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PSY 106: Ch.

1 - Introduction Vision = several mechanisms involved


Primitive system = visual system of
INTRO animals/fish/frogs
Nervous system = all we can do, know, o Control eye movements
experience Mammalian system
Universal: curiosity o Ability to see world around us
o Explain what makes things happen After mammalian system is damaged,
Animism: spirits caused stuff in nature to primitive system - guides movements
move Visual info can control beh without
o Still used spirits to explain human producing conscious sensation
beh Consciousness = not all parts of the brain
Sth intangible animates them
Mind-body question Split Brains
o What role does the mind play Disconnect part of brain rel. to
o Ctrl NS consciousness = disconnected verbal beh.
o Part of NS? From consciousness
o SPIRIT? Parts of brain involved in verbal beh =
Dualism consciousness
o Mind and body = separate Epilepsy
o Body = ordinary matter o One side of brain = overexcited
o Mind is not o Transfer it to other side of brain
Monism through Corpus Callosum
o Everthing = matter and energy Large bundle of nerve vibers
o Mind is a phenom produced by NS that connect brain
Beh neuroscientsts = empircal practical o Wild activity = seizure
monistic approach Cutting corpus callosum = reduced
All we can detect = laboratory epileptic seizures
o Manifestations of Phys world: matter o Split-brain operation
and energy Cerebral hemispheres - receive sensory info
, symmetrical halves of the brain
Understanding Human Consciousness: A o Control movement of opposite sides
Physiological Approach o Corpus callosum - permits them to
Scientific approach to human consciousness share info
is possible After operation
Consciousness o Hemispheres = disconnected
o Simple wakefulness o Operate indie
o The fact that we humans are aware of o Not obvious effects
and can tell others about our Only one hemisphere controls
thoughts perceptions memories and speech = left
feelings o Parang left hand has a mind of its
o Can be altered by chem of brain = own
physio f(x) Puts book down bc boring
o Communication (cant read)
Olfactory system = exception
Blindsight o Left nostril = left brain
Damage to particular part of the brain o Tells what odors are bc the left brain
Perceptions must enter consciousness to also controls speech
affect behavior = incorrect o If smelled by right nostril, only left
Behavior = guided by sensory info of which hand can move
we are completely unaware o Right hand cant move bc left
Ex. hemisphere did not smell it
o Blind person can point to cane
Conscious = only if info about is able to Parietal cortex knew it was
reach part of brain responsible for verbal congruent, info was
comm transmitted to premotor cortex
Rise of feeling of
Unilateral Neglect ownership
Failure to notice things located to the left o Stabbed with needle
Damage to particular part of right side of Increased activity in anterior
the brain cingulate cortex
o Cortex Activated when person
o Parietal lobe anticipates pain
Receives info from skin, Reactions: react as if
muscles, joints, organs, their own hand was the
Body and position target
Auditory and visual info
Put together info about The Nature of Behavioral Neuroscience
movements and location of
body with the location of space The Goals of Research
Know what to do/how to Scientific explanation
move o Generalization
Not blind not numb Beh = examples of general
Can see things on left, can tell if someone is laws
touching left side of body Conditioning etc
Ignore these stimuli and act as if left side of o Reduction
bodies dont exist Explain complex in terms of
Inattention to things on the left - do not simpler ones
become conscious Movement of muscles =
Also neglect left halves of other things changes in membranes
o But to ignore left side, you have to of muscle cells
perceive entire object (how will u Beh NS-ists = not simply reductionists
know where the middle was?) o Identical beh may occur for diff
Know about all buildings but they can only reasons and maybe initiated by diff
visualize the ones on the right of their visual physio mech
field o Understand what function it
Two symptoms: performs before we understand what
o Neglect of left halves of things in physio events made it occur
envi Physio mech - tell us sth about psych
o Neglect of left half of body processes
Good beh neuroscientis = expert in study
Perception of Self of beh and physio
Parietal lobe - body ownership
Rubber hand illusion Biological Roots of Behavioral
o If stroked similarly = feels like rubber Neuroscience
hand is their own Ancient people thought the heart was seat
o If not stroked similarly = not of thought and emotion
experience rubber hand as own Hippocrates: brain
o Increased activity in parietal lobe, Aristotle: brain vs heart
premotor cortex Rene Descartes
Began feeling as rubber hand is o Understand world = understand how
own = premotor cortex it was constructed
No premotor cortex = not o Reflexes
same stroke
Immediately withdraw from respon. for speech = Broca's
stimulus area
o Dualist Fritsch and Hitzig
Each person has a mind o Stimulation to diff parts of brain =
o Link exists bt. human mind and phys contraction of specific muscles on
housing opposite side of body
o Mind controlled movements of body o Primary motor cortex
o Body supplied mind with info abt Hermman von Helmholtz
envi o Ophthalmoscope
o Moving statues Retina
First model in studying how Color vision/blindness
nervous system works Speed of conduction (nerves)
Model More simple than electrical
works on known message
principles and does stuff
a more complex system Natural Selection and Evolution
can do
Models of brain Functionalism and the Inheritance of
depending on phone, Traits
computers
Darwin's theory
o Tested experimentally
o All char = significance
Galvani o Beh = not inherited
o Contraction of muscle - electrical
o Brain that causes beh to occur =
stimulation
inherited
o Ability to contract - characteristic of
Functionalism
tissues o Char of living org perform useful
Muller
functions
o Removing organs + test response to
Understand working of machinery = know
chem what its functions are
o Doctrine of specific nerve energies
Do not necessarily have purpose, but they
All nerves carry same
have a function
impulse/message = we
Ex. Camouflage
perceive the message in
Natural selection
different ways o Adaptive char
Messages occur in diff channels
If indiv char permit to reproduce more
Some parts perform some
successfuly, some of the indiv's offspring
functions while other parts will inherit favorable char.
perform others o Char = more prevalent in that species
Flourens
Mutations
o Experimental ablation
o Accidental changes in the
Removed brain = see what
chromosomes of sperms or eggs and
animal couldnt do
form new org
o Discovered regions of brain = heart
o Selective advantage
rate, breathing, visual, audio
Beneficial mutations
Broca o Effect of phys alteration affects beh
o Experimental ablation = human brain
Changes in brain = camouflage
Not remove
= more likely to escape survive
Observe stroke victims
produve offspring
Loss of ability to speak o Variety
Portion of cerebral cortex
Advantage
(front part of left side) =
Adapt more
Evolution of the Human Species Evolution of Large Brains
Evolution = gradual change in structure Advantages = humans
and physiology of plant and animal species o Bipedalism
o Vertebrates from the sea = o Linguistic ability
amphibians o Etc
o Reptiles Large brain = large skull
Egg = land Baby's head = small bc upright posture =
Anapsids = turtle smaller birth canal
Diapsids = dinosaur Then head grows/develops
Synapsids = mammals Body = prod brain with neural circuits that
Therapsids can be modified by experience
Dominant land Brain = general - purpose, programmable
animal comp
Extinction Human brain
Cynodant = o Brains = large (in
survivor -> proportion/percentage)
mammal Size of brain does not have to be
o Mammals proportional with the body
Predators = insects What counts - plenty of nerve cells that are
Had to be small vs dinosaurs available for learning, remembering,
Extinction reasoning, planning
Mammals = survived = fur, Brains vary in number of neurons in each
maintain body temp gram of tissue
Expanded Slowing process of brain dev = more time
o Cenozoic period for growth
After cretaceous period (dino) o Prenatal period of cell division in
Warmer than now brain is prolonged in humans
Primates = tropical forests o After birth, brain continues to grow
First primates - small and pryed
on insects Ethical Issues in Research with Animals
Larger forward facing eyes Humane and worthwhile
o Plants evolved Humane= matter of procedure
Dispersal of seeds - forest life o Comfortable, sanitary conditions
Sweet, nutritious fruit = o Anesthetics, analgesics
survive = seed dispersal Worthwhile
->fruit eating primates o Eat, train to do stuff, owning pets
o Hominids (humanlike apes) o Owning pets
Appeared in Africa Causes much more suffering
Savanna Not required to receive
Gather roots and tubers, hunt, permission from board
kill, defend of experts
Made tools Dogs and cats bc
Fire abandoned by former
o Closest relatives pet owners vs scientific
Chimps, gorillas, very little diff research
in DNA o Moral absolutes cannot be settled
o Homo erectus logically
Upright man Can be accepted/rejected but
o Homo neanderthalis not proved/disproved
Resembled modern human Animal rights activists
Tolls out of stone and wood o Disproportionate concern - focus on
o Homo sapiens = east africa research
o It is the one indispensable use of
animals
o If we dont use animals, how do we
treat disease
o Some: life of some animals > life of a
million humans
Research with animals - impt discoveries
Computers - not substitute for living orgs
Justify: actual and potential benefits to
human health
Understanding, pursuit of knowledge

Careers in Neuroscience
Beh neuroscientists
o Study beh phenomena that can be
observed in non human animals
o Study humans
o Study/understand physio beh
o Sleep, emo, ingestive, aggressive,
sexual, parenting, learning, memory
Neuroscience
o All aspects of nervous system
Neurology
o Practice of medicine
o Few = research
o Damaged brains
Experimental neuropsychology
o Scientists with PhD and specialized
training in the principles and
procedures of neurology