
η
π
· η
Wetted surface efficiency (see diagram of Telfer, Nec, Vol. 79, 1962-63).
The non-dimensional resistance coefficients are given as
· ·
2
2 / 1 V S
R
C
R
R
ρ
This can be estimated from services data with corrections.
2
2 / 1 V S
R
C
F
F
ρ
·
From ITTC,
( )
2
10
2 log
075 . 0

·
n
F
R
C
Where
v
VL
No s ynold R
n
· . ' Re :
and Viscocity of t coefficien Kinematic v ·

water fresh for m W F for and water sea for m sec / 10 139 . 1 ., . sec / 10 188 . 1
2 6 2 6 − −
× × ·
( )
3
10 004 . 0 8 . 0
0004 . 0

× − ·
·
·
l w A
A
L C or
general in
Allowance Roughness C
where
m in is L
l w
2
2 / 1 V S
R
C C C C
T
A R F T
ρ
· + + ·
Where . tan ce resis hull bare the is R
T
To get total resistance, Appendage resistance must be added to this:
Twin Screw Bossings 8 to 10%
A bracket 5%
Twin Rudder 3%
Bow Thruster 2 to 5%
Ice Knife 0.5%
If resistance is in Newtons and V is in m/sec,
( ) . 25 . 1 1 . 1 KW to EHP EPH
Lrial service
× ·
(f)
: Data l statistica from EHP
See Holtrop and Mannen, ISP 1981/1984 (given at the
end of these notes)
(g) Estimation of SHP or shaft horse power
QPC
EHP
SHP
service
·
10000
0
L N
K QPC
R H
γ
η η η − · ·
Where
RPM N ·
m in L L
P B
·
84 . 0 · K
For fixed pitch propellers
82 . 0 ·
For controllable pitch propellers can be estimated more accurately
later
(h)
s
BHP
losses on Transmissi SHP BHP
s
+ ·
Transmission loss can be taken as follows:
Aft Engine 1%
Engine Semi aft 2%
Gear losses 3 to 4%
(i) Selection of Engine Power:
The maximum continuous rating (MCR) of a diesel engine is the power the engine
can develop for long periods. By continuous running of engine at MCR may cause
excessive wear and tear. So Engine manufactures recommend the continuous service
rating (CSR) to be slightly less than MCR. Thus CSR of NCR (Normal Continuous
Rating)
( ) 95 . 0 85 . 0 to MCR× ·
Thus engine selected must have MCR as
. 95 . 0 / 85 . 0 /
s
BHP MCR·
Thus
PEN trial PET service PES
(Naked hull HP) Allowance Allowance
QPC
0.85 to 0.95 Shafting
MCR
s
BHP
SHP
(NCR) losses
Select Engine
9.0 Seakeeping Requirement
9.1 Bow Freeboard
bow
F
L
V
γ
0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90
L
F
bow
0.045 0.048 0.056 0.075
(b) Probability of Deckwetness P for various
L F
bow
/
values have been given in
Dynamics of Marine Vehicles, by R.Bhattacharya:
( ) t f L 200 400 600 800
( ) m L 61 122 183 244
L F
bow
/
for
P = 0.1% 0.080 0.058 0.046 0.037
1% 0.056 0.046 0.036 0.026
10% 0.032 0.026 0.020 0.015
Estimate
bow
F
check for deckwetness probability and see if it is acceptable.
bow
F

Should also be checked from load line requirement.
9.2
Early estimates of motions natural frequencies effective estimates can often be
made for the three natural frequencies in roll, heave, and pitch based only upon
the characteristics and parameters of the vessel. Their effectiveness usually
depends upon the hull form being close to the norm.
An approximate roll natural period can be derived using a simple one-degree of
freedom model yielding:
t
M G k T / 007 . 2
11
·
φ
Where
11
k is the roll radius of gyration, which can be related to the ship beam
using:
KB k 50 . 0
11
· , With
82 . 0 76 . 0 ≤ ≤κ
for merchant hulls and
00 . 1 69 . 0 ≤ ≤κ

generally.
Using B 40 . 0
11
≈ κ . A more complex parametric model for estimating the roll
natural period that yields the alternative result for the parameter
κ
is
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ) / / 2 . 2 0 . 1 2 . 0 1 . 1 2 . 0 ( 724 . 0
2
B D T D C C C C
B B B B
+ − − × + − + · κ
Roll is a lightly damped process so the natural period can be compared directly
with the domonant encounter period of the seaway to establish the risk of resonant
motions. The encounter period in long- crested oblique seas is given by:
( ) ( )
w e
g V T θ ω ω π cos / / 2
2
− ·
Where
ω
is the wave frequency, V is ship speed, and
w
θ
is the wave angle relative
to the ship heading with

·0
w
θ following seas,

· 0 9
w
θ beam seas, and

· 0 18
w
θ
Head seas. For reference, the peak frequency of an ISSC spectrum is located at
1
1
85 . 4

T with
1
T the characteristics period of the seaway. An approximate pitch
natural period can also be derived using a simple one- degree of freedom model
yielding:
L
GM k T / 007 . 2
22
·
θ
Where now
22
k is the pitch radius of gyration, which can be related to the ship
length by noting that . 26 . 0 24 . 0
22
L k L ≤ ≤
An alternative parametric model reported by Lamb can be used for comparison:
( ) ) / 36 . 0 6 . 0 ( / 776 . 1
1
T C T C T
B
p w + ·

θ
Pitch is a heavily-damped (non resonant) mode, but early design checks typically
try to avoid critical excitation by at least 10%
An approximate heave natural period can also be derived using a simple one
degree-of-freedom model. A resulting parametric model has been reported by
Lamb:
( ) ) / 2 . 1 3 ( 007 . 2
p w B h
C T B C T T + + ·
Like pitch, heave is a heavily damped (non resonant) mode. Early design checks
typically try to avoid having
,
φ
T T
h
· ,
θ
T T
h
· , 2
θ
T T
h
· ,
θ φ
T T · , 2
θ φ
T T ·
which
could lead to significant mode coupling. For many large ships, however, these
conditions often cannot be avoided.
9.3 Overall Seakeeping Ranking used Bales regression analysis to obtain a rank
estimator for vertical plane seakeeping performance of combatant monohulls.
This estimator
R
ˆ
yields a ranking number between 1 (poor seakeeping) and 10
(superior seakeeping) and has the following form:
a p v f p v a p w f p w
C C L C L T C C R 9 . 15 5 . 23 / 27 . 1 / 378 1 . 10 1 . 45 42 . 8
ˆ
− − + − + + ·
Here the waterplane coefficient and the vertical prismatic coefficient are
expressed separately for the forward (f) and the aft (a) portions of the hull. Since
the objective for superior seakeeping is high
R
ˆ
, high
p w
C
and low
,
p v
C
Corresponding to V-shaped hulls, can be seen to provide improved vertical
plane seakeeping. Note also that added waterplane forward is about 4.5 times as
effective as aft and lower vertical prismatic forward is about 1.5 times as effective
as aft in increasing
R
ˆ
. Thus, V-shaped hull sections forward provide the best way
to achieve greater wave damping in heave and pitch and improve vertical plane
seakeeping.
10. Basic Ship Method
1. Choose basic ship such that
, / L V γ
ship type and are nearly same and
detailed information about the basic ship is available.
2. Choose
B
C T B L from empirical data and get ∆
Such that
( ) ( )
new basic
w d w d ∆ · ∆ / /
.
Choose
B
C T B L . . . etc as above to get
new

·
B
C T B L . 033 . 1 03 . 1 to ×
3. Satisfy weight equation by extrapolating lightship from basic ship data.
4. For stability assume
( )
new basic
D KG D KG / ) / ( ·
with on your deletion
5. Check capacity using basic ship method. Use inference equation wherever
necessary
10.1 Difference Equations
These equations are frequently used to alter main dimensions for desired small
changes in out put. For example
ρ
B
C T B L . . . · ∆
Or,
· ∆ log + L log + B log + T log ρ log log +
B
C
Assuming
ρ
to be constant and differentiating,
B
B
C
C d
T
T d
B
B d
L
L d d
+ + + ·


So if a change of ∆ d is required in displacement, one or some of the parameters
B
C or T B L , , , can be altered so that above equation is satisfied. Similarly, to
improve the values of BM by dBM, one can write
T B M B /
2
α
or T B k M B /
2
× ·
or
T B k BM log log 2 log log − + ·
Differentiating and assuming k constant
T
dT
B
dB
BM
dBM
− ·2
11. Hull Vibration Calculation
11.1 For two node Vertical Vibration, hull frequency is
(cpm)
N
=
]
]
]


3
L
I
φγ
[Schlick]
Where I : Midship m . i. in
2 2
ft in
∆: tons, L : f t
φ
= 156 , 850 for ships with fine lines
= 143, 500 for large passenger lines
= 127, 900 for cargo ships
]
]
]


·
3
3
(cpm)
L
BD
N βγ
B: breadth in ft and D : Depth upto strength dk in ft. This is refined to take into
account added mass and long s .s. decks as,
( )
2
2 / 1
3
3
1
(cpm)
) 3 / 2 . 1
.
C
L T B
D B
C N
E
+
]
]
]

∆ +
· [ Todd]
Where D
E
: effective depth
D
E
:
[ ]
3 / 1
1
3
1
/ L L D ∑
Where D
1
: Depth from keel to dk under consideration
L
1
: Length of s.s. dk
C
1
C
2
Tankers 52000 28
Cargo Vessels 46750 25
Passenger Vessels
With s.s 44000 20
( ) ( )
2 / 1
3
1 2 / 1
]
]
]

+ + ∆
Ι
·
S
r T B L
N φ Burill
Where
· φ
2,400,000, I : ft
4
, others in British unit
r
S
: shear correction =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) 1 / 3
2 . 1 / 6 / 9 / 3 5 . 3
2
2 3
+
+ + +
D B L
D B D B D B D
( )
[ ] Bunyan where
T B C
D T
L
K
N
B
E
n
2 / 1
1
6 . 3
]
]
]

+
·
K = 48,700 for tankers with long framing
34,000 for cargo ships
38,400 for cargo ships long framed
n= 1.23 for tankers
1.165 for cargo ships
All units are in British unit.
T
1
: Mean draught for condition considered
T : Design Draught
N
3V
= 2. N
2V
N
4V
= 3.N
2V

11.2 Hull Vibration (Kumai)
Kumai’s formula for two nodded vertical vibration is (1968)
N
2v
= 3. 07 * 10
6
cpm
L i
v
3

Ι
Then I
v
= Moment of inertia (m
4
)
· ∆
i
nt displaceme
T
B
m
· ∆

,
`

.
|
+
3
1
2 . 1
including virtual added mass of water (tons)
L = length between perpendicular (m)
B= Breadth amidship (m)
T
m =
= mean draught (m)
The higher noded vibration can be estimated from the following formula by Johannessen
and skaar (1980)
( )

− ≈ 1
2
n N N
v nv
Then
845 . 0 · ∝
general cargo ships
1.0 bulk carriers
1.2 Tankers
N
2V
is the two noded vertical natural frequency. n should not exceed 5 or 6 in
order to remain within range validity for the above equation.
11.3 Horizontal Vibration
For 2 node horizontal vibration, hull frequency is
cpm
L
B D
N
H H
2 / 1
3
3
2
.
.
]
]
]


·β [Brown]
Where ·
H
β 42000, other quantities in British units.
v H
N N
2 2
5 . 1 ·
H H
N N
2 3
. 2 ·
H H
N N
2 4
3 ·
11.4 Torsional Vibration
For Torsional vibration, hull frequency is
2 / 1
2 2
5
.
10 3
]
]
]

∆ +
× ·
L D B
I
C N
p
T
cpm
[Horn]
T
N node one for C

·
1
, 58 . 1
T
N node two for

·
2
, 00 . 3
T
N node three for

·
3
, 07 . 4
( )
4 2
/ 4 ft
T
ds
A I
p
Σ · (This formulae is exact for hollow circular cylinder)
· A
Area enclosed by section in
2
ft
·
g
d
Element length along enclosing shell and deck
) ( ft
· t
Corresponding thickness in
) ( ft
. : , : , , tons ft D B L ∆
11.5 Resonance
Propeller Blade Frequency = No. of blades
×
shaft frequency.
Engine RPM is to be so chosen that hull vibration frequency and shaft and
propeller frequency do not coincide to cause resonance.
References
1. ‘ShipDesign and Construction’ edited by Thomas Lab SNAME, 2003.
2. ‘Engineering Economics in ship Design, I.L Buxton, BSRA.
3. D. G. M. Waston and A.W. Gilfillan, some ship Design Methods’ RINA, 1977.
4. P. N. Mishra, IINA, 1977.
5. ‘Elements of Naval Architecture’ R.Munro- Smith
6. ‘Merchant Ship Design’, R. Munro-Smith
7. A. Ayre, NECIES, VOl. 64.
8. R. L. Townsin, The Naval Architect (RINA), 1979.
9. ‘Applied Naval Architecture’, R. Munro-Smith
10. M. C. Eames and T. C. Drummond, ‘Concept Exploration- An approach to Small
Warship Design’, RINA, 1977.
11. Ship Design for Efficiency and Economy- H Schneekluth, 1987, Butterworth.
12. Ship Hull Vibration F.H. Todd (1961)
13. J. Holtrop- A statistical Re- analysis of Resistance and Propulsion Data ISP 1984.
14. American Bureau of ships- Classification Rules
15. Indian Register of ships- Classification Rules
16. Ship Resistance- H. E. Goldhommce & Sr. Aa Harvald Report 1974.
17. ILLC Rules 1966.
Resistance Estimation Statistical Method (HOLTROP) 1984
R
Total
=
( )
A TR B W App F
R R R R R K R + + + + + +
1
1
Where:
·
F
R Frictional resistance according to ITTC – 1957 formula
·
1
K Form factor of bare hull
·
W
R
Wave – making resistance
·
B
R Additional pressure resistance of bulbous bow near the water surface
·
TR
R Additional pressure resistance due to transom immersion
·
A
R Model –ship correlation resistance
·
App
R
Appendage resistance
The viscous resistance is calculated from:
S K C v R
F v
) 1 (
2
1
1 0
2
+ · ρ …………….(i)
Where
·
0 F
C
Friction coefficient according to the ITTC – 1957 frictional
=
( )
2
10
2 log
075 . 0

n
R
1
1 K + was derived statistically as
1
1 K + = ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
6042 . 0
3649 . 0
3
12 . 0
4611 . 0 0681 . 1
1 . / / . / . / 4871 . 0 93 . 0

,
`

.
|
∇ +
P R
C L L L L T L B c
C is a coefficient accounting for the specific shape of the after body and is given by
C = 1+0.011
Stern
C
Stern
C
= -25 for prom with gondola
= -10 for v-shaped sections
= 0 for normal section shape
= +10 for U-shaped section with hones stern
R
L is the length of run – can be estimated as
· L L
R
/
( ) 1 4 / 06 . 0 1 − + −
p p p
C LCB C C
S is the wetted surface area and can be estimated from the following statistically derived
formula:
( ) ( )
B r B wp M B M
C A C B C C C B T L S / 38 . 2 3696 . 0 003467 . 0 2862 . 0 4425 . 0 4530 . 0 2
5 . 0
+ + − − + + ·
Where
· T
Average moulded draught in m
· L
Waterline length in m
· B
Moulded breadth in m
· LCB LCB
ford’s ( ) + or aft ( ) − of midship as a percentage of L
·
r B
A
Cross sectional area of the bulb in the vertical plane intersecting the stern contour
at the water surface.
All coefficient are based on length on waterline.
The resistance of appendages was also analysed and the results presented in the form of
an effective form factor, including the effect of appendages.
( ) [ ]
tot S
app S
K K K K
1 2 1
1 1 1 1 + − + + + · +
Where
·
2
K Effective form factor of appendages
·
app
S
Total wetted surface of appendages
·
tot
S
Total wetted surface of bare hull and appendages
The effective factor is used in conjunction with a modified form of equation (i)
( ) K S C V R
tot Fo v
+ · 1
2
2
1
ρ
The effective value of
2
K when more than one appendage is to be accounted for can be
determined as follows
( )
( )


+
· +
i
i i
effective
S
k S
k
2
2
1
1
In which
i
S
and
( )
i
k
2
1+
are the wetted area and appendage factor for the i th appendage
TABLE: EFFECTIVE FORM FACTOR VALUES
2
K FOR DIFFERENT APPENDAGES
Type of appendage ( )
2
1 of value k +
Rudder of single screw ship 1.3 to 1.5
Spade type rudder of twin screw ship 2.8
Skeg-rudder of twin screw ships 1.5 to 2.0
Shaft Brackets 3.0
Bossings 2.0
Bilge keels 1.4
Stabilizer fins 2.8
Shafts 2.0
Sonar dome 2.7
For wave-making resistance the following equation of Havelock (1913)
Was simplified as follows:
( )
2
2 3 2 1
cos
1

+ ·
n
F m
w
F m e c c c
W
R
d
n
λ
In this equation
λ , , ,
3 2 1
C C C
and m are coefficients which depend on the hull form. L λ is
the wave making length. The interaction between the transverse waves, accounted for by
the cosine term, results in the typical humps and hollows in the resistance curves.
For low-speed range
4 . 0 ≤
n
F
the following coefficients were derived
( ) ( )
3757 . 1
0796 . 1
7861 . 3
4 1
90 2223105

− ·
E
i
B
T
C C
with:
( )
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
≥ − ·
≤ ≤ ·
≤ ·
25 . 0 0625 . 0 5 . 0
25 . 0 11 . 0
11 . 0 2296 . 0
4
4
3333 . 0
4
L
B
for
B
L
C
L
B
for
L
B
C
L
B
for
L
B
C
d = -0.9
( ) ( )
5
3
1
1
7932 . 4 7525 . 1 01404 . 0 C
L
B
L T
L
m − −

,
`

.
|

− ·
with:
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
≥ − ·
≤ + − ·
8 . 0 7067 . 0 7301 . 1
8 . 0 9844 . 6 8673 . 13 0798 . 8
5
3 2
5
p p
p p p p
C for C C
C for C C C C
24 . 3
034 . 0
6 2
4 . 0


·
n
F
e C m
with:
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹


→ ·


,
`

.
|


+ − ·


→ − ·
1727 0 . 0
1727 512 36 . 2 / 0 . 8 69385 . 1
512 69385 . 1
3
6
3
3
1 6
3
6
L
for C
L
for
L
C
L
for C
( ) 12 03 . 0 446 . 1 ≤ − ·
B
L
for
B
L
C
p
λ
12 36 . 0 446 . 1 ≥ − ·
B
L
for C
p
λ
where
E
i = half angle of entrance of the load waterline in degrees
( )
( )
3
3 2
8 . 6
1551 . 0 32 . 234 25 . 162 67 . 125

,
`

.
| −
+ + + − ·
T
T T
LCB C C
L
B
i
f a
p p E
where T
a
= moulded draught at A.P
T
f
= moulded draught at F.P
The value C
2
accounts for the effect of the bulb.
C
2
= 1.0 if no bulb’s fitted, otherwise
( ) i BT
A
e C
B
B BT
+
·

ν
ν
89 . 1
2
where
B
ν is the effective bulb radius, equivalent to
5 . 0
56 . 0
BT B
A · ν
i represents the effect of submergence of the bulb as determine by
B B f
h T i ν 4464 . 0 − − ·
where
T
f
= moulded draught at FP
h
B
= height of the centroid of the area A
BT
above the base line
( )
M T
BTC A C / 8 . 0 1
3
− ·
3
C
accounts for the influence of transom stern on the wave resistance
AT is the immersed area of the transom at zero speed.
For high speed range
55 . 0 ≥
n
F
, Coefficients
1
C and
1
m are modified as follows
( ) ( )
4069 . 1
0098 . 2
3 . 346 . 3 . 1
1
2 / 3 . 6919 − ∇ ·

B
L
L C C
M
( ) ( )
6054 . 0 3269 . 0
1
2035 . 7
B
T
L
B
m − ·
For intermediate speed range
( ) 55 . 0 4 . 0 ≤ ≤
n
F
the following interpolation is used
( ) { ¦
]
]
]
]

− −
+ ·
5 . 1
4 . 0 10
1
04 55 . 0
04
Fn Fn
Fn
W W n
W
W
R R F
R
W W
R
The formula derived for the model-ship correlation allowance C
A
is
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
04 . 0 /
/ 04 . 0 5 . 7 / 003 . 0 00205 . 0 100 006 . 0
04 . 0 / 00205 . 0 100 006 . 0
2
4 5 . 0 16 . 0
16 . 0

¹
'
¹
− + − + ·
≥ − + ·


WL F
WL F B WL WL A
WL F WL A
L T for
L T C C L L C
L T for L C
where C
2
is the coefficient adopted to account for the influence of the bulb.
Total resistance
( ) [ ] W
W
R
C k C S R
W
A F tot T
. 1
2
1
2
+ + + · ν ρ

START Read : owner’s requirements (ship type dwt/TEU, speed) Define limits on L, B, D, T Define stability constraints First estimate of main dimensions

D = T+ freeboard + margin No

Estimate freeboard Is D >= T + freeboard Yes

=LBTCb (1 + s)

Estimate form coefficients & form stability parameters Estimate power Change parameters Estimate lightweight No Is= Lightweight + dwt & Is Capacity adequate? Estimate stability parameters No Yes

Stability constraints satisfied

Yes

Estimate required minimum section modulus

Estimate hull natural vibration frequency Estimate capacity : GRT, NRT Estimate seakeeping qualities

S

Shi p desig n cal cul ati ons – Sele cti on of M ai n pa rame ters

1.0 A.

The choice of parameters (main dimensions and coefficients) can be based on either of the following 3 ship design categories (Watson & Gilafillon, RINA 1977) Deadweight carriers where the governing equation is ∆ = C B × L × B × T × ρ (1 + s ) = deadweight + lightweight where s : shell plating and appendage displacement (approx 0.5 to 0.8 % of moulded displacement) ρ : density of water (= 1.025 t/m3 for sea water ) and Here T is the maximum draught permitted with minimum freeboard. This is also the design and scantling draught B. Capacity carriers where the governing equation is Vh = C BD . L . B . D ′ = where D ′ = capacity depth in m C m = mean camber = D + Cm + S m 2 = . C [ for parabolic camber ] 3 Vr − Vu + Vm 1 − ss

=1 C 2

 for straight line camber   where C : Camber at C . L .   = 1 (S f + Sa ) 6  for parabolic shear     S f = ford shear   S = aft shear   c 

S m = mean sheer

C BD = block coefficient at moulded depth = C B + (1 − C B ) [ ( 0.8 D − T ) 3T ] Vh = volume of ship in m3 below upper deck and between perpendiculars Vr = total cargo capacity required in m3 Vu = total cargo capacity in m3 available above upper deck Vm = volume required for m c , tanks, etc. within Vh

[1]

S s = % of moulded volume to be deducted as volume of structurals in cargo space [normally taken as 0.05] Here T is not the main factor though it is involved as a second order term in C BD C. e.g. Restrictions imposed by St. Lawrence seaway 6.10 m ≤ Loa ≤ 222.5 m Bext ≤ 23.16 m Restrictions imposed by Panama Canal B ≤ 32.3 m; T ≤ 13 m Restrictions imposed by Dover and Malacca Straits T ≤ 23 m Restrictions imposed by ports of call. Ship types (e.g. barge carriers, container ships, etc.) whose dimensions are determined by the unit of cargo they carry. Restrictions can also be imposed by the shipbuilding facilities. 2.0 Parameter Estimation The first estimates of parameters and coefficients is done (a) from empirical formulae available in published literature, or (b) from collection of recent data and statistical analysis, or (c) by extrapolating from a nearly similar ship The selection of parameters affects shipbuilding cost considerably. The order in which shipbuilding cost varies with main dimension generally is as follows: The effect of various parameters on the ship performance can be as shown in the following table [1] Speed Length Breadth Depth Block coefficient Linear Dimension Ships : The dimensions for such a ship are fixed by consideration other than deadweight and capacity.

50 – 0. resistance. capital cost.45 C arg o DWT or Total DWT C= where Displacement Ctotal DWT 0.86 – 0. capital cost.87 Product tankers 0. longitudinal strength.60 – 0. maneuverability.77 – 0. hull volume. transverse stability Displacement A preliminary estimate of displacement can be made from statistical data analysis. dwt as a function of deadweight capacity.83 Container ships 0.78 – 0.71 – 0.70 – 0. hull volume hull volume.69  2.59 Large bulk carriers 0.37 – 0.2 A.85 0.85 – 0.1 Primary Influence of Dimensions resistance. freeboard displacement. The statistical ratio is given in the ∆ following table [1] Table: Typical Deadweight Coefficient Ranges Vessel Type Ccargo DWT Large tankers 0. longitudinal strength.56 – 0.50 – 0. maneuverability.78  0.63 Ro-Ro ships 0. resistance. seakeeping transverse stability. freeboard.77 Refrigerated cargo ships 0. Length Posdunine’s formulae as modified by Van Lammeran : . transverse stability.Table: Primary Influence of Dimension Parameter Length Beam Depth Draft 2.59 Fishing trawlers 0.79 – 0. capital cost.88  0.84 Small bulk carriers 0.81 – 0.89 0.

if the block coefficient has approximate value of CB = 0. the coefficient C can be modified as follows C B + 0. ∆ is displacement in tonnes and V is speed in knots C = 3.3 ∗ C Lpp in metres. or length for lowest production cost.5 for single screw cargo and passenger ships where V = 11 to 16.5 + 4. Volker’s Statistics :  L   13 − C  = 3.2 0.5 knots = 26 for fast passenger ships with V ≥ 20 knots B.145 Fn within the range 0.5 for refrigerated ship and = 1.5 to 18.145 + 0.145 Fn .LBP (  V  ft ) = C  T   2 + VT  2 ∆ 1 3 C = 23. LPP = ∆0. V in m s L→m ∇ → disp in m 3 where C = 0 for dry cargo ships and container ships = 0.5 ∇  V g∇ 1 3 .5 C = 3.48 – 0.5 Fn ( ) The value of C can be larger if one of the following conditions exists : (a) Draught and / or breadth subject to limitations (b) No bulbous bow (c) Large ratio of undadeck volume to displacement .5 knots = 24 for twin screw cargo and passenger ships where V = 15. Schneekluth’s Formulae : This formulae is based on statistics of optimization results according to economic criteria.2.5 for waters and trawler C.85 It the block coefficient differs from the value 0.3 ∗ V 0.

55 ≤ B / D ≤ 2.0 m for general cargo ships = L/9 + 12 to 15 m for VLCC.Depending on the conditions C is only rarely outside the range 2.5 to 2.0 m = 4.5 to 6. Statistics from ships built in recent years show a tendency towards smaller value of C than before.0 m for bulkers = L/9 + 6.5 (5) Recent ships indicate the following values of B / D .3 Breadth Recent trends are: L/B = 4.16 to 0. 2828 m 2.5 B / D = 1.025 (L .5 for L ≥ 130. and Fn between 0.32 2. bulk carriers etc.30) for 30 m ≤ L ≤ 130 m B = L/9 + 4. = 6. such vessels have adequate stability and their depth is determined from the hull deflection point of view.5 m for tankers = L/9 + 6.0 + 0.4 Depth For normal single hull vessels 1. or B B = L/5 – 14m for VLCC  Dwt  = 10. The formulae is valid for ∆ ≥ 1000 tonnes. (3) D = B−3 m for bulk carriers 1.5 to 7.65 for fishing vessels and capacity type vessels (Stability limited) = 1.8.90 for dwt carries like costers. tankers.0 for small craft with L ≤ 30 m such as trawlers etc.78  1000   0.

3. beam is independents of depth.66 D + 0.B / D = 1.7 for type B freeboard = 0.8 for double hull tankers) = 0.9 m for bulk carriers Depth – Length Relationship Deadweight carriers have a high B / D ratio as these ships have adequate stability and therefore.7 to 0.8 for type A freeboard (tankers) ( T / D < 0. generally 2. In such case. B / T can go upto 5 in heavily draught limited vessels. 290 m = 0.25 ≤ B / T ≤ 3.6  dwt  = 4.8 for B – 60 freeboard T T 2.75 However. For ensuring proper flow onto the propeller B T ≤ [ 9.5 C B ] Draught – depth ratio is largely a function of freeboard : T / D = 0.91 for large tankers = 2. CM .1 for Great Lakes ore carriers = 2.70 for container ships and reefer ships 2. L / D =10 to 14 with tankers having a higher value because of favourable structural arrangement.5 for ULCC = 1.5 Draught For conventional monohull vessels.536  1000   0. L / D determines the hull deflection because b.m. imposed by waves and cargo distribution.625 − 7. depth is governed by L / D ratio which is a significant term in determining the longitudinal strength.88 for bulk carriers and = 1.0 Form Coefficients CB = CP .

23 − Fn ) ] where Fn = A.69 V L for 0.5 ≤ V L ≤ 1.and C B = CVP . and 0.7 + 18 tan −1 [ 25 ( 0.18 – 0.0 . this formulae is frequently used with C = 1.14  L B + 20  2 Fn 3  26    or V gL : Froude Number CB = The above formulae are valid for 0.T CVP = 3.15 ≤ Fn ≤ 0.32 Japanese statistical study [1] gives CB for 0.85.48 ≤ CB ≤ 0.08 for single screw ships = 1.09 for twin screw ships Currently.68 Fn where C = 1. V: Speed in Knots and L: Length in feet CB = 0.14  L B + 20  Fn  26    0. Ayre’s formulae CB = C – 1.1 Block Coefficients C B = 0.32 as .14 ≤ Fn ≤ 0.06 It can be rewritten using recent data as CB = 1. CWP where Cp : Longitudinal prismatic coefficient and CVP: Vertical prismatic coefficient CP = ∇ AM . L ∇ AWP .

6 Fn3 3.976 0.C B = −4.6 and in extreme cases between 0.22 + 27.987 Recommended values of C can be given as CM = 0. (ii) Midship Section with rise of floor (r) and no flat of keel R2 = 2 BT (1 − C M ) − B .085 (CB – 0. r 0. 5 [ ] −1 [1] Estimation of Bilge Radius and Midship area Coefficient (i) Midship Section with circular bilge and no rise of floor R2 = 2(1 − C M ) B .96 0.5 and 0.T .8 Fn − 39.T.8584 (iii) Schneekluth’s recommendation for Bilge Radius (R) BC k 2 L ( B + 4) C B Ck : Varies between 0.1 Fn + 46.006 – 0.65 0.4 and 0. 4 −π =2.2 Midship Area Coefficient CB CM = 0.56 = 1 + (1 − C B ) 3.980 0.977 + 0.70 0.0056 C B 3.60 0.60) − = 1.33 (1 – CM ) B.55 = 0.7 R= For rise at floor (r) the above CB can be modified as ′ CB = C BT (T − r 2) .

025 Applicability/Source Series 60 Eames.175+ 0.471 + 0.262 + 0.9 T KB −1 = (1 + CVP ) :Posdumine and Lackenby recommended for hulls with 0.0.9<CM T Regression formulations are as follows : KB = 0.95 CP + 0.180 + 0.810 CP CWP = CP 2/3 CWP = ( 1+2 CB/Cm ½)/3 CWP = 0.V Equation CWP = 0.5 − CVP ) / 3 :Moorish / Normand recommend for hulls with C M ≤ 0.0 4.1 Intial Estimate of Stability Vertical Centre of Buoyancy.4292 r 2 } / BT ] From producibility considerations.3 Water Plane Area Cofficient Table 11.875 CP CWP = 0. CM = 1 − {F [( B 2 − K 2 ) − r 2 / ( B 2 − K 2 ) + 0.90 – 0. many times the bilge radius is taken equal to or slightly less than the double bottom height. transom stern schneekluth 1 (17) Schneekulth 2 (17) U-forms hulls Average hulls. cruiser stern twin screw. small transom stern warships (2) tankers and bulk carriers (17) single screw. cruiser stern twin screw.17 (1. KB [1] KB = ( 2.551 CB) CWP = 0.36 CM T . Riddlesworth (2) V-form hulls 4.860 CP CWP = 0.444 + 0.CP)1/3 CWP = (1+2 CB)/3 CWP = CB ½ .520 CP CWP = CB/(0.(iv) If there is flat of keel width K and a rise of floor F at B 2 then.760 CP CWP = 0.262 + 0. 3.

10 CB) T KB = 0.78 – 0.0106 CWP – 0.89 CWP2 ) / 12 CI = (0.096 + 0.04 CWP2 ) / 12 CI = (0.405 CWP + 0.VI Equations for Estimating Waterplane Inertia Coefficients Equations C1 = 0.90 – 0.0727 CWP2 + 0.0372 (2 CWP + 1)3 ) / 12 CI = 1.KB = (0.003 C1 = 0.70 for normal cargo ships . for trapezium reduced 4% (17) Normand (17) Bauer (17) McCloghrie + 4% (17) Dudszus and Danckwardt (17) BM T = BM L = 4.04 (3CWP – 1) CI = (0.30 CM – 0. small transom stern (2) Murray.3 Transverse Stability KG / D= 0.1216 CWP – 0.13 CWP + 0.2 Metacenteic Radius : BMT and BML Moment of Inertia coefficient CI and CIL are defined as CI = IT LB 3 LB 3 CTL = IL The formula for initial estimation of CI and CIL are given below Table 11.285 CVP T 4.350 CWP2 – 0.146 CI = 0.0410 CIL = 0.63 to 0.87 CWP2 ) / 12 IT ∇ KL ∇ Applicability / Source D’ Arcangelo transverse D’ Arcangelo longitudinal Eames.

T .0 Fn ± 0. so the run is more tapered (horizontally or vertically in a buttock flow stern) than the bow resulting in an LCB which is forward of amidships. Harvald LCB = 9. This GM’T should satisfy IMO requirements. Then .9 Fn LCB = −13.5 Longitudinal Centre of Buoyancy (1) The longitudinal centre of buoyancy LCB affects the resistance and trim of the vessel.80 − 38. C B L 100 4.3 Longitudinal Stability 3 C I L L2 I L CI L L B GM L ≅ BM L = = = ∇ LBT C B T . Like wise.T . initial checks of vessel trim require a sound LCB estimate. On these vessels it is necessary to fair the stern to achieve effective flow into the propeller. C B C I L L2 C I L L2 B ∇GM L MCT 1 cm = = = 100 LBP 100. resulting in a movement of the LCB aft through amidships. the bow can be fairly blunt with cylindrical or elliptical bows utilized on slow vessels. Initial estimates are needed as input to some resistance estimating algorithms.83 for passenger ships = 0. LCB will move aft with ship design speed and Froude number. 4. At low Froude number.70 − 45.C B L.5 + 19.8 Schneekluth and Bestram LCB = 8. As the vessel becomes faster for its length.90 for trawlers and tugs KMT = KB + BMT GMT = KMT – KG Correction for free surface must be applied over this. At even higher speeds the bow must be faired even more resulting in an LCB aft of amidships.= 0. In general. B. the bow must be faired to achieve acceptable wave resistance. GM’T = GMT – 0.4 C P .03 KG (assumed).

Ship type Cargo 20 Cargo cum Passenger 28 Passenger 30 Cross Channe Pass.70  0. ferry 35 (100 ∆) × Steel weight For tankers. .1. 64 Steel Weight The estimated steel weight is normally the Net steel. 5.0 Lightship Weight Estimation (a) (b) 5. positive forward of amidships.8 D − T  C B 1 = C B + (1 − C B )    3T  Where C B : Actual block at T. 0. Ws = Ws 7 [1 + 0. (3).8D : Steel weight of a ship with block 0. 5.85 ∑ l1 h1 + 0.75 ∑ l 2 h2 in metric units where : length and height of full width erections E= : length and height of houses.1  dwt  Lightship weight = 1128 (4) 1000   Lightship = Steel Weight + Outfil weight + Machinery Weight + Margin. Hull Numeral l1 and h1 l 2 and h2 L ( B + T ) + 0.5( C B1 − 0.Here LCB is estimated as percentage of length.85 ( D − T ) L + 0. To this Scrap steel weight (10 to 18 %) is added to get gross steel weight.70) where Ws Ws 7 ] : Steel weight of actual ship with block C B1 at 0.1 100 × Steel weight = 18 ∆ Steel weight Estimation – Watson and Gilfillan From ref.

D.045 – 0. breadth and height of hatchway .032 0.042 0. all major alterations are added / substracted. 000 800 < E < 1.000 < E < 2.000 < E < 5. E < 450 250.041 – 0.046 0.037 0.1. 000 2.36 Ship type Tanker Chemical Tanker Bulker Open type bulk and Container ship Cargo Refrig Coasters Offshore Supply Tugs Trawler Research Vessel Ferries Passenger 5.035 0. E 1.032 – 0. 000 < E < 15.040 0. su = height of s hear at FP and AP Ls n ∇L = length over which sheer extends ( Ls ≤ L pp ) = number of decks = Volume of hatchways  L . ( B + D) (iii) To this steel weight.029 – 0.033 – 0. 500 3.027 – 0.Ws 7 = K . 000 E 5. Schneekluth Method for Steel Weight of Dry Cargo Ship ∇u = volume below topmost container deck (m3) ∇ D = hull volume upto main deck (m3) ∇ s = Volume increase through sheer (m3) ∇b = Volume increase through camber (m3) s v . 000 1. 300 1.000 < E < 15.044 0.000 1.037 0. bL and hL are length.000 < E < 7.000 < E < 13.037 – 0.038 For E 1. 300 350.024 – 0. 350 < E < 1. (ii) Ws ∞ L. 000 5.035 0.500 < E < 40.900 < E < 2.037 0.2 From Basic Ship Value of K 0.032 0.036 – 0.029 – 0. 500 2.029 – 0.051 0. 000 Steeel weight from basic ship can be estimated assuming any of the following relations : (i) Ws ∞ L × weight per foot amidships Ws ∞ L. E < 1. B. 000 6.041 – 0.

103 1 + 17( L − 110 ) 2 10 −6 t m3 for 80 m ≤ L ≤ 180 m for normal ships t [0.113 to 0.7 CBD L Wst ( ± ) = ∇ u C1 [1 + 0.033 ( D − 12 ) ] [1 + 0.92 + (1 − C BD )    [ ] Depending on the steel construction the tolerance width of the result will be somewhat greater than that of normal cargo ships.98) ] [ C1 = 0. The factor 0.92 + (1 − C ) ] 2 BD [1 + 0.121 C1 = 0.102 to 0.06( n − D ) ] 4 B [1 + 0.05 (1.85  0.093 may vary between .116 5.002( L − 120 ) 10 −3 2 Wst = ∇ u [ ]  L   30  1 + 0.25 for ship forms with little flame flare = 0. C3 = 0.02  D − 0.1.057  D − 12   ( D + 14 )       2  B   1 + 0.85) ] D Restriction imposed on the formula : L < 9 .2( T − 0.∇u L B D C BD + Ls B ( su + sϑ ) C 2 + L B b C 3 + ∑ l L bL hL                 =      ∇D ∇s ∇b ∇L CBD = C B + C 4 D −T (1 − C B ) T Where C4 = 0.75 C BD ( C M − 0.3 t t m3 m3 for 80 m ≤ L ≤ 150 m of passenger ships for 100 m ≤ L ≤ 150 m of refrigerated ships ] m3 Schneekluth’s Method for Steel Weight of container Ships 0.01 − 2.4 for ship forms with marked flame flare C2 = ( C BD ) b 2 3 . and D C1 the volumetric weight factor and dependent on ship type and measured in C1 = 0.093 1 + 0.1  D      1 2  T  2 1 + 0.85 − D ) ] [1 + 0.

48 t / TEU Detachable 1 t / TEU 0.1 − 12  D   ) This correction is valid for ships between 100 m and 180 m length (b) No correction for wing tank is needed (c) The formulae can be applied to container ships with trapizoidal midship sections.09 and 0 the under deck volume contains the volume of a short forecastle for the volume of hatchways The ratio L should not be less than 10 D Farther Corrections : (a) where normal steel is used the following should be added : δ Ws t ( % ) = 3. higher latchways.4 Steel Weight Estimations : other formulations For containce Ships : . the lashings weigh : for 20 ft containers 0.45 t / TEU 0. Container Cell Guides Container cell guides are normally included in the steel weight.031 t / TEU mixed stowage 0. These are around 5% lighter (d) Further corrections can be added for ice-strengthening. Ship type Vessel Vessel Integrated Integrated Length (ft) 20 40 20 40 Fixed 0.7 t / TEU 0. higher speeds.0.5 (  L  L − 10 1 + 0.043 t / TEU 5.75 t / TEU 0.024 t / TEU 40 ft containers 0. Weight of container cell guides.1.7 t / TEU - Where containers are stowed in three stacks. different double bottom height.

D → metres For tankers :  L L    Wst = ∆ α L + α T 1. Chapman] 1.054 + 0.3  + 0. Miller] Wst → tonnes 0. 78  100 L  0. 9 L. 759 .Wst = 0. 712 .004  ∗ 0.7 −  B D     DNV – 1972 where L   0. B 0. [K.0832 x e −5.004  ∗ 0. D → metres For Dry Cargo vessels Wst = 0. B.009 − 0.00585 − 8.000)  0. B. 73 x 10 where x = 12 −7 2 L pp B 3 CB [wehkamp / kerlen] Wst = C B3 2 LB 0.675 +  ∗ 0. B. D 0.007 L1.002   + 1   D     [ Ccmyette’s formula as represented by watson & Gilfillan ] Wst → tonnes L.97 B αL =  0.06 ∗  28.189 ∗    D  . 72 D 6 2   L 0.8   CB   L  Wst = 340 ( LBD 100. 374 pp Wst → steel weight in tonns L pp .939 2  D       [D. D → are in metres. R.

5 C B + 0. 3 for ∆ < 600000 t for ∆ > 600000 t L ≤7 B 150 m ≤ L ≤ 480 m For Bulk Carriers  B T  ( 0.1697 L1.73 + 0.07  1. 56  +  ∗ [J.0252 ∗    100000  Range of Validity : 10 ≤ 5≤ L ≤ 14 D 0. ∆  α T = 0.8 D 2 L L   L − 200   Wst = 4.029 + 0.4 ) Wst = 0.215 − 0. valid for a length upto 380 m 5. Corrections may be made as follows: For m/c aft deduct 5% .146 − 0.2.274 Z 0.0163  D D  [DNV 1972] here Z is the section modulus of midship section area The limits of validity for DNV formulae for bulkers are same as tankers except that is.1 Machinery Weight Murirosmith Wm = BHP/10 = SHP/17 = SHP/ 30 + 200 + + tons diesel 280 200 tons turbine tons turbine (cross channel) This includes all weights of auxiliaries within definition of m/c weight as part of light weight.42 − 0. Hurrey] 0. 62 L 1.025  1 +  B B 1800   L L  ∗  2.2 5.035   0.00235 ∗    100000   ∆  α T = 0. M.

7 for tankers = 0.1 Wood and Outfit Wight (Wo) Watson and Gilfilla W and G (RINA 1977): (figure taken from [1]) .84 Wm (diesel) = ∑12 [ MCRi / RPMi ] + Auxiliary wt .001 (MCR) Auxiliary weight = 0.For twin-screw ships add 10% and For ships with large electrical load add 5 to 12% 5.2.78 Wm (gas turbine) = 0.3.7 for bulk and general cargo vessel = 0.3 5.69 (MCR)0. i Wm (diesel-electric) = 0.7 for passenger ships and ferries = 0.2 Watson and Gilfillan 0.83 (MCR)0.19 for frigates and Convetters MCR is in kw and RPM of the engine 5.72 (MCR)0.72 (M CR)0.

2..17-0. Schneekluth Out Fit Weight Estimation Cargo ships at every type No = K. Basic Ship Wo can be estimated from basic ship using any of the proportionalities given below: 5.34-0. L. B. B → meters Where the value of K is as follows (a) (b) (c) Type Cargo ships Container ships Bulk carriers without cranes With length around 140 m With length around 250 m Crude oil tankers: K 0. Wo → tonnes.3. L.25 t/m2 0.38 t/m2 0.5.40-0.18 t/m2 (d) .3.22-0.45 t/m2 0.3.

.25 t/m2 0.5 to ¾ % ¾ to 1 % 5.6 Dead weight Estimation At initial stage deadweight is supplied.005 do 1.13 x (area)9/2 tonnes Propeller Displacement = 0.5% Naval Ships 3.008) where 1.7 for fine and 1.With lengths around 150 m With lengths around 300 m Passenger ships – Cabin ships W0 = K ∑ ∇ where 0. However. all major alterations are added or substracted.4 Margin on Light Weight Estimation Ship type Margin on Wt Cargo ships 1.5 to 2.5% Passenger ships 2 to 3.05 t/m2 Wo α L × B or W02 = W0 L L 2 B 2 + × 2 L1 B1 Where suffix 2 is for new ship and 1 is for basic ship.01 x d3 tonnes ∆ ext = ∆ ext + ∆ app. 5. From this. (ii) (iii) (iv) where C = 0. 5. Rudder Displacement = 0.039 t m 3 Passenger ships with large car transporting sections and passenger ships carrying deck passengers W0 = K ∑ ∇ .036 t m 3 − 0.17 t/m2 ∑∇ total volume 1n m3 K = 0.5 to 7% Margin on VCG 0.04 t/m2 – 0.4 for full bossings d: Propeller diameter.008 for small craft.5 Displacement Allowance due to Appendages ( ∆ αPP ) (i) Extra displacement due to shell plating = molded displacement x (1.005 is for ULCCS and 1. where K = 0.

01t / (person x day) 5.81 – CB ) ( L/D )2 ] + 0.135 ( 0. 6.Dwt = WC arg o + WHFO + WDO + WLO + WFW + WC & E + WPR Where WCargo : Cargo weight (required to be carried) which can be calculated from cargo hold capacity range × m arg in WHFO = SFC x MCR x speed Where SFC : specific fuel consumption which can be taken as 190gm/kw hr for DE and 215gm/kw hr for 6T (This includes 10% excess for ship board approx ) Range: distance to be covered between two bunkeriy port margin : 5 to 10% WDO : Weight of marine diesel oil for DG Sets which is calculated similar to above based on actual power at sea and port(s) WLO : weight of lubrication oil WLO = 20 t for medium speed DE =15 t for slow speed DE WFW : weight of fresh water WFW = 0. 120 m < L (1) .0 Estimation of Centre of Mass The VCG of the basic hull can be estimated using an equation as follows: VCGhull = 0.17t / person WPR : weight of provisions and stores WPR = 0.008D ( L/B – 6.7 Therefore weight equation to be satisfied is ∆ ext = Light ship weight + Dead weight where light ship weight = steel weight + wood and out fit weight + machinery weight + margin.17 t/(person x day) WC&E : weight of crew of fresh water WC&E : 0.6 + 0.5 ).135 (0. L ≤ 120 m = 0.81 – CB ) ( L/D )2 ].01D [ 46.6 + 0.01D [ 46.

This approach captures the influence of the machinery and deckhouse locations on the associated outfit weight at the earliest stages of the design. = D + 2.This may be modified for superstructure & deck housing The longitudinal position of the basic hull weight will typically be slightly aft of the LCB position. .7 + 0. With these known.15 + LCB Where both LCG and LCB are in percent ship length positive forward of amidships. The vertical center of the outfit weight is typically above the main deck and can be estimated using an equation as follows: VCGo = D + 1. D.0. The vertical center of the machinery weight will depend upon the inner bottom height hbd and the height of the engine room from heel. Waston gives the suggestion: LCGhull = .25. the VCG of the machinery weight can be estimated as: VCGM = hdb + 0.01(L-125). L ≤ 125 m 125 < L ≤ 250 m The longitudinal center of the outfit weight depends upon the location of the machinery and the deckhouse since significant portions of the outfit are in those locations. LCGo = ( 25% Wo at LCGM. In order to estimate the height of the inner bottom.35 ( D’-hdb ) Which places the machinery VCG at 35% of the height within the engine room space. and 37.25 + 0. 37.417 L (cm) Us Coast Guard The inner bottom height might be made greater than indicated by these minimum requirements in order to provide greater double bottom tank capacity. meet double hull requirements.5% at LCG dh. minimum values from classification and Cost Guard requirements can be consulted giving for example: hdb ≥ 32B + 190 T (mm) (ABS) or hdb ≥ 45. or to allow easier structural inspection and tank maintenance.5% at amid ships) The specific fractions can be adapted based upon data for similar ships. The remainder of the outfit weight is distributed along the entire hull.50. = D + 1. The centers of the deadweight items can be estimated based upon the preliminary inboard profile arrangement and the intent of the designer.

75 0.778 0. Vol. + extra vol.: Capacity = C1 + C2 + C3 Where C1 : Grain capacitay of space between keel and line parallel to LWL drawn at the lowest point of deck at side.G.751 0.90 x Grain Capacity. no.77 0. Tank capacity = Max.73 0.85D can be calculated for the design ship from the relationship dcu 1 = dT 10. Bale capacity 0. tanks : 2 to 2 % of mid. O. of containers below deck (TEU) and above dk. 2 4 1 to 1.edcape hatched etc – vol. C1 = LBP x Bml x Dmld x C C: CB at C capacity coefficient as given below 0.(without heating coils): 4 4 1 9 2 to 2 % of mid vol.85D 0. (with heating coils):1% for 2 4 cargo oil tanks 1 1 Structurals for BW/FW tanks: 2 to 2 for d. 1 Structurals for holds : 1 to 2% of mid vol. tanks non-cemented. Grain capacity can be estimated by using any one of 3 methods given below as per ref.78 0.b.787 CB at 0. tunnel.T The C.0 Estimation of Capacity Grain Capacity = Moulded Col.5 % for deep tanks for FO/BW/PW. Grain capacity for underdeck space for cargo ships including machinery space. of structurals. 2 1 1 Structurals for F.74 0.515 x D above tank top. tanks cemented.769 0.b. 4 2 1 3 2 to 2 % for d.760 0. of C1 can be taken as 0. due to hatch (m3) coamings. .7. bunkers etc. MSD by Munro-Smith: 1.76 0.742 0.

camber line and sheer line are parabolic.CB/100(ft3) Grain Cap. Under deck capacity of new ship. 1/6(SF + SA)/DH C9/DH 0. C3 = 0.C2 : C2 : Volume between WL at lowest point of sheer and sheer line at side. + tank top ceiling) Grain capacity below upper deck and above tank top including non cargo spaces is given as: LBDC.02.236 X S X B X LBP/2 with centroid at 0.259S above WL at lowest point of sheer Where S = sheer forward + sheer aft. Both forward and aft calculations are done separately and added. for CB = 0.b.2365 + 0.002.85 D.556 0. of cargo spaces + under dk non-cargo spaces – hatchways. (ft3 ) III. From basic ship: C1: C2: C2= Under dk sapacity of basic ship = Grain cap. From the capacity thus obtained.06 0.10 0. Capacity Depth DC DC = Dmld + ½ camber + 1/6 (SA + SF) – (depth of d. non cargo spaces are deducted and extra spaces as hatchways etc.583 For an increase of decrease of CB by 0.381 x camber at above WL at lowest point of sheer. C1 × L 2 B 2 Dc 2 − C B 2 L1 B1 D1C BL 2000 2000 3000 3000 4000 4000 5000 5050 6000 6100 7000 7150 8000 8200 Where CB is taken at 0. II.76 at 0. C2 and C3 are calculated on the assumption that deck line. are added go get the total grain capacity.85 D If DH : Depth of hold amidships and C9 : cintoroid of this capacity above tank top then.12 0.573 0. . 0.548 x camber at midship x B x LBP/ 2 with centriod at 0.08 0.565 0. C9/DH is decreased or increased by 0.

102) .can be found out as follows: Breadth and Draught correction can be applied using Mumford indices (moor and small. Moor and Small Have proposed L   H ∆1 / 3 V 3  40 + 400 ( K − 1) 2 −12 C B   200  SHP = 1500 − N γ L Where N : RPM H : Hull correction factor = 0. form. Fn ).0 Power Estimation For quick estimation of power: (a) (b) SHP 0. No. vol 102. (d) (i) From basic ship: If basic ship EHP is known.8.5813 [ DWT / 1000] 3 V0 Admirality coefficient is same for similar ships (in size.9 for welded construction K :To beobtained from Alexander ' s formula L : in ft . AC = ∆ 2/3 V 9 BHP Where AC = AdmiralityCoefficent ∆ = Displacement in tons V = Speed in Knots (c) In RINA. ∆ in tons. vol.5 = 0. EHP for a new ship with similar hull form and Fr. RINA..V in knots.

62 0. V : knots ∆ V 3 × 427. Nec.Θ B new = basic  n B  b Θ     X −2 / 3  Tn  T  b     Y −2/3 Where x = 0.55 0. 79. = .1 2/3 0.60 Where Θ= (ii) EHP andwhere ∆ : tons.50 0. L. 1962-63).58 0. 1/ 2 ρ S V 2 RF 1/ 2 ρ S V 2 CF = S= ∆.54 0.60 0.9 and y is given as a function of V / γ L as V 0.80 0.55 0. ( log10 Rn − 2) 2 VL v 0.57 0.64 Length correction as suggested by wand G (RINA 1977) @ L1 − @ L2 = 4( L2 − L1 ) x 10 − 4 This correction is approximate where L : ft.70 γL γ 0.65 0. (e) Estimation of EHP from series Data wetted surface Area S in m 2 is given as 2π η η = Wetted surface efficiency (see diagram of Telfer.075 Where Rn : Re ynold ' s No. ∇ = m 3 . Vol. The non-dimensional resistance coefficients are given as RR = This can be estimated from services data with corrections. L = m CR = CF = From ITTC.75 0.

139 ×10 −6 m 2 / sec for fresh water C A = Roughness Allowance or C A = ( 0.0004 in general Where RT is the bare hull resis tan ce.004 Lw l ) ×10 − 3 where Lw l is in m CT = C F + C R + C A = RT 1/ 2 ρ S V 2 = 0. To get total resistance. EPH service = EHPLrial × (1. Appendage resistance must be added to this: Twin Screw Bossings A bracket Twin Rudder Bow Thruster Ice Knife If resistance is in Newtons and V is in m/sec.v = Kinematic coefficient of Viscocity and =1.25) KW .1.W ..5% SHP = QPC =η 0 η H η R = K − Where N = RPM L = LB P in m .188 ×10 −6 m 2 / sec for sea water and for F . (f) EHP from statistical Data : See Holtrop and Mannen. ISP 1981/1984 (given at the end of these notes) (g) Estimation of SHP or shaft horse power EHPservice QPC Nγ L 10000 8 to 10% 5% 3% 2 to 5% 0.8 − 0.1to 1.

Thus PEN trial (Naked hull HP) Allowance 0.85 to 0.K = 0.0 9.84 For fixed pitch propellers = 0.95) Thus engine selected must have MCR as MCR = BHPs / 0.1 Seakeeping Requirement Bow Freeboard Fbow losses PET service PES Allowance QPC Shafting SHP .82 For controllable pitch propellers can be estimated more accurately later (h) BHPs BHPs = SHP + Transmission losses Transmission loss can be taken as follows: Aft Engine Engine Semi aft Gear losses (i) Selection of Engine Power: 1% 2% 3 to 4% The maximum continuous rating (MCR) of a diesel engine is the power the engine can develop for long periods.95 MCR BHPs (NCR) Select Engine 9.95. Thus CSR of NCR (Normal Continuous Rating) = MCR× ( 0.85 to 0. So Engine manufactures recommend the continuous service rating (CSR) to be slightly less than MCR. By continuous running of engine at MCR may cause excessive wear and tear.85 / 0.

036 0. heave.046 0.075 (b) Probability of Deckwetness P for various Fbow / L values have been given in Dynamics of Marine Vehicles.50 KB .90 0.015 400 122 600 183 800 244 Estimate Fbow check for deckwetness probability and see if it is acceptable.058 0. Fbow Should also be checked from load line requirement. A more complex parametric model for estimating the roll natural period that yields the alternative result for the parameter κ is .70 0.00 generally.056 0. by R.V γL Fbow L 0. Their effectiveness usually depends upon the hull form being close to the norm.82 for merchant hulls and 0.026 0.007 k11 / G M t Where k11 is the roll radius of gyration. With 0.026 0.60 0.056 0.40 B .048 0. which can be related to the ship beam using: k11 = 0. An approximate roll natural period can be derived using a simple one-degree of freedom model yielding: Tφ = 2.69 ≤ κ ≤ 1.Bhattacharya: L( f t) L ( m) 200 61 Fbow / L for P= 0.020 0.80 0.045 0.046 0.080 0. Using κ 11 ≈ 0. 9.037 0.76 ≤ κ ≤ 0.2 Early estimates of motions natural frequencies effective estimates can often be made for the three natural frequencies in roll.1% 1% 10% 0.032 0. and pitch based only upon the characteristics and parameters of the vessel.

An alternative parametric model reported by Lamb can be used for comparison: Tθ =1. A resulting parametric model has been reported by Lamb: Th = 2.36 / T ) ) Pitch is a heavily-damped (non resonant) mode. these conditions often cannot be avoided. Tφ = Tθ . Th = Tθ . Early design checks typically try to avoid having Th = Tφ . Tφ = 2Tθ .2 − D / T ) + ( D / B ) ) 2 Roll is a lightly damped process so the natural period can be compared directly with the domonant encounter period of the seaway to establish the risk of resonant motions. and θ w = 18 0 • Head seas.776 C −1 w p / (T C B ( 0. . the peak frequency of an ISSC spectrum is located at 4.0 − C B ) ( 2.κ = 0. and θ w is the wave angle relative • • to the ship heading with θ w = 0 following seas.007 k 22 / GM L Where now k 22 is the pitch radius of gyration. An approximate pitch natural period can also be derived using a simple one. which could lead to significant mode coupling.crested oblique seas is given by: Te = 2 π / (ω − (Vω 2 / g ) cos θ w ) Where ω is the wave frequency. V is ship speed.2) − 1.6 + 0.degree of freedom model yielding: Tθ = 2. The encounter period in long. For reference.24 L ≤ k 22 ≤ 0. but early design checks typically try to avoid critical excitation by at least 10% An approximate heave natural period can also be derived using a simple one degree-of-freedom model.724 (C B ( C B + 0.85 T1−1 with T1 the characteristics period of the seaway. 2Th = Tθ . θ w = 9 0 beam seas. which can be related to the ship length by noting that 0.007 (T C B ( B + 3T + 1.26 L. For many large ships. however.2 ) × (1.2 ) / C w p ) Like pitch. heave is a heavily damped (non resonant) mode.1 ( C B + 0.

9. Note also that added waterplane forward is about 4. Since ˆ the objective for superior seakeeping is high R . 4. 10. Choose L B T C B from empirical data and get ∆ Such that ( d w / ∆ ) basic = ( d w / ∆ ) new .1 Difference Equations . Thus. Basic Ship Method Choose basic ship such that V / γ L. ship type and are nearly same and detailed information about the basic ship is available. 3. 5. V-shaped hull sections forward provide the best way to achieve greater wave damping in heave and pitch and improve vertical plane seakeeping. 2.5 times as effective as aft and lower vertical prismatic forward is about 1.5 C v p f −15. Use inference equation wherever necessary 10. B. Choose L .033. Satisfy weight equation by extrapolating lightship from basic ship data.3 Overall Seakeeping Ranking used Bales regression analysis to obtain a rank estimator for vertical plane seakeeping performance of combatant monohulls. can be seen to provide improved vertical plane seakeeping. high C w p and low C v p . ˆ This estimator R yields a ranking number between 1 (poor seakeeping) and 10 (superior seakeeping) and has the following form: ˆ R = 8.1C w p a − 378 T / L + 1.27 C / L − 23. For stability assume ( KG / D) basic = ( KG / D ) new with on your deletion Check capacity using basic ship method. 1.9 C v p a Here the waterplane coefficient and the vertical prismatic coefficient are expressed separately for the forward (f) and the aft (a) portions of the hull.42 + 45. T .1C w p f + 10. C B etc as above to get ∆ new = L B T C B ×1.03 to 1.5 times as effective ˆ as aft in increasing R . Corresponding to V-shaped hulls.

T . L : f t φ = 156 . to improve the values of BM by dBM. Similarly. B. For example ∆ = L. log ∆ = log L + log B + log T + log C B + log ρ Assuming ρ to be constant and differentiating. 500 for large passenger lines . B. 850 for ships with fine lines = 143. in in 2 ft 2 ∆ : tons. one or some of the parameters L. i. d ∆ d L d B d T d CB = + + + ∆ L B T CB So if a change of d∆ is required in displacement. one can write B M α B2 /T or B M = k × B 2 / T or log BM = log k + 2 log B − log T Differentiating and assuming k constant dBM dB dT =2 − BM B T 11.These equations are frequently used to alter main dimensions for desired small changes in out put. or C B can be altered so that above equation is satisfied. 11. C B ρ Or. hull frequency is N = φγ  I   3  ∆ L  (cpm) [Schlick] Where I : Midship m .1 Hull Vibration Calculation For two node Vertical Vibration. T .

2 L2 ( 3B / D + 1) 3 2 rS : shear correction = ( ) .000.5 D 3( B / D ) + 9( B / D ) + 6( B / D ) + 1. others in British unit 3. dk C1 Tankers Cargo Vessels Passenger Vessels With s. 3   B . DE N = C1   3 (cpm)  (1.s 44000 1/ 2 C2 28 25 20 52000 46750   Ι N =φ  3   ∆ L (1 + B / 2T ) (1 + rS )  Burill Where φ = 2. I : ft4 .2 + B / 3T ) L ∆)  1/ 2 + C2 [ Todd] Where DE : effective depth DE : ∑ D13 L1 / L [ ] 1/ 3 Where D1: Depth from keel to dk under consideration L1 : Length of s.400.s.= 127. This is refined to take into account added mass and long s . 900 for cargo ships (cpm) N = βγ  BD 3   3 ∆L  B: breadth in ft and D : Depth upto strength dk in ft.s. decks as.

2 Hull Vibration (Kumai) Kumai’s formula for two nodded vertical vibration is (1968) N2v = 3.845 general cargo ships .2 +  3 Tm    ∆ = displacement   including virtual added mass of water (tons) L = length between perpendicular (m) B= Breadth amidship (m) Tm == mean draught (m) The higher noded vibration can be estimated from the following formula by Johannessen and skaar (1980) N nv ≈ N 2v ( n − 1) ∝ Then ∝ = 0.000 for cargo ships 38.N2V 11. N2V N4V = 3.700 for tankers with long framing 34. 07 * 106 Then Iv = ∆i = Ιv cpm ∆i L3 Moment of inertia (m4)  1 B 1.6 T1 )  1/ 2 where [ Bunyan] K= 48.165 for cargo ships All units are in British unit.K N= n L   T DE    C B ( B + 3.400 for cargo ships long framed n= 1. T1 : Mean draught for condition considered T : Design Draught N3V = 2.23 for tankers 1.

. B 3  = βH  3   ∆. n should not exceed 5 or 6 in order to remain within range validity for the above equation. L  1/ 2 cpm [Brown] Where β H = 42000.00 for two node. hull frequency is N2H  D.5 N 2 v N 3 H = 2. N 1 − T 5 1/ 2 cpm [Horn] = 3.4 Torsional Vibration For Torsional vibration. N 2 H =1. N 3 − T I p = 4 A2 / Σ ds 4 ( ft ) (This formulae is exact for hollow circular cylinder) T A = Area enclosed by section in ft 2 d g = Element length along enclosing shell and deck ( ft ) t= Corresponding thickness in ( ft ) L. hull frequency is Ip   N T = 3 ×10 C  2  2  B + D L.1. ∆ : tons.2 bulk carriers Tankers N2V is the two noded vertical natural frequency. 11. N 2 H N 4 H = 3N 2 H 11. other quantities in British units. B. N 2 − T = 4.07 for three node . D : ft .58 for one node.3 Horizontal Vibration For 2 node horizontal vibration. ∆  C = 1.0 1.

VOl. 1977. RINA. M. BSRA.analysis of Resistance and Propulsion Data ISP 1984. References 1.5 Resonance Propeller Blade Frequency = No.H Schneekluth. 17. ILLC Rules 1966. Indian Register of ships. A. I. 1977. R. 11. 9. Ayre. The Naval Architect (RINA). M. Ship Design for Efficiency and Economy. Ship Hull Vibration F. D. NECIES. ‘Applied Naval Architecture’. 1977. ‘Engineering Economics in ship Design. Butterworth. Aa Harvald Report 1974. Goldhommce & Sr. Eames and T. American Bureau of ships.W. 2003. 5. IINA. some ship Design Methods’ RINA.Munro. Mishra. 2. Holtrop.H. 3. J. Todd (1961) 13.An approach to Small Warship Design’. Gilfillan. Waston and A. Engine RPM is to be so chosen that hull vibration frequency and shaft and propeller frequency do not coincide to cause resonance.L Buxton. 4. 14. 8. 12. G. Munro-Smith 10. Ship Resistance. L. C. Munro-Smith 7. Drummond.H. C. ‘Merchant Ship Design’. E. 64.A statistical Re. 1979.Classification Rules 16. 1987. R. R. P. of blades × shaft frequency. N. . ‘Concept Exploration. Townsin. ‘ShipDesign and Construction’ edited by Thomas Lab SNAME.Classification Rules 15.Smith 6.11. ‘Elements of Naval Architecture’ R.

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Resistance Estimation Statistical Method (HOLTROP) 1984 R Total = R F (1 + K 1 ) + R App + RW + R B + RTR + R A Where: R F = Frictional resistance according to ITTC – 1957 formula K 1 = Form factor of bare hull RW = Wave – making resistance RB = Additional pressure resistance of bulbous bow near the water surface RTR = Additional pressure resistance due to transom immersion R A = Model –ship correlation resistance R App = Appendage resistance The viscous resistance is calculated from: 1 Rv = ρ v 2 C F 0 (1 + K 1 ) S 2 Where …………….011 C Stern 0.4611 .4871c ( B / L ) 1.93 + 0. ( T / L ) 0.12 1 + K 1 = 0. ( L / LR ) 0.6042 .3649 C Stern = -25 for prom with gondola = -10 for v-shaped sections = 0 for normal section shape = +10 for U-shaped section with hones stern . (1 − C P )  L / ∇   C is a coefficient accounting for the specific shape of the after body and is given by C = 1+0.(i) C F 0 = Friction coefficient according to the ITTC – 1957 frictional = ( log10 Rn − 2) 2 0.0681 .075 1 + K 1 was derived statistically as 3  − 0.

including the effect of appendages. 1 + K = 1 + K 1 + [1 + K 2 − (1 + K 1 ) ] Where K 2 = Effective form factor of appendages S app = Total wetted surface of appendages S tot S app S tot = Total wetted surface of bare hull and appendages The effective factor is used in conjunction with a modified form of equation (i) Rv = 1 ρV 2 C Fo S tot (1 + K ) 2 The effective value of K 2 when more than one appendage is to be accounted for can be determined as follows S (1 + k 2 ) i (1 + k 2 ) effective = ∑ i ∑ Si In which S i and (1 + k 2 ) i are the wetted area and appendage factor for the i th appendage .2862 C M − 0.003467 B + 0.LR is the length of run – can be estimated as LR / L = 1 − C p + 0.5 ( 0. All coefficient are based on length on waterline.06 C p LCB / ( 4 C p −1) S is the wetted surface area and can be estimated from the following statistically derived formula: 0 S = L ( 2T + B ) C M.38 AB r / C B Where T = Average moulded draught in m L = Waterline length in m B = Moulded breadth in m LCB = LCB ford’s ( + ) or aft ( − ) of midship as a percentage of L AB r = Cross sectional area of the bulb in the vertical plane intersecting the stern contour at the water surface.4425 C B − 0.3696 C wp ) + 2.4530 + 0. The resistance of appendages was also analysed and the results presented in the form of an effective form factor.

5 to 2.3333 L  4  C4 = B  L  C 4 = 0.0 2.9 ( ) ≤ 0.0625 L  B  d = -0.0 1.3757 B with:  C = 0.8 2.7301 − 0.3 to 1. λ and m are coefficients which depend on the hull form.TABLE: EFFECTIVE FORM FACTOR VALUES K 2 FOR DIFFERENT APPENDAGES Type of appendage Rudder of single screw ship Spade type rudder of twin screw ship Skeg-rudder of twin screw ships Shaft Brackets Bossings Bilge keels Stabilizer fins Shafts Sonar dome value of (1 + k 2 ) 1.7932 B − C 5 L L  for C p ≤ 0.4 the following coefficients were derived 3 C1 = 2223105 C 4 .034 Fn −3.4 e −0.5 2.5 − 0.0796 ( 90 − i E ) −1. C 3 .7861 (T B ) 1.9844 C 3  p   C 5 = 1.24 .8673 C p + 6.8 ( ) 2 C 5 = 8.25 L for B ≥ 0.0 3. results in the typical humps and hollows in the resistance curves.8 for C p ≥ 0.7067 C p  m2 = C 6 0.4 2.01404 L with: ( T ) − 1.7525 ∇      − 4.25 L for 1 3 m1 = 0. The interaction between the transverse waves. λL is the wave making length. accounted for by the cosine term.7 For wave-making resistance the following equation of Havelock (1913) Was simplified as follows: d Rw = c1 c2 c3 e m1Fn + m2 cos λ Fn−2 W ( ) In this equation C1 . For low-speed range Fn ≤ 0.0798 C p − 13.8 1. C 2 .2296 B 0.11 L for 0.11 ≤ B ≤ 0.0 2.

56 ABT5 i represents the effect of submergence of the bulb as determine by i = T f − hB − 0.8(Ta − T f  − 162.3 C M1.2035 B ( L) 0.P i E = 125.03 L B λ = 1. otherwise ABT ν B C 2 = e −1.0  / 2.69385 6   C 6 = − 1. For high speed range Fn ≥ 0.P Tf = moulded draught at F.4069 m1 = −7.8 AT / ( BTC M ) C3 accounts for the influence of transom stern on the wave resistance AT is the immersed area of the transom at zero speed.1551  LCB +  L T  where Ta = moulded draught at A.25 C + 234.6054 .0098 ( L B − 2) 1.3269 (T B ) 0. Coefficients C1 and m1 are modified as follows − C1 = 6919.3 ) 2.with:  C = − 1.55 .36    ∇ 3  → ≤ 512 ∇ 3 for 512 ≤ L ≤ 1727 ∇ 3 for L 3 for L ∇ ≥ 1727 λ = 1.69385 +   C = 0.4464 ν B where Tf = moulded draught at FP hB = height of the centroid of the area ABT above the base line C 3 = 1 − 0. ν B = 0.446 C p − 0.0 6  → L   1 − 8.89 BT (ν B + i ) where ν B is the effective bulb radius.67 B i E = half angle of entrance of the load waterline in degrees ( ) 2 p 3 p )    3 The value C2 accounts for the effect of the bulb.446 C p − 0.0 if no bulb’s fitted. equivalent to 0.3.346 ( ∇ / L. C2 = 1.32 C + 0.36 where ( ) for L for L B B ≤ 12 ≥ 12 6.

5  { }    The formula derived for the model-ship correlation allowance CA is C A = 0.W 2 W .04 C C 2 ( 0.16 0.006 ( LWL + 100 ) −0. Total resistance R 1 RT = ρ ν 2 S tot [ C F (1 + k ) + C A ] + W .4 ≤ Fn ≤ 0.04 where C2 is the coefficient adopted to account for the influence of the bulb.003 ( LWL / 7.55 − RWFn04 RW 1  =  RWFn04 + W W 1.16 − 0.5) C A = 0.006 ( LWL + 100 ) for TF / LWL ≥ 0.00205 + 0.4) RWFn0.5 − 0.For intermediate speed range ( 0.00205  − 0.55) the following interpolation is used (10 Fn − 0.04 − TF / LWL ) 4 B for TF / LWL ≥ 0.