# Theorem : Every sigma-algebra is a topology.

Proof :
Let X denote a non-empty set, and suppose Ψ
denotes a sigma-algebra of subsets of X . The object of this
proof is to demonstrate by their very definitions, that given a
sigma-algebra, we can, under suitable restrictions of the
properties or conditions necessary for which’s definition, derive
the conditions that must be satisfied by a collection of subsets
of the non-empty set X in order that it form a topology.
Considering X , the collection Ψ of its subsets is said to form a
sigma-algebra if the following are satisfied:
1.
φ
∈ Ψ.
2. If A ∈ Ψ,then
c
A
∈ Ψ.
3. If
B A,
∈ Ψ then
B A ∈ Ψ.
4. If
( )
i
A
i

·1

Ψ, then

·1 i
i
A
∈ Ψ.
We want to use the above four conditions to derive
those associated to the very definition of a topology. But
before, we define a topology.
Keeping in mind the above symbols have the same
meaning as assigned earlier, we define a topology on X .

Ψ is said to be a topology on X if it satisfies the following
conditions:
a.
φ
∈ Ψ, and X ∈ Ψ.
b. If
( )
i
A
n
i 1 ·

Ψ, then 
n
i
i
A
1 ·
∈ Ψ.
c. If
( )
i
A
i

·1

Ψ, then

·1 i
i
A
∈ Ψ.
We demonstrate the conditions a. , b. , c. , using
conditions 1. To 4. , or appropriate restrictions of which
conditions.
We demonstrate “a.”
From “1.” , we observe that we need only show that X ∈
Ψ, using conditions 1. To 4. , or appropriate restrictions of
which conditions.
Ψ being a sigma-algebra, and making use of “2.” , if we
consider: i
A

( )
i
A
c
N i∈
with N

N,
we have that
c
i
A ∈ Ψ and consequently, by “3.” , we have
that ;

c
i i
A A = X ∈ Ψ. Bringing an end to the construction of
“a.”
We demonstrate “c.”
Condition “c.” is exactly condition “4.” So no
demonstration is necessary. Thus bringing us to the final
step of this demonstration.
We demonstrate “b.”
We only need to show using conditions 1. To 4. , or
appropriate restrictions of which conditions, that the
condition of finite intersections can be constructed by
arguments solely based on them. This we shall exhibit with
the help of two possible approaches.
METHOD 1.
By “4.”, If
( )
i
A
i

·1

Ψ, then

·1 i
i
A
∈ Ψ. Now, by condition
“2.”,
c
i
i
A

,
`

.
|

·1
=
c
i
i
A

·1
( By De Morgan’s law ) ∈ Ψ
If we set
i
c
i
B A ·
with i
B
∈ Ψ naturally, then we observe that
we have just demonstrated that;

·1 i
i
B
∈ Ψ. It thus suffices to place or set the
restrictions
{ ¦ X B
k
, φ ∈
∀ m k ≥
with
m ∈ N thus obtaining
the result:
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
≥ ·
≥ ·
·
·
·
m k X B I f B
m k B I f
B
k
m
i
i
k
m
i
i
_ _ _ ,
_ _ _ ,
1
1 

φ φ
∈ Ψ
If rather we suppose
{ ¦ X B
k
, φ ∉
, then 

·1 i
i
B ⊆
i
B
∈ Ψ ∀
{ ¦ ,... ,..., 2 , 1 n i ∈
Thus we have constructed a finite intersection with the
tools we restricted ourselves to use in order to establish
the required result.
METHOD 2
Let
1
A
,
2
A ∈ Ψ, with Ψbeing a sigma algebra. Then by “3.”, we
have that:

2 1
A A ∈ Ψ.
By “3.”, we have that
2 1
A A  ∈ Ψ

( )
c
A A
2 1
∈ Ψ. That is to say
with the permission of the laws of De Morgan that;

c c
A A 2
1
 =
2 1
B B 
∈ Ψ. ( By setting
i
c
i
B A ·

{ ¦ 2 , 1 ∈ i
).
We can construct a finite number of such intersections by
recursively, in the appropriate order making use of
conditions “2.”, and “3.”.to eventually obtain the result
below;

n
i
i
B
1 ·
∈ Ψ with
i
c
i
B A ·
.

Q.E.D