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5.1 Work

which the force is acting, is defined as work.

When 1 N force is applied on a particle and the resulting displacement

ent of the partic e, in the

direction of the force, is 1 m, the work done is defined as 1 J ( joule ). The dimensional

om

1 2 2

formula of work is M L T .

direction of the applied force in all

cases. In the figure shown, the

.c

displacement, d, makes an angle

with the applied force, F. According

to the definition of force,

ce

Work, W = force displacement in

the direction of the

force

= F ( d cos ) = ( F cos ) ( d )

(i) raFor

= ( the component of force in the direc ion of displacement ) ( displacement )

motion, the centripetal force acti particle is perpendicular to its displacement.

on a part

m

Hence, the work done due to centripetal forc

force during such a motion is zero.

( ii ) If < one is posit ve and iis said to be done on the object by the force.

2, work done

xa

( iii ) If /2 < negative and is said to be done by the object against the

, work d ne is nega

force.

.e

The scalar product of two vectors, A and B , also known as the dot product, is written by

w

AB = l Al l B l cos = A B cos , where is the angle between the two vectors.

w

produc

To obtain the scalar product of

w

a common point, O, with the same

magnitude and directions as shown in

magnitudes

the figure.

M is the foot of perpendicular from the

head of A to B . OM ( = A cos is

the magnitude of projection of

A on B .

5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER Page 2

Similarly, N is the foot of perpendicular from the head of B to A and ON ( = B cos is the

magnitude of projection of B on A .

AB = AB cos = B ( A cos ) = ( B ) ( OM )

om

= ( magnitude of B ) ( magnitude of projection of A on B )

AB

or

= AB cos = A ( B cos ) = ( A ) ( ON )

= ( magnitude of A ) ( magnitude of projection of B on A )

.c

Thus, scalar product of two vectors is equal to the product of magnitude of one vector with

ector on the direction f the first vector.

the magnitude of projection of second vector

ce

ectors is zero if the angle between the vectors

The scalar product of vectors vecto = / 2, positive if

0 < 2 and negative if / .

ra

Properties of scalar product

( 1 ) Commutative law:

AB = AB cos = B A cos

BA

m

=

mmu

mmutative.

xa

( 2 ) Distributive law:

OP = A , OQ = B and OR = C

as shown n in the f gure. Now,

.e

A( B + C ) = l A l l projection

proje

projec of B + C on A l

l A l ( ON ) = l A l ( OM + MN )

w

l A l ( OM ) + l A l ( MN

=

w

l A l l proj. of B on A l + l A l l proj. of C on A l

=

AB + AC

w

( 3 ) If A ll B , = 0 , AB = A B cos 0 = AB and

AA = l A ll A l = A

2

l Al = A A

Thus, magnitude of a vector is equal to the square root of scalar product of the vector with

itself.

5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER Page 3

( 4 ) If A B , = 90 A B = A B cos 90 = 0

ii

om

= j j = k k = 1 and i j = j k = k i = 0

( 6 ) Scalar product in terms of Cartesian components of vectors:

If A = Ax i + Ay j + Az k and B = Bx i + By j + B z k , then

AB = (Ax i + Ay j + Az k ) (Bx i + By j

.c

+ Bz k )

AB

ce

(7) = A B cos

cos =

A B

=

AxBx A yB y A zBz

ra AB

Ax2

vectors.

A y2 A z2 Bx2 B y2 Bz2

m

5.3 Work done by a variable force

xa

A force varying

ng with position or time

is knownn as the variable force.

To find workork done under a v va

variable force,

.e

particle moving along a curved

curv path AB as

shown n in the figure und

unde

under the effect of a

ariable

iable force The curved

variable cur path is divided into

w

w

ll .

,

Let F1 , F2 , , Fn be the forces acting on

w

p

the particle at line segments, l 1 , l 2 , ,

l n respectively. As the line segments are very small, the force over each segment can be

considered constant.

The total work as the particle moves from A to B can be obtained as the sum of the work

done for different line segments as under.

Total work, W = F1 l 1 F2 l 2 Fn l n

5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER Page 4

Fi

B

= li , i = 1, 2, 3,

A

B B

If lim , then W = F dl = F cos dl

l l l 0 A A

om

For one-dimensional motion of the particle along X-axis and force acting in he direct

direction of

motion as shown in the figure,

B x2

Work, W = F dx cos 0 o = F dx

.c

A x1

ce

where x1 and x2 are the x-coordinates of A and B

respectively.

or a small

It can be seen from the figure that for

displacementt dx, the force F is almost cons ant

ra

and hence work done is Fdx whichch is the a ea of

on of the particle

the strip. Total work for motion

from A to B is the sum of areas of uc st ips

which is the area under the curve between x = x 1

m

and x = x2.

ng under the ef ect of a constant force

xa

r2

the figure, work

ork don W1 = F dr = F ( r2 - r1 )

.e

r1

w

( since, F is constant )

do by the constant force is the scalar

w

pa ticle

w

kinetic energy of the body.

More the speed of the object, more is its kinetic energy. The net force acting on a body

produces acceleration or deceleration in its motion thereby changing its velocity and kinetic

energy. Also, work is done by the net force on the body while causing its displacement.

The work, W, done by the force, F , on a particle of mass, m, causing acceleration, a and

5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER Page 5

displacement, d is given by

W = F d = m a d (1)

2 2

Using the result, v - v0 = 2 a d in the above equation,

v2 - v02 1 2 1 2

om

W = m = mv - mv0 , where v0 and v are the sp eds before a

and

2 2 2

after the application of force respectively.

.c

where K0 and K are the initial and final kinetic energies. The unit of kinetic energy is the

same as that of work, i.e., joule.

ce

ce on a body,

Thus, the work done by the resultant force body in the absence of

dissipative forces, is equal to the change

hange

nge in the kinetic

kinetic energy of the body.

nergy the rem.

ra

When a particle performs uniform rm circular motion, the centripetal

perpendicular to its tangential inst

instantaneous

cen force acting on it is

displacement and hence no work is done by the

ntaneous displacem

displacemen

e speed and kin c en rgy of the particle do not change.

centripetal force and the

m

If the body is displaced in the directi n of the force acting on it, work is done by the force

on the body and is positive. energy of the body increases in this case. If the

ositive. The inet c en

energ

displacement of the body is against t e for

force acting on it, work is done by the body and is

xa

negative. The

e kinetic energy f th body decreases in this case.

1 2 m2 v 2 p2

Also, kinetic

c energy, K = mv = = , where p = linear momentum of the body.

2 2m 2m

.e

w

body to do work, by virtue of its position in a force field

or due to its configurati

configuration is known as the potential energy of the body.

w

energy:

The grav

gravitational acc

acceleration, g, due to the Earths gravitational force can be taken as

w

constant for

body of mass m moves from height y1 to height y2 in the Earths gravitational field,

If a bod

the force on the body = - mg j and its displacement = ( y2 - y1 ) j

= - mg j ( y2 - y1 ) j

= mgy1 - mgy2 ( 1 )

5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER Page 6

Here, the work depends on the initial and final positions of the body and not on the path

followed. Also, there is no loss of

mechanical energy if friction and

air resistance are ignored. In this

case, the force is known as

conservative force and the field as

conservative field.

om

If v1 and v2 are velocities of the

body at heights y1 and y2

respectively, then according to

work-energy theorem,

1 2

mv2 -

.c

The work done, W =

2

1 2

mv1 = mgy1 - mgy2 [ from

2

ce

equation ( 1 ) above ]

Here, mgy1 and mgy2 are the

potential energies of the body at

heights y1 and y2 respectively from

ra

the surface of the Earth due to the

Earths gravitational field. Surface

of the Earth is the reference level from potential energy is calculated. Besides, the

her potentia

Earths surface, any other levell can be chosen as reference

re level.

m

Thus, gravitational potential

ntial energy of a body of mass m at height h from the surface of the

Earth is U = mgh.

1 1

xa

2 2

From the above equation, mv1 + mgy1 = mv2 + mgy2

2 2

Thus, in a conservative

onservative field, he mechanical energy, E, which is the sum of kinetic energy

1 2

(K = mv ) and potent al energy ( U = mgh ) remains constant.

.e

2

E = K + U.

w

Thus, the mechani al energ

known as the law of conservation of mechanical energy.

field. This statement is kno

w

energ ( Potential energy

due to the configur

configuration of a system )

w

and obe

obeying Hookes law is tied with a rigid wall

and to the other end a block of mass m is tied.

The block is at x = 0 when the spring is not

extended or compressed. On displacing the block,

the restoring force is produced in the spring

which tries to restore the block to its original

position.

displacement of the block and is in a direction

opposite to the displacement.

5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER Page 7

F - x or F = - kx,

where k is the force constant of the spring which is defined as the force required to pull or

compress the spring by unit displacement. Its unit is N m and its dimensional formula is

1 0 2

M L T .

om

Work done by the applied force on the spring is,

x x x

x2 1 2

W = kxdx = k xdx = k = kx

2 2

0 0 0

.c

This work done on the spring is stored in the form of elastic potential energ

energy of the spring.

Taking the potential energy to be zero for x = 0, for hange i leng length equal to x, the

potential stored in the spring will be

ce

1 2

U = kx

2

ra

The change in kinetic energy,

F, in displacing

K,, of the par icle is equal

splacing it through a small distance, x.

K = W = F x

equ to work, W, done on it by force,

m

But, by the law off conservation of mechanica

mechanical energy,

K +

xa

U

U = 0 F x + U 0 F = -

x

instantaneous

taneous value of F = - lim

U

= -

dU

This equation holds only in the

x 0 x dx

.e

1 2

In the case of a spring, the potential energy,

energ U = kx

F = - dU = - 1 k ( 2x ) = - kx

2

w

dx 2

w

5.7 Power

w

the wo

w

work done per unit time.

If W is the work done in time interval t, the average power in time interval t is

W

<P> = and instantaneous power at time t is

t

W dW

t 0 t

P = lim =

dt

5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER Page 8

dW dr

P = = F =

F v , where v is the instantaneous velocity at time t.

dt

Power is a scalar quantity like work and energy. Its unit is watt ( W ). 1 W = 1 J /s. Its

dt

1 2 3

dimensional formula is M L T .

om

3 6

1 kilowatt ( kW ) = 10 watt ( W ) and 1 megawatt ( MW ) = 10 W.

k) as the p oduct power and time.

f pow

.c

6

ce

In elastic collision, total linear momentum and tot l kinetic energy of the colliding bodies

are conserved.

In inelastic collision, total linear momentum of the colliding bodies is conserved, but part

ra

or whole of the kinetic energy is lost in her forms of energy.

In both, elastic as well as inelastic coll sions,s total energy ( energy of all forms,

m

mechanical, internal, sound, etc. ) and total linear momentum are conserved.

xa

another sphere

re of mass m2 movin

moving in the same direction with velocity v2. ( v1 > v2 )

.e

w

w

Let v1 and v2 be their velocities in the same ( X ) direction after the collision which we

w nt to find.

w

or, m1 ( v1 - v1 ) = m2 ( v2 - v2 ) (1)

v 2 ' - v 1' velocity of separation after the collision

Co-efficient of restitution, e = =

v1 - v 2 velocity of approach before the collision

5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER Page 9

For partly inelastic collision, 0 < e < 1.

v2' v 1' = e ( v1 v2 ) (2)

m1 m2 e (1 e ) m2 ( 1 e ) m1 m1e m2

v 1' = v1 v2 and v2 ' = v1 v2

om

m1 m2 m1 m2 m1 m2 m1 m2

.c

Putting e = 0 for completely inelastic collision in the above equations,

m1v 1 m2 v 2

v 1'

ce

= v2 ' = = v ( the common velocity the spheres after collision )

m1 m2

Thus, in completely inelastic collision, the colliding bodies move

mov jointly with a common

velocity.

1

Here, the kinetic energy before collision, Ki = m 2 v 2 2 and

ra

the kinetic energy after collision, Kf =

2

m1v 1 +

2

1

2

(m m2 ) v 2 =

1

2

( m1 m2 ) 1 1

m v

m1

m2 v 2

m2

2

m

Kf -

m1m 2 ( v 1 - v 2 ) 2

Ki = -

2 ( m1 m )

xa

energy decreases during inelastic collision.

Elastic collision

llision

ion in one d mension:

v 2 ' - v 1' ( v1 - v 2 )

.e

v1 + v1 = v2 + v2 (3)

w

2 1

- v12 ) = 2

- v22 ).

w

2

1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2

m1v1 + m2v2 = m1v1 + m2v2

w

2 2 2 2

sho

This shows that the kinetic energy is conserved for e = 1. Hence, elastic collision can also

be defined as the one in which e = 1.

Taking e = 1 for elastic collision, the velocities of the spheres after the collision are given

by

m1 - m 2 2 m2 2 m1 m1 - m 2

v 1' = v1 v and v2 ' = v1 - v2

m1 m2 m1 m 2 2 m1 m2 m1 m2

5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER Page 10

v1 v1 and v2 2v1 - v2

This shows that the larger sphere continues to move with the same e velocity, wwhereas

the velocity of the smaller sphere increases. If the smaller sphere was moves

as at rest, it m

with twice the velocity of the larger sphere after the collision.

om

(2) For m2 >> m1, neglecting m1 as compared to m2 in the above equatio s, we get

v2 v2 and v1 2v2 - v1

e with he same v

velocity, but the

.c

velocity of the smaller sphere changes.

(i) If the smaller sphere were moving with ith twice he speed of the larger sphere, it

ce

becomes stationary after the collision.

ng with velocity less than twice the velocity of the

larger sphere, it continues to move in he same dir direction, but with decreased

speed.

ra

( iii ) If the smaller sphere were

larger sphere,

ere moving with velocity more than twice the velocity of the

re, it rebounds

unds and starts mov

velocity given as above.

moving in the opposite direction with the

m

If the larger sphere was stati

stati nary,

nary it remains stationary. In this case, the smaller

sphere rebounds

unds and move with the same speed in the reverse direction.

xa

Summarizing the above t o cases, wh when one of the two spheres colliding is much more

massive than thehe other then he velo

velocity

vel of the larger sphere remains almost the same after

the collision, whereas the velocity of the smaller sphere after the collision is almost twice the

.e

v of the smaller sphere before the collision.

ex

equal mass their velocities get exchanged.

w

w

Suppose a sphere o

of mass m1 moving in

X direction w

with velocity v 1 collides elastically with

w

a station

stationary ( v 2 = 0 ) sphere of mass m2 as

show in the figure. After the collision, they move

shown

in the directions making angles 1 and 2 with the

m1 v 1 = m1 v 1' + m2 v 2 '

5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER Page 11

m1v1 = m1 v 1' cos 1 + m2 v 2 ' cos 2 ( 1 ) and 0 = m1 v 1' sin 1 - m2 v 2 ' sin 2 (2)

om

1 2 1 2 1 2

m1v1 = m1v1 + m2v2 ( 3 )

2 2 2

tities can be determined.

.c

Besides mechanical energy, some examples of other forms of nergy are as under.

ce

Internal Energy:

The sum of vibrational kinetic energy and potential energy due to mutual

mutu attraction and

repulsion between constituent particles of a substa ce is known

kno as internal energy of the

body. Due to work done against friction, interna energy and hence

h temperature of the body

ra

increases.

m

The kinetic energy of the constituen particles of a body due to their random motion is

mal energy of th body.

known as heat or thermal

xa

een internal energy and heat is analogous to mechanical energy and work.

When work is done e by body A o body B, m mechanical energy of body A decreases and that

eases.

ses. Similar y, when heat is transferred from body A to body B, internal

of body B increases.

energy of body A decr ases and that of body B increases.

.e

Chemical energy:

A stable

ble compound has energy

ene

en less than its constituent elements in free state. This difference

is known as c emica

emical energy or chemical binding energy. In a chemical reaction, if the

w

chemical energy of the products is less than that of the reactants, heat is evolved and the

reaction is called exo

exothermic. Here, chemical energy got converted into heat energy. Similarly,

if the chemical energy of the products is more than that of the reactants, heat is absorbed

w

endothermic. Here, heat energy got converted into chemical energy.

Elec rical e

en

energy:

w

The energy

e associated with electric current is known as electrical energy. When electric

current

curren is used in a heater, electrical energy is converted into heat energy. Similarly, in a

lamp, it is converted into heat and light energy.

Nuclear energy:

The mass of a nucleus is less than the sum of the masses of its constituent protons and

neutrons in free state. The energy equivalent to this mass difference is known as nuclear

energy or nuclear binding energy. In a nuclear fission reaction, when heavy nuclei like

uranium are bombarded by neutrons, they break up into smaller nuclei releasing huge amount

of nuclear energy. Such reactions are used in nuclear reactors for producing power and in

5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER Page 12

atomic weapons. In the Sun and stars, nuclear fusion reaction occurs in which lighter nuclei

like protons, deuterons fuse at high temperature to form a helium nucleus releasing huge

amount of energy. At the microscopic level, all different forms of energy are in the form of

potential and or kinetic energy.

om

Albert Einstein gave an equation for inter-conversion of mass and energy

ergy as under

2 8

E = mc , where c = 3 10 m s is the velocity of light in vacuum.

Conservation of energy

tant.

nt. This i the statem

statement

sta of law of

.c

conservation of energy. One form of energy may gett converted

rted into nother

nothe form or energy.

erse is an isolated sy

Energy cannot be created or destroyed. The universe system an

and so the total

energy of the universe remains constant.

ce

ra

m

xa

.e

w

w

w

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