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AirSolubilityinWater
Amountofairthatcanbedissolvedinwaterdecreasewithtemperatureincreasewithpressure
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Theamountofairthatcanbedissolvedinwaterincreasewiththesystempressureanddecreasewiththetemperature.

Deaeration
Whenfreshwaterisheatedup,airbubblesstarttoform.Thewatercanobviouslynotholdthedissolvedairwithincreasingtemperature.At100oC(212oF)waterstartstoboilthebubblesareformedbyevaporatedwaterorsteam.
Ifthewateriscooleddownandthenagainreheated,bubbleswillnotappearuntilthewaterstartstoboil.Thewaterisdeaerated.

SolubilityRatio
Thesolubilityofairinwatercanbeexpressedasasolubilityratio:

Sa=ma/mw(1)

where

Sa=solubilityratio

ma=massofair(lbm ,kg)

mw=massofwater(lbm ,kg)

Henry'sLaw
SolutionofairinwaterfollowsHenry'sLaw"theamountofairdissolvedinafluidisproportionaltothepressureinthesystem"andcanbeexpressedas:

c=pg/kH(2)

where

c=solubilityofdissolvedgas

kH=proportionalityconstantdependingonthenatureofthegasandthesolvent

pg=partialpressureofthegas

Thesolubilityofoxygeninwaterishigherthanthesolubilityofnitrogen.Airdissolvedinwatercontainsapproximately35.6%oxygencomparedto21%inair.

SolubilityofAirinWater
Solubilityofairinwaterexpressedasratioofabsorbedairvolumetowatervolume:

GaugePressure(psig)
Temperature(oF)
0 20 40 60 80 100
40 0.0258 0.0613 0.0967 0.1321 0.1676 0.2030
50 0.0223 0.0529 0.0836 0.1143 0.1449 0.1756
60 0.0197 0.0469 0.0742 0.1014 0.1296 0.1559
70 0.0177 0.0423 0.0669 0.0916 0.1162 0.1408
80 0.0161 0.0387 0.0614 0.0840 0.1067 0.1293
90 0.0147 0.0358 0.0589 0.0750 0.0990 0.1201
100 0.0136 0.0334 0.0536 0.0730 0.0928 0.1126
110 0.0126 0.0314 0.0501 0.0699 0.0877 0.1065
120 0.0117 0.0296 0.0475 0.0654 0.0833 0.1012
130 0.0107 0.0280 0.0452 0.0624 0.0796 0.0968
140 0.0098 0.0265 0.0432 0.0598 0.0765 0.0931
150 0.0089 0.0251 0.0413 0.0574 0.0736 0.0898
160 0.0079 0.0237 0.0395 0.0553 0.0711 0.0869
170 0.0068 0.0223 0.0378 0.0534 0.0689 0.0844
180 0.0055 0.0208 0.0361 0.0514 0.0667 0.0820
190 0.0041 0.0192 0.0344 0.0496 0.0647 0.0799
200 0.0024 0.0175 0.0326 0.0477 0.0628 0.0779
210 0.0004 0.0155 0.0306 0.0457 0.0607 0.0758

ExampleCalculatingAirDissolvedinWater
AirdissolvedinwatercanbecalculatedwithHenry'slaw.

HenryLaw'sConstantsatasystemtemperatureof25oC(77oF)

OxygenO2:756.7atm/(mol/litre)
NitrogenN2:1600atm/(mol/litre)

MolarWeights

OxygenO2:31.9988g/mol
NitrogenN2:28.0134g/mol

PartialfractioninAir

OxygenO2:~0.21
NitrogenN2:~0.79

OxygendissolvedintheWateratatmosphericpressurecanbecalculatedas:

co=(1atm)0.21/(756.7atm/(mol/litre))(31.9988g/mol)

=0.0089g/litre

~0.0089g/kg

NitrogendissolvedintheWateratatmosphericpressurecanbecalculatedas:

cn=(1atm)0.79/(1600atm/(mol/litre))(28.0134g/mol)

=0.0138g/litre

~0.0138g/kg

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SinceairisthesumofNitrogenandOxygen:

ca=(0.0089g/litre)+(0.0138g/litre)

=0.0227g/litre

~0.023g/kg

Calculatingairdissolvedinwaterforsomeotherpressuresattemperature25oC(77oF)canbesummarizedto:

Pressure,abs(atm) 1 2 3 4 5 6
DissolvedAirinWater(25oC)(g/kg) 0.023 0.045 0.068 0.091 0.114 0.136

DissolvedOxygeninFreshWater

Deariation
Formaximumdeaerationthewatershouldbeheatedupto212 oF(100 oC)atatmosphericpressure.Thisiscommoninsteamsystemswherefreshwaterissuppliedtothesystemthroughanheateddeaerationtoweronthetopof
thecondensatereceivertank.

Itisalsocommontoinstalldeaerationdevicesonthehotsidesofheatexchangersinheatingdistributionsystemstoforcethedissolvedairoutofthesystem.

Note!Sincethemaximumdeaerationislimitedbytheminimumstaticpressureandmaximumtemperatureinthesystemthebestdeaerationresultisachievedinpositionsatthehottestandhighestlevelsofthesystemsand/orat
thesuctionsideofpumps.
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