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(IF it K 1 I.-)v_lS:CllSS10ll I-"apc1' No.

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. Introduction . 94
Structural Details 95
. Distress Singnals 97
3 Work Strategy 98
. Diagnostic Tests 98
Q\U\-\UJt.\)|- Assessment of Root Causes, Extent of 102
Damage and Options of Repair
. Load Test 106
00\l . . Rehabilitation Scheme 108
9. Trafc Management 111
10. Problems in Execution 111
1 1. Quality Control 114
12. Some Relevant Lessons 115


The Pa P er describes the investigation and rehabilitation of Sharavathi Bridge on

NH-17 in Kamataka, indicating the modern forensic methods of investigation used, and
the purpose served by the selected methods. ItV highlights
' A the important,
' - rat h er crucia1 ro l e
o fcanal ytical studies in design office
_ . It also highlights the use of non-conventional method
of load testing used for veiifying the conclusions arrived at from investigations and desk

@ Written comments on this 15'aper are invited and will be received upto 15th December,
1999. ~
* Chief Engineer (VVest), I\/Iinistry of Surface Transpoit, New Delhi
** Engineer-in-Chief, Karnataka P.W.D., Bangalore
+ Vice-President, STUP Consultants Limited, Mumbai
++ Principal Executive, FPCC, Mumbai .
94 l3AI\llUlEE, SO.\.1ASl-lKll/\l<AllA, _iO(3l,I'-LK.l\l'< l\/l.-"~_|\'.llil'<li ow

The alternative options for short term and long term ruliabililation are mentioned
giving details of nally chosen options. The actual cxlveliencc of carrying out repairs and
work methods used are presented

The bridge is on the coastal belt and is exposed to hostile marine atmosphere. The
methods described will be helpful in rehabilitation of many similar structures in the coastal


During early nineties, it was realised by Transport and Wo1*ks Authorities

of Central and State Governments that the population of old and sick structures
was increasing rapidly and there is substantial need for repairs and rehabilitation
activities, particularly for the bridges. Such phenomenon, hovs' ever, w as not
conned to our country but was also prevailing 1[1 developed countries. Having
more resources and R&D organisations, new methods of forensic investiga.itons
were developed in these countries, which allowed engineers to establish root
causes of deterioration in any particular case, and develop suitable rehabilitation
techniques. This was a signicant step beyond prevailing practice of only
repairing the actual damages.
r) ,_.

It was essential for Indian Engineers to get acquainted with modern

methods of investigations and techniques for strengthening, in order to improve
the balance service life and efcacy of rehabilitation measures. With this aim in
mind MOST selected some bridge projects wherein experience of experts from
overseas could be utilised. The rehabilitation project of Sharavathi Bridge was
one of them, which has now been completed.

Sharavathi Bridge is located on the estuary where Sharavathi River meets

the Arabian Sea at Honnavar in Karnataka. It is an important link on NH-17 on
Goa-Mangalore Trunk Route- The construction of bridge was started in 1962 and
' 1970. The general view
was completed 1I1 ' of" the- bridge
' "'is shown in

After nearly 18 to 19 years, in late eighties, det erioration of C,girders and __

other components of the birdge were noticed. Restoring the health of the structure
became urgent, since the alternative routes were far away and the traffic intensity
had considerably increased. '
The presentation '
gives ' o f t11 e b nd ge,
the observed distress, methods of forensic investigation and analytical studies,
load testing, repair/rehabilitation methods and constructional details.
r.;' -"P. " ' -,- _
' -- \_
7} 1--J) _ /
' 0


Photo 1. View of Sharavathi Bridge Before Rehabilitation

(Showing Inspection Gantry)


The over overall length of the bridge is 1047.65 metres, comprising of 34

spans of 30.175 metres and at two ends balancing cantilever arms and approach
slab of 10.85 metres is provided. Actual span lengths, however, vary to some
extent depending upon the actual position of well foundations.

The deck carries standard two lane road oi? 7.32m (24 ft.) with 1.53 rn
(5 ft.) footpath on either side.

2.1. Superstructure

Hammer-liead of 29 m. cantilevering on each side of pier supports the

suspended span of 24.39 meters. The hammer-head is cast integrally with the pier.
Five precast prestressed I girders form the suspended span. The precast girders
with top ange of 1.264 rn. are located at l.867m. centred transversely and a gap
slab of 127mm thickness is cast in-situ to close the gap of 0.603 m between two
anges. The girders of 1.67 rn. constant depth are prestressed with 7 cables
(6 nos. of 12 dia. 7111111 and 1 no. of 12 dia. Srnm). In case of outer girder, one
extra cable of 12 dia. 7mm is provided whereas for central girder one cable is
less. The I. girders are connected by two end diapliragms and three intermediate
diaphragrns. All the diaphragms are cross-prestrcssed.

The deck consisted of compression anges of main girders and gap slab;
cast between two anges and cross-prcstressed. The hamnier-head portion
similarlv has ve main prestressed concrete girders and four cross girders, all
cast~in-situ integrally with the RCC pier.

On the top of the deck, a wearing coat of reinforced concrete was laid over
the hammer-head portion while on suspended span bituminous concrete was laid.
The RCC wearing coat was not part of the original design, but was added at a
later date.

The footpaths consisted of precast slab panels supported on cantilevered

beams taken off above the top flange level of two end girders. Elevation and
cross-section of the original superstructure is given in Fig. 1.
FIXED semmo "55 BEARNG J

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Fig. 1. Span Arrangement and super-structure cross section

2.2. Foundation and Sub-structure

The bridge is founded on RCC wells. Each foundation is a twin dumb-bell

shaped well with 4.1 1 rn cliarneter, for each circular part, with concrete steining
I I ....l' l lI.itrl ' () 1

of l>.(l n1. Over the wells. r: cap is provided 0124.11 Ill. dla and l).< m. thick
tfelli1lt1r1;>iers 01' l >62) Ill. rlia. and >%l'.7 lll witle are ct:-n:st1'ucter.l on ilicse rzapg
Tin.-re are tour intci-11'|<:t'liatc tfclls v.ith '\~.T2lll l\llLl~Tllt.<.>-1 cl <'}=2fi lll. llie well
foundation and pier sections are as shown in Fig. 2.

Cast steel segmental Roller and Rocker Bearings were provided below each
web at articulation points.

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Fig. 2. Plan shuwi ng well foundation & Pier


Proximity of townships close to both sides of the bridge invites lot of

edestrians to use the bridge regularly. Since late eighties, there has been regular
reaking and falling off of foothpatn planks, thereby affecting the safety of the
edestrians. This was the rst alarming signal about the state oi health of the
ridge. In the absence of mobile inspection units, a special Freyssinet gantry.
hoto 1 was commissioned to inspect the badly affected spans, and some
:mporary measures were initiated.

It was observed that expansion joints were not properly functioning and
ere not leak-tight. l3unctioning of some of the bearings was also suspected
orrosion of reinforcing steel. could be seen in patches. The first span on
onnavar side exhibited one or two corroded and snapped prestressing wires, and
lis span was provided with temporary supports. These devel.op.m.ents gave an
arming signal, especially in background of distress and failure that had taken
ace elsewhere short time before.
98 ll-\.\'l~.t~:n<:r.. {S<"t\1.=e;t;kimt<,u>1>,\_ .l1J(-'l}EKAl< l\1\'\"Jl l<l-. or;

/\ systeniatic and diagnositc testing was needed to check the condition oi"
\rzu'ious ct>1npt>ncnt;\" oi the britlge, (Xitistillztrlcy oltci'.\ were iiivitcd in 1991 anti
STUP Consultants Liinitetl working in association with /\(.'.I*;R (_.Ol'lSlllLLllltS Ltd
(U.K.), S'lA'1S Ltd. (Il_K,) and Transport Research Laboratories (U.K.) were
appointed to cary out inspection and forensic tests and to evolve suitable;
rehabilitation plan.

In rehabilitation work, as opposed to repair work only, the reivcw of

original design, establishing details of as-built structure, and carrying out checks
for the present day design loads using current design codes constitute important
pan; of the work. If any shortcomings are noticed, one has to carry out retrotting
analysis taking into account the most up-to-date knowledge of material behaviour,
realistic loading conditions and experience of similar structures. the entire
forensic testing has to be planned in such a way as to provide information for
carrying out these tasks. For this purpose the field investigation is preceded by
desk study of original design and preliminary visual inspeciton. If necessary, a
small scale testing of material samples has to be done to establish prinia-facie
the thrust and direction of detailed testing. In case of Sharavathi bridge, thi>S-
strategy had been followed. '1"he eld team and the design team had worked hand-
in-hand during the forensic testing phase.
On the basis of visual inspection of all the spans three representative spans
were selected for detailed testing. The selected three spans each represented a
group of worst affected spans, average spans and best spans. The grouping was
based on visual inspection of external manifestation of distress and was essen-
tially a qualitative judgement, although some kind of numerical rating system was
used to group spans in three categories. It was shown by subsequent detailed
testing that the root causes and extent of environmental attack was very similar
for all three types of spans, inspite of different levels of external manifestations
of distress.

The following eld tests were conducted with spceic purpose as men-
tioned, yielding data for evaluation of root causes of distress, leading to
appropriate repair methods and for carrying out analytical studies.
5.1. Field Tests

(a) Dimensional Survey: This was carried out to establish as-built span
lengths and sectional details for structural analysis and to check if
any settlements or tilting of foundation is noticed.
,H,A~.]7H . li.1\ll(l;\' or Sit.-tit.-\\*..'tttt Bl~illJt'il-L Al Il<>;\'.\ \\.M<. i\'.\.|<\ xi \l<_/\ U)

J1) ('fn:'e.\u|11[)|c>; ii .t"hmid1 [I1!llllHL?l"rl1.\t rm Strc|1;_;tIi ol'(1'umrt-iv;

For est21l)lisl'1ing the iuternttl vz'ufizihilit_v oi >:,trength tin :1 compwrzttive
sense) and to serve as indiczttor of us-existirig strengtli rehounti
hammer tests were conducted (based on the fresh C':11ll_')1"1[l()i'] o1"
han1n1er)t This clatzi taken together with crushing strength of cores
tziken from parts of the structure yields data for evaluation of strengtli.
(C) Covermeter Study and Depth of Carbonation Tests: An '<1.[)proprit1te
choice of locations for these two tests enables a co-relation to be
established between the depth of carbonation of concrete and
percentage of steel exposed to different levels of risk of corrosion.
This test to be used together with chloride/sulphate penetration and
half-cell potential results.
d) Half Cell Potcntiometer Survey: This test yields the electrical
potentials between steel and surrounding concrete. Wliert equi-
potential contours are plotted, the absolute values, gradients and
shapes of contours indicate the level. of on-going corrosion activity
(Fig. 3). These results taken together with other indicators as
carbonation and chlorides indicate the areas of structure having
different levels of risk of corrosion.

A -1. 1 ~1 -G -II SI

CROSS SECTION a _\o +9 4-s 0 141

E221 IN-SITU concmzre C 3 +1) _ +7 _ Us

INLAND 6% ":- se. D _- +5 in '3 13* 1

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Fig. 3. Half cell potential countours

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rm: \_, \Vuter Injection 'I"est.s ztnd Eritloscopic E.x';e111E112:ti<m uf tj;;l)[,_~;;

Based on the t)llS'Cl'\'2itlt)l1 riiatle during the test ptogruituite, it was
dc-cidctl that the extent of grouting or absence ofit needs to he further
examined. The exposed cable ducts in places showed hollo w portion
inside, which permitted visual examination and If)llO10l,I"<'11.')i1) using,
encloscope. This yielded data for the sensitivity analysis needed to
assess the likely loss ofprestress due to corrosion Photo 2. To assess
the overall extent of grouting clean water was pumped into exposed
cable ducts under gravity. The large quantity of intake indicated
presence of extensive hollow partitions, and thus ineffective grout-
ing. Apart from loss of protection against corrosion, the ultimate
stnictural strength itself was compromised due to uncertain extent of
bond between steel and concrete,



' Photo 2. Endoscopic View of Cable

Rt-:1rr\ulil1'/\11<,i;\' on S11/\1<.A\-writ: lu|n<";rz .-\'l ll<i\;.\ux~.=.-rte. .l\,.-'\J<.\:A1.-~.';.,x 1.0!

5.2. lh_\'.sit'zai bi Clteluitnzl I,;1lmr:itul'_\ 'I*trsl.\*

From ticld 21 large number of dust samples from various depths o1I'tlif1erent
elements were collected. I,umpsamplcs zmtl c<>re-samples were also taken. Tltese
were used in the following tests:

(21) Cores for Strength: From number of cores taken from different parts
of the structure, cylindrical test samples having different I/d ratios
were tested and results converted to equivalent cube strength values.
This data was used in conjunction with the Schmidt Hammer Test
Results. Without going into details, it can be stated that the cores,
in general, have limited use and evaluation of the strength of
structural elements and acceptability in the present conclition calls for
considerable experitise and experience.

(b) Petr-ograpliic Studies: From the lump samples pctrographic studies

were carried out, which enabled the experienced petrographer to
draw conclusions about alkalinity aggregate reaction, identication
of aggressive minerals and quality _0f cement paste Ihoto 3.

(c) Chemical Tests: The chemical testing included testing of dust

samples and lump samples for chlorides, sulphate contents and

' "*'?'rft\*

Vac l -

Photo 3. Pet!-iographic Slide of Concrete

102 1.1./wt-;t<1t5t?.. StJNIASIZKI{Ali/\ll.I\.. Jo<i.s11'-;+;.-\1< & i.\~'l,~..sittu.z on

alkalinity. Samples oi grout tul-{en from ducts were similarly tested.

These tests revealed existence of aggressive chlorides in concrete.



6.1 Gcneal Observations

(1) The alignment of the bridge and levels did not indicate any abnormal
movement or settlement in construction.
(2) lhe environment is typical marine and aggressive. The chloride
penetration is atmospheric in original, and reduces its intensity from
the surface to inside.
(3) The Chloride contents high. More than 60 per cent samples have
shown results in excess of 0.3 per cent uorides, and the loss of
cement values as high as 3 per cent were noted in the test results.
(4) The depth of carbonation, generally lies between 20 to 30 mm from
surface. In slabs and in poorly compacted area, depths of peneti-atio'ri
upto 130 mm were measured.
(5) Half Cell Potential studies indicated that in different elements of
structure corrosion was vigorous in 5 per cent to 10 per cent areas
and in 30 to 40 per cent areas the results indicated comparatively
slower, but active rates of corrosion.
(6) The corrosion in general was of intermittent nature, vigorous in wet
season and dormant in dry season. Because of high level of Chlorides
and long wet season, it is not possible to eliminate corrosion activity
in a practical and economical way. As a result, the life of the structure
is adversely affected. It was difcult to make quantitative assessment
of remaining life of the structure, although it was possible to make
intelligent guess. i

6.2. Hand Rails _

The hand rails were in steel, xed in concrete pillars. The concrete pillars
were damaged and needed to be replaced.

6.3. Footpaths

The structural cantilevered supports, edge beam and pre-cast slabs were
damaged beyond repair and were required to be removed and replaced.
RI-Ill/\l3ll.Tl.1\|'lOl or Sli./\R./=.\/.=\l'lll BRll)(l~.' /\'l ll<1.\x/tv"\i~;. lsl./a1<>1/x;i AH Ix. it);

0.4. Deck Slab

The gap slabs and wearing coat were dainaged over suspended spans,
although top anges of main girders were of acceptable quality. The wearing coat
over hammer-head portion had been replaced by structural concrete during earlier
repairs and was found to be in a good condition. The gap slabs were of poor
quality, and the cross prestressing ineffective. Hence this could not be relied upon
to carry longitudinal stresses as well as impact of vehicles. It was decided to retain
the gap slab and use it as shuttering for casting of new RCC deck slab. The new
RCC deck slab was extended on either side of the external girders to constitute
footpath at the same level as deck slab.

6.5. Expansion Joints

Expansion joints had been damaged, and also not waterproof. They needed

6.6. Hammer-heads and End Cross-Diaphragms

The strength of concrete of these elements was found to be acceptable.

However, local patch repairs were needed. The hamrnerhead portion is pre-
stressed by cables laid in inverted parabolic shape and anchored on side faces
and bottom of cantilevering girders. The condition of prestressing cables with
inadequate grouting protection was such that it could not be relied upon for long
duration in future. The difculty of providing external cables for hammer heads
made this method of rehabilitation impractical. However, it was necessary to give
better protection to cables and also reduce stress levels (by reducing load on the
cantilever). Two options were examined. One was to provide direct support
(inclined strutt-columns) from well-cap level upto suspended spans and transfer
load from suspended span to the same. Second alternative was to provide steel
brackets in-betweeen concrete girders of harmnerheads. The brackets were xed
to the pier and transfer part of the dead load to steel brackets was envisaged by
jacking. The rst option was more expensive but effective for extending life of
the bridge for longer duration. The second option was cheaper, but required more
complicated engineering solution. This was also a novel solution. When the two
options were evaluated by MOST, it decided to opt for steel brackets but to use
an improved version of consultant's short term proposal. Steel brackets were
designed to carry full dead load of suspended spans (assuming no help from
harnrnerheads) but, in actual case, at present, only part of the dead load it was
to be -transferred. This action would ensure functioning of bridge even if the
effective prestressing force in harnmerheads becomes very low or nil.
I04 $1!)-w\~;| |1;i-i.xi<...~.t~i-A.
B.-\i\ll{li;l, $1!)-\i~\~;i Kl-l.\l<..v.ll'./\.. .l'.'f1|lfl\..~'~.!~P
.i'.'f1|lfl\..~~.!' i\"1.-\..\'lIll<li': =;~.\

ret|11ircmcnt oi
This decision led to the l'Ct]1lll'(?l"llClll of lull
full scale load test as described in
conteniplatcd tor
Para 7, which was not originally conteniplzited for this purpose.

6.7. Main Girders/Intermedlate I)i::pl11agn1s
The quality and strength of concrete in main girders was acceptable. Hence
it was decided. to continue use of it element. acting in
main structural element,
conjunction with newly laid RCC deck slab. It was necessary to retroi_"1ttl1e
ret.roi_it the design
as a composite section and provide shear connectors between top anges flanges and
check was also carried out to calculate stress levels in case when
RCC slab. A cheek
shear connectors become ineffective.

Cables/(f;1,'outing and External Prestress

6.8. State of Prestressing Cables/G1,'outing

The short cross-prestressing cables in deck slab were found to be without

stress and ungrouted in number of places. It was decided to disregard their
contribution to strength of gap slab/top tlanges
flanges of girders.

The main prestressing cables in girders were examined visually at a number ~r_
of places by exposing them, and where possible, endoscopic examination was
carried out. "Hie extent of corrosion was mostly nominal and observed at location
of absence of grout or inadequate grout. However, severe corrosion damage was
The sheathing itself had started corrosion in places, but
also noted in some cases. 'Ihe
'lhus, in an overall sense prestressing was
was generally in acceptable condition. Thus,
effective, but in local patches of reduced magnitude due to loss of section by

Also, further loss of effective prestress was suspected based upon the
general observation in prestressing eld that the long temi relaxation loss is
higher (almost double) of relaxation loss accounted for in the original design
based on practices followed in sixties. Since no definite level of effective prestress
could be ascertained, nor assumed, for the girder, it was necessary to carry out _
. -Q
a sensitivity analysis assuming different levels of losses. The different levels were
based upon the observation of extent of corrosion and the extra relaxation loss.
The external prestressing force was proposed on the basis of these evaluations
and the requirement to carry extra dead load arising from new RCC deck.

The effect of external prestress was also checked assuming that that. initial.
effective. In
design level of prestress is fully eitccti\/e. ln this evaluation, the actual strength
of concretein girders and variability in the same had also to be kept in mind.
C2'ilL')Lll2ll,lOIlS are extensive and produce large data on stress levels which
All these calculations
- 1. | 1 I Y 1. - - _- 1_..__,_r_._ 1- .
is required to be assessed as a whole, and an engineering judgement formed about
1i1_'>1z.-wit :.'.=.':1r>.\ HI?
or Sit.-@.r<-~.\:.~.t1t1
Srmtz -.\.".~.t1t1 littttust A1 [Tr>.\'r<-.\'.A.1<r
[Tr>.\'r<-.\'.A.1<. l'{/-.|<.\\:r.t;.'-. 1()5

the zicccptzihility c;-1' the same. As an im1nec1iz"tteprovision, strztntis tit l?7.'Zm111._

immediztte pr<i>vi.~;ion, 12 strands 1?7.'Zm1n._
dia. (total force 2l)t;'$
clia. 21)t;'$ KN per deck) were proposed for z1doption._ while at the sari $211116
erizthlirig ztddition of six strzmds
time 111-aking provision for erizthlitig strands at at21 future
future. date. A
typical calculrttion with no ziciclitional loss and Z0 per cent 21ttdit.ion2i1 l<;'>ss"
combined with external prcstress and rnodied imposed lo:;1dsis
in prcstrcss cornbined lt1)i3ClS is given
in Table 1.
'I/tum; 1. $UM.I\-1ARY or
'I/trim; or (}tR1>|_=.n)
(CEN'[RAL (}tR1>|_=.R)

S I'.
Sr Stress MP:1
N O.
No. Load With Corrosion Without Corrosion
Lo ss I_,oss
Lo ss

Oh UR Or. 0'

1 I).L. of existing bridge (-)9.52 5.65 (~)9.52 5.65

2. S.D.L. Removed 1.89 (~)O.96 1.39 (-) 0.96
R.C. Overlay (-)2.s7 1 .46
1.46 (42.87 1.46
New S.D.I,. (-)0.s1 0.20 (40.81 0.20
Original Prestress 12.92 (-)2.59 112.92
12.92 (-) 2.59
o\u1_4>'t. Assumed Corrosion Loss in (-)2.58
t-)2.58 0.52 Nil Nil
Original Prestress (20%)
7 Pre.stress
External Prestress 4.75 (_ )1 .16
(-)l.'16 4.75 (-) 1.16
Differential Shrinkage (-)().5O
(-)().50 1 .85
1.85 (-)0.5O l.85
its t of 1 to 8
Total ofl 3.28 4.97 5.86 4.45
9 Footpath L.L. (-)O.4O 0.10 (-)0.40 0.10
i 10. Caniageway L.L. Class A'/ (-4.32/' L041
[.041 (-)4.32/
(-)4.32/ l.O4/
C-lass 70R ()4..74 1 .14
1.14 (-)4.74
(-)4.74 1.14
Total ofl to '10 (-)1.44/
(-)1 .44/ 6.11/ 1.44 5.59
(-)1.86 6. 21:
6.21: 0.72 5.69

Apart from these judgement based analyses. it becalne possible to check

actual effective prestress on one of the girders and carry out tests on larger sample
of wires from different cables, when it was decided to carry out full scale load
test, as described in Section 7.

6.9. Substructure

'I.hough the main thrust of ir1vest;igz1ti0n

'I.11ough invest;igz1ti0n was clirected to superstructure,
mtmher of tests were done on piers. rrw
r~. ._ 1. w -
The grade |
ofi-~ concrete
._ -_
in <__
piers _ .
l[7[)LE1fLl_'l to
it.-ll. It -Ht \ '1 -ttttt-t wt i-t-it: -1

be poor although cortstrnction t'l1t1wit1gs indicated it to be l\l?5. in view of tiiuality

oticoncrctc, its proximity to the sea-water, the depth of carbonation and the extent,
of chloride LtI)l.lCCll[I2l1l(JI1 ohst.-i'veti. it was prudent not to reply on th.<* crxistirig
reinforccnicnt and concrete strength. it was tlicrciore- proposed to provide
external jztcketing capable oi carrying the lull load on its own, which would serve
dun] function of strengtliening, and providing corrosion protection to existing
sections. extending its useful life.


7. 1. General

The environmental attack, particularly the chloride penetration, led to

corrosion ofprestressing cables. Even for those spans where cables were in good
condition, additional loss of prestress was suspected due to extra relaxation loss
which was not fully accounted for in the original design based upon codal
t - 7
practices in 1971. After extensive forensic studies and analysis of as-existing
structure, a repair/rehabilitation plan was evolved, which consisted of (a)
Replacement of deck-slab and footpath, (b) Provision of external prestress to mam
girders, (c) and for the hanuner-head portion where the external prestress could
not be provided due to the georneuieal shapes and space constraints, xing of
external structural steel brackets to piers, which were expected to behave
integrally with harnrner-heads and share live load in proportion to its stiffness.
The main purpose of the brackets was to transfer pad of dead load to the same
by hydraulically jacking of suspended span against steel brackets, thus providing
relief to the concrete harnmerhead.

Two main uncertainties while designing the level of external prestressing

for main girders and the extent of load-transfer from hanuner-head to steel
brackets were the level of existing (residual) prestress and the actual (as against
calculated) stiffness of the concrete harnmer-head, which needed verication. A
full span load test was carried out on one of the spans, which was in good
condition. The general loading arrangement is shown in Fig. 4.

7.2. Principle of Test

External loads consisting of sand bags were applied in steps on ve-girder-
deck of suspended span till the central girder having minimum level of prestress
showed three consecutive cracks in the bottom bulb first (at. load 177 T). The
structure was unloaded to allow cracks to close, and was reloaded to "_]LlS t -re-
open the same again. The levels of loads at these stages were noted. This
niaxinium level of re-load (171-65 T) allowed calculation of exact level of
prestress in central girder, since the tensile strength of concrete had been
Rm: .'\lll_|l/Jlw;\ (ll sl1.~.l<A.\.'-tilt: lll<||'>t;| /~.1s ll<>\=?\./>.v,\1>., J\V/\Aii:_'-V r lg;

' i\|f1.' (3 , i7YlilTC,l.|'JLI!l / " Il);lHJI 5

( _l |_-'1 '__|___|_ _'_'.v. "1' _
1:i_;\':_Tf:L'- :1" 1"_'|'_'|'_ Wk "'- . \-.. _A<~ .41:
l_ . 1 V . ._1._-*h-'-_.---'._-'..Ie-Q-C1-Z I. _ ' II
\ r .I_ .|_.__ _-..-._'.--
'-__ >;
E! .41 ___ _ ' 1' _ _ .c\ __ . . . .
i-r- _..
.__:_;___ i:*_'

.\-3"-" >l_' _. 44; _ _

_..____ __ ___BID ________ ' ._- m E

$':I :. ._-._ . |~--
- .-1;. --- -- -id. P;.-.',- I

Elevation SeT:tion_ _ "m l _ _

Fig. 4. Typical Span

overcome and locally made zero at the crack locations, Table 2. During the
loading and unloading cycle, the deection of the hammerheads was also
measured, which enabled calculation of the stiffness of the harnmerheads. In order
to obtain Il121XiIIll1I1'l information about the behaviour of the superstructure, the
following additional observations were made:

TABLE 2. LEVEL or Ptussrnsss IN CENTRAL Guzman nzom LOAD Tnsr I)ATA

1. Test Load at just re-opening of crack of central girder 171.65 T = 1683 kN

2. Max. Central Girder (midspan) 1463.55 kN.m
3. Stress at bottom -= - = Existing Effective Prestress 8.236 I\/{Pa
4. Stress due to D.L. of existing bridge added to above 17.756 MPa
give effect of residual prcstress alone ". From Table 1,
9.52 + 8.236 = 17.756 MPa

(=1) Electric Resistance Strain gauges (ERS) of 120 rnrn length were
externally tted on concret.e surface to measure strains during
loading, unloading, and diurnal thermal cycle of the deck in unloaded
(b) The girders are prestressed by cable of 1207mm wire Freyssinet
System. Ten number of wires from two cables each in ve girders
were exposed and made for instrumenting with ERS gauges as well
as mechanical strain measurements during load. testing. The exposed
length was 1500 mm.
(C) After the tests, the above wires were cut to measure loss of strain
due to cutting, from which also residual prestressing force could be
lilo B.-'\;\I?.ltll-11>, Sow-.\iiJ<ti.-i1<-at-1>.@,. Jon: |>t<.-we <5; M mu l<i~.

(ti; The sli]>;>age of cut end of the v.ii<:;\, Ill thr: l\(ttlli _\icltle.d
itiforinatioii about the qtiality of gi"o11t1n;.=,,
(cl /Xlso [ITS of wires was establishetil in lab.-oiuIt*>i'ies.
(I') The temperature effects were corrected by measuring actual tempera-
ture of concrete near cables and near top of girders.

7.3. Observations and Cnncltisions of Tests

From the analysis of test data, it was established that:

(a) Residual pres tress in the bridge where corrosion has not ztffcctorl rm;
steel area was still more than the design level after 25 years than
that envisaged in the original design. The extra expected loss due to
relaxation, if anv, was not apparent, possibly due to extra level of
prestress imparted originally during construction. Information about
the same was not available. The UTS of wires and its elongation were
(b) The grouting was not fully effective and cables were more-or-less
unbonded than bonded. This was revealed by large amount of
slip-in of cut cables in ducts.
(c) stiffness of concrete harruner-head was confirmed. These tests
permitted designers to nalise the level of external. prestressing and
extent of load-transfer of (DL&I..L) from concrete hammcrheacl
to steel brackets with a larger degree of condence.


After carrying out various studies discussed above, the consultants had
come out with several options of rehabilitation categorising them basically l[l two
groups of short term and long term repairs. These options were submitted to
Karnataka P.\V.D. and MOST together with cost. estimates for the same. After
d etai'l e d examinations and discussions, the MOST had selected a mixture of short
term and long term approaches in such a way as to ensure availability of the bridge
for a period of another 20 to 30 years (an estimate based on the engineering
judgement) which also was technically suitable and nancially affordable. While
' ' " " ' was" k ep t in
the tlecision,1t. ' mind that proposal for
. new bridge on Sharavathi
for carrying NH-17 trafc was under scrutiny, and was likely to come up in
foreseeable future due to increased trafc. Some of the repair measures such as
removal and replacement of footpaths were coiiinion to all Solutions. However,
the width of the footpath was minirnised to meet the functional needs without
r .1 3 .'
X .1. ;_-I r r >

incurring extra cost. Replziceiiieiit of tzxpunsion _ii\int>; hy \"in;pl<' WG 7t

_i ~- _,
joint also luuloiigeci to this cate;g<_>ry, a_ltliougl1 \'2liltll.\ i_i]illl2l,l]'\-'tf.\. tr;:d<- UI)iii)I]>}
were i1i\'csti;;;>iteti In cast: oi deck slab, clioicc lit-ll on the Ii-rig, terni swliitioii 1. l
laying R(,(T deck slab instead of su'ei1gtl1ei1ir1g_ the existing deck slab by groi1lii"1_s;
ixransverse cable ducts and clizlngiiig wearing coat only. While;;tl1ening oi
external girders facility for incorporating additional cables at future date i'l1'l(l been
provided. To increase the effectiveness zmrl life of the existing;-1 cables, the calales
were proposed to be re-grouted with neat cement mortar. In case oi p1'ovidir1,<_;7
supports to the main girders and reducing load on the liumnierlieads, short term
proposal oi additional steel brackets was adopted, but the SlfGl'lgl'11 of the same
was increased as discussed earlier. "Il'1is was found to he a cheaper solution than
provision of external independent columns, whit;-11 was part of the long term
proposal. Similarly, piers were strengthened using long term option of construct-
ing new RCC piers instead of short term solution oi providing protection by
guniting. Although provision had been made for replacernent of any damaged
non-functioning bearing, in actual work no bearing needed replacement. The
details of repair measures adopted are described briey in Table below Fig. 7.
These are shown schematically in Figs. 5, 6 & 7.

1.0M __ ,,__ '1i_L"__ _ ____ .l't_

I 1-OTHK.ElTUMlNOU5 cowcnme zsrrwanummous concnsrs
webnm COAT ONWAH-ZR WEARING com on wnen -
_ , _ /mo RAIL
.._ 1
I _
n ._,. ,._j:,.-. .. -.--...
I .1 ."L;'1-_;_{l._5'

- I --amen PROOF
s r1'\m.OF Mt-STIC



Fig. 5. Details of new deck R.C.C> slab over existing PSC girders


a i

Fig. 6. External prestressing of suspended span

1l() 1% .-x\1 mi-.l';. So.\i/\.si<;l<i|./\l<.-'n*i=.\. .|t)til.l;l~L\IZ 6.5; M.-*.r.ii:l<:.. or;


- - --- _ .1
I ' - '- T. _--ii. T; -g . -- . --- .j

.4. I \ . Tr; -6! :7 E l T l:

r/:1 I) Ki-"T

_ /
< 1 1 _ i 1

-- -TEMP 1STEEL _ _ _

3?:- , rILI

Fig. 7. Schematic arrangement of steel brackets

Repair Nleasures in a Nutshell

1. Providing 150mm thick eoncretegjacllget iinWl\/I-35 concrete for the piers.

2. Providing and casting M-35 grade RCC slab on the existing girders and l
3. Providing external prestres Slfili
" g to the diaphragm
M and longitudinal girders.
4. Providing external mild steel brackets in between girders of hammerhead
and trans fe rring
. .. part of dead load to the
. same
.. by jacking . Elastomeric
. i
bearings are used between steel bracketsganidgiridersg pi WL
5. _gC11'l6I1I; g r outing of exislitig cables located in the deck.
6 Grouting 0 f cracks with_ epoxy resins. _ __

7-; Providing anti-corrosive treatment to all exposed reinforcement.

8. Painting c oncrete surface of superstructure with asphaltic acrylate based
coating, li ke deck-guard which acts as barrier to external chloride
penetratio n and is also forming aesthetic treatment. i
9. Providing and xing new expansion joints.

10,- Proi/iding and fixing drainspouts at pier and susperideg span locations.
11. Providing waterproong over reinforced concrete overlay.
12. Providing bitumen concrete wearing coat over waterproofing layer.
13 Providing and xing of handrails in steel.
Riali.~.i:i1..rr/\'11<>N oi- llAl</~.V/\l'lll liizimiiz .-~41 ll<ir\\.r\\=v~ii~:, i\l<.\'.-t\l.-\l<A 1 11

9. TRAFI-EC MAN/\('I I?/.:\'1I?ll\l'i

Sharavathi Bridge being an important link, it was not possible to close the
traffic entirely on this bridge. There was no diversion available nearby. It \vas
therefore, decided to allow light vehicles while repair work was in progress and
heavy vehicles were taken by ferries, operating near to the bridge site on the
downstream side.

On either end of the bridge, barriers were erected to prevent entry of heavy
vehicles. On 5 kms at either end of the bridge, boards were displayed to enable
heavy trafc to reach the ferry location without touching the bridge. Number of
speed breakers were provided t.o restrict and maintain the speed at 10 km per hour.
Usual precautions were taken to provide signals and traffic police at the ends.

To begin with, a width of about 3.1 m., was tackled (above 2 girders)
leaving half of the deck to carry traffic. The vehicles had to pass carefully through
the restricted width.

At a time, number of spans to be worked upon, were restricted to 4 or 5

No. However, in the course of the work, operations used to be going on
simultaneously, on 12 to 15 spans. Thus, at any given time, about 15 to 20 spans
could be available in both lanes for the traffic and remaining with single lane.
This helped in nlinimising inconvenience to the traffic.

Generally, traffic was allowed in one direction at a time. Sophisticated

instruments were used for communication at the bridge ends to direct this


Planning for execution was done on the basis of data and drawings
available. However, as it happens normally in rehabilitation projects. there were
number of different situations and difficulties encountered during execution.
Some of the interesting cases are described below:

10.1. Pier Jacketing

In case of Pier No. 13, the well had shifted towards upstream side. It was
not therefore, possible to fix reinforcement in well cap and shuttering for pier on
the downstream side. Concrete corbel was constructed to solve the problem as
shown in Photo 4. "
l 1? 1% =~._\'1:t<u_a1;. i~;<:-\1 \\.l.-.i-iil/\l<.=\}'l.-'~., Jo; ($1 i\'l\_\l!12~;.l- ow

-rj-L I-'.'
~-.- '~
- a
Photo 4. Corbel to Well Cap

Variation in size and height of piers was noticed, This necessitated

adjustment in shuttering.

Tidal variation in water levels was of the order of 2.5 m. to 3 n1. Concreting
by using barges was not therefore, feasible This was handled from the deck and
special chute was made to get the concrete below deck level.

10.2 R.C. Overlay

With traffic plying, extremely limited space was available for men,
materials and machinery. Inspite of precautions and contro-ls, vehicles used to
tread on rebars and sometimes on green concrete. During night time, prohibited
category of vehicles used to ply. Strengthening of barricading and increasing
guards eased the situation.

IO.3. Erection of Structural Steel Brackets

The original consmiction did not have adequate geometric control of

dimensions and local variations were common. Surface of the pier where bracket
is Supported was found to be irregular and uneven. Similarly, soffit of the
suspended span girder was not in level. In some girders, this surface was found
. (W
Rt?tt.\1:i1.i'1rim: or Stmimv.-\'l||t litttriott AT l4lr(-I/l\:i\i.4'\\.'_-"Ell. Ii./r1<:~<.-*-<.mt =\ 1 1;,

l-.) he tianitigerl and hotieyconibed. In all these cases, the stirt'ace had to be nittde
regular, compatible witli the bracket for proper distribution oi the load.

Alignment of hammer-head girders in some cases was not co-axial with

that ofsuspendcd span girders. Invariably, the brackets were aligned with respect
to suspended span girders necessitating thereby rnodifications during lixing.
Position of inclined member was required to be adjusted during erection and
modified connections were done by in-situ welding.

At the end of the bracket, jacking Stool was provided. In certain cases, this
stool had to be removed and re-positioned to suit the placement of the jack for
load transfer.

Length of girders was found to vary from 2185 mm minimum on Pier 32

to 3902 mm maximum on Pier No. 3. Each bracket has therefore to be tailor-made
to suit the girder.

Brackets were xed to the pier wall by 36mm dia cornrnon studs of 2.2M
length made of alloy steel. For xing the studs, holes were drilled through the
pier wall. Where drilling could not be done perfectly the holes had to be suitably
treated by epoxy mortar to get proper bearing.

In case of Pier No. 19. downstream girder was found shifted transversely.
Consequently, inclined member could not be connected to the common anchor
plate xed to the pier wall by anchor fasteners. An extension member in between
the anchor plate and inclined member could solve the problem.

Fixing of anchor plate for end brackets was complicated in some cases due
to fouling of cross cables while drilling holes in pier wall for fasteners. The
congestion of reinforcement in this area compounded the problem. The plate
location had therefore, to be modied.

10.4 Load Transfer

Inclined member of the bracket was connected to the studs in the pier
through 16 mm plates. During some of the initial load transfers, it was observed
that the local bending caused distortion of the end portion and local stiffcners
were required to control the sznne- Since majority of the brackets was erected,
the stiffeners had to be welded insitu. This was found to be very cumbersome
and time consuming job-
lid ' Ii-."r1"+1 i-i'*~v-1tut-i*~l~i~a |(lt>ll,l\.<'\l-1 3\..' I ti ~


On this rehabilitation job, many conveiitioiial and niaiiy new i1l(i[Cfl,1l.5 anti
methods were used. All of these were subjected to rigorous quality tests and S()ll1tt
of the important ones are given below:

Cement: Grade 43 cement procured from ACC Vi/adi Plant was

regularly tested in National Highway Sub-division Quality Control
Laboratory at Hubli following IS-269.

Sand: Natural sand quarried from balkner deposits at 20 krn from

Honnavar was used for concrete. In addition to regular test at site
for silt content, grouting etc., it was tested in Hubli Laboratory as
per IS-383 Standards.

Coarse Aggregates: Crushed Metal of size 20 nirn and down was

used for concrete and it was sourced from Bangarmakki quarry.
Regular tests at Hubli Laboratory were done for grading.
VVater: Well water source from Hadinbal area was subjected to
Ph value and Chloride content tests at laboratory of Anjuman
Engineering College at Bhatkal.

Concrete: Site laboratory was established to check various param-

eters viz. Cube strength, slump, sieve analysis, setting time as per
mixed design was carried out in the beginning at Hubli Laboratory.

Reinforcement: Torsteel of Fe 415 grade was used and was given

protection by cement slurry.

Structural Steel: All Slnlctural steel was sourced from SAIL and
conforming to IS:2062. Steel from every lot was tested for tensile
strength, bending, E value and shear. Every lot was tested.

For welding, penetration test was done for brackets, deviator blocks
and anchor plates regularly. Additional tests were done at site on
alloy steel. Studs were used for connecting two brackets.

l.\/Iain Bolts of Brackets: In addition to normal tests, each bolt was

subjected to full working load test before incorporation at site.
1{t5n./\n1|.n1-\nos or SIl."\l'<.'\\J/\'ll-ll l1<n><;:1; /\r Il<1>:\'>:.t\'m<, }\'/\t<;\u\'1 Al-LA I in

-- lslxternal Pi-estrcssing: Low rel:-ixation strand from the best sourt"t-

was procured. [Each Lot was tested at manufacturer's laboratory for
UTS, E value. F.longatIion and Carbon content etc.
The monostrand anchorages were tested at l*l"(I(jI factory dlld again
at site at random. Pressure tests were done on IiDlE Y pes.
- Epoxy and other Materials: These were tested at tut. suppliers
laboratory for Viscosity, Pot life etc., Similarly, for anti-corrosive
treatment, IPN and Nitozinc products were used and tested at the


Rehabilitation of bridges is a complex job and needs multi-disciplinary

approach for tackling various activities, such as investigation, interpretation.
analytical studies, sensitivity analysis, formulation of repair plan and meticulous
implementation, during actual execution. Another aspect specic to this project
is involvement of foreign consultants- Detailed study done on this project has set
the trend for effective investigation and assessment. Innovative techniques like
Endoscopy, and Load Test before repairs for knowing the residual prestress, need
to be evolved to suit specic challenges.

Diverse situations than envisaged while formulating schemes are encoun-

tered and continuous interaction between Design Consultants and executing
agency is required. A full time posting of Consultants representative is necessary
on a major job.

Economics of repairs is always an important issue, particularly repair cost

against replacement cost. The total cost of repairs for Sharavathi Bridge
considering escalation etc., comes to about Rs. lO crores. If a new bridge is to
be constnicted, it is estimated to cost about Rs. 60 crores. Rehabilitation was
completed in 36 months, out of which 12 months was monsoon period. In this
region, monsoon is heavy and for all the four months, work is not possible.

Finally, it may be summarised that despite of logistic problems of working

on river with 25 to 30 ft. deep water and dense traffic etc., work of rehabilitation
of 1 km long bridge was completed successfully due to the good team spirit
amongst all concerned with this project. The photographs of completed bridge
are shown in Photo 5.
_l16 _ BANERJEE, SO!lAS}5KHARAPPA, J0c;1..t;1<A.1<_ & M/\w;|u1u: om


Photo 5. View of completed Bridge


The Authors are very much grateful to the engineers in Ministry of Surface
Transport, Authorities in Karnataka PWD, engineers from M/s.- STUP Consult-
ants Limited and FPCC for preparation of this Paper and successful execution
of the work. The contribution from Hyder Consulting Limited (formerly ACER
Consultants Limited) U.K., and their associates is acknowledged.