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mehrez.marzougui@fsm.rnu.tn
13 December 2016
1 Introduction
2 Bode Diagrams
Basic Factors of Transfer Function
General Procedure for Plotting Bode Diagrams
Example of Bode diagram plot
4 Relative Stability
Introduction
In frequencyresponse methods, we vary the frequency of the input signal over a certain range
and study the resulting response.
Frequencyresponse methods were developed in 1930s and 1940s by Nyquist, Bode, Nichols,
and many others. The frequencyresponse methods are most powerful in conventional control
theory. They are also indispensable to robust control theory.
The sinusoidal transfer function, a complex function of the frequency , is characterized by its
magnitude and phase angle, with frequency as the parameter. There are three commonly
used representations of sinusoidal transfer functions : Bode diagram or logarithmic plot,
Nyquist plot or polar plot, Logmagnitudeversusphase plot (Nichols plots)
A Bode diagram consists of two graphs : One is a plot of the logarithm of the magnitude of a
sinusoidal transfer function ; the other is a plot of the phase angle ; both are plotted against the
frequency on a logarithmic scale.
The standard representation of the logarithmic magnitude of G(j) is 20 log G(j). The unit
used in this representation of the magnitude is the decibel, usually abbreviated dB. In the
logarithmic representation, the curves are drawn on semilog paper, using the log scale for
frequency and the linear stale for either magnitude (but in decibels) or phase angle (in
degrees).
The main advantage of using the Bode diagram is that multiplication of magnitudes can be
converted into addition.
The basic factors that very frequently occur in an arbitrary transfer function are :
Gain K
1
Integral and derivative factors (j)
Firstorder factors (1 + j )1
2 1
Quadratic factors 1 + 2j( ) + (j )
0 0
Once we become familiar with the logarithmic plots of these basic factors, it is possible to
utilize them in constructing a composite logarithmic plot for any general form of transfer
function by sketching the curves for each factor and adding individual curves graphically,
because adding the logarithms of the gains corresponds to multiplying them together.
The Gain K
A number greater than unity has a positive value in decibels, while a number smaller than
unity has a negative value.The logmagnitude curve for a constant gain K is a horizontal
straight line at the magnitude of 20 log K decibels.The phase angle of the gain K is zero.
20
10
Gain 20 log G(j) (dB)
10
20
30
40
102 101 100 101 102
Normalized Frequency /0
1
20 log  = 20 log dB
j
1
The phase angle of is constant and equal to
j 2
In Bode diagrams, frequency ratios are expressed in terms of octaves or decades. An octave
is a frequency band from i to 2i , where i is any frequency value. A decade is a frequency
band from j to 10j where j is any frequency.
On the logarithmic scale of semilog paper, any given frequency ratio can be represented by
the same horizontal distance. For example, the horizontal distance from = 1 to = 10 is
equal to that from = 5 to = 50.
If the log magnitude 20 log dB is plotted against on a logarithmic scale, it is a straight
line.To draw this straight line, we need to locate one point (for example (0 dB, = 1)) on it.
Since
(20 log 10) dB = (20 log 20) dB
10
20 log G(j) (dB)
0
p= 
20
dB
10 /de
c
20
30
40
101 100 101 102
Normalized Frequency /0
40
30
20
20 log G(j) (dB)
e c
10 B/d
0d
+2
0 p=
10
20
30
40
102 101 100 101 102
Normalized Frequency /0
1
The log magnitude of the firstorder factor (1 + j ) is
0
s
1 2
gdB = 20 log = 20 log 1 + 2 dB
1 + j 0
0
For low frequencies, such that 0 , the log magnitude may be approximated by :
s
2
20 log 1+ 20 log 1 = 0 dB
02
Thus, the logmagnitude curve at low frequencies is the constant 0 dB line. For high
frequencies, such that 0 :
s
2
20 log 1+ 20 log dB
02 0
At = 0 , the log magnitude equals 0 dB, at = 100 , the log magnitude is20 dB. Thus,
the value of 20 log dB decreases by 20 dB for every decade of . For 0 , the
0
logmagnitude curve is thus a straight line with a slope of 20dB/decade.
This analysis shows that the logarithmic representation of the frequencyresponse curve of the
1
factor(1 + j ) can be approximated by two straightline asymptotes, one a straight line at
0
0 dB for the frequency range 0 < < 0 and the other a straight line with slop
20dB/decade for the frequency range 0 < < .
The frequency at which the two asymptotes meet is called the corner frequency or break
1
frequency. For the factor (1 + j ) , the frequency = 0 is the corner frequency since at
0
= 0 the two asymptotes have the same value.
20
10 1
1 + j 8
0
Gain (dB)
p=
10 2
0 dB
1 /de
20 c
1 + j 1
30
2 1 0 1 2
10 10 10 10 10
Normalized
Automatic Frequency
control systems / 13 December 2016 11 / 31
Bode Diagrams Basic Factors of Transfer Function
An advantage of the Bode diagram is that for reciprocal factors  for example, the
factor(1 + j ) the logmagnitude and the phaseangle curves need only be changed in sign,
0
since :
1
20 log 1 + = 20 log
0 1 +
0
and
1
= arg(1 + j ) = tan1 = arg
0 0 (1 + j )
0
The corner frequency is the same for both cases. The slope of the highfrequency asymptote
of (1 + j ) is 20 dB/dec and the phase angle varies from 0 to 90 as the frequency is
0
increased from 0 to . The logmagnitude curve, for the factor (1 + j ) are shown in next
0
slide.
50
40
1+j
5

30
0
20 log 1 + j
20 c
de
d B/
0
+2
10 p=
0 1+j
50
10
101 100 101 102 103
Normalized Frequency /0
First rewrite the sinusoidal transfer function as a product of basic factors discussed above.
Then identify the corner frequencies associated with these basic factors.
Finally, draw the asymptotic logmagnitude curves with proper slopes between the corner
frequencies.
The exact curve, which lies close to the asymptotic curve, can be obtained by adding proper
corrections.
The phaseangle curve can be drawn by adding the phaseangle curves of individual factors.
Example
Draw the Bode diagram of the open loop transfer function for the following system :
s
4 1+ 2
The open loop transfer function is G(s) =
+ 5s ) s
s(1 1 + 30
j
4 1+ 2
Sinusoidal transfert function is G(j) =
j
(j)(1 + j 5 ) 1 + 30
This function is composed of the following
factors :
1 j 1 j 1
4, (j) , (1 + ), (1 + j ) , 1+
2 5 30
The corner frequencies of the third, fourth, and fifth terms are = 2, = 5, et = 30.
Below = 2, the plot has the slope of 20 dB/dec. At the first corner frequency = 2, the
slope changes to 0 dB/dec and continues to the next corner frequency = 5, where the
slope becomes 20 dB/dec. At the last corner frequency = 30,the slope changes to
40 dB/dec.
Automatic control systems 13 December 2016 15 / 31
Bode Diagrams Example of Bode diagram plot
Example Cntd
40
2
20 G(j)dB 3
20
Gain (dB)
1
0
20
4 5
40
1 0 1 2 3
10 10 10 10 10
Normalized Frequency /0
Example 1
Determine the transfer function whose approximate plot is as shown.
80
60
2
B 0dB/dec
A 40 C
40d
20 B/d
ec
O 0
60
dB
20 /de
c
40
100 0 = 2.5 101 1 = 40 102
The corner frequencies are 2.5 rad/s and 40 rad/s. At = 2.5 rad/sec, the slope change
1
from 20 dB/dec to 40 dB/dec. Therefore there must be a factor ( s ). Since the
1 + 2.5
initial slope is 20 dB/dec that does not cross the point (0,0), there must be a pole at the
K
origin i.e, at ( ).
s
Automatic control systems 13 December 2016 17 / 31
Obtain Transfer Function from Bode plot
Example 1 Cntd
1
The slope at 40 rad/sec change from 40 dB/dec to 60 dB/dec du to factor ( s ). The
1 + 40
open loop transfer function is
K K
G(s) = =
s( 1+1 s )( 1+1 s ) s(1 + 0.4s)(1 + 0.025s)
2.5 40
Example 2
Determine the transfer function whose approximate plot is as shown.
30
20 0dB/d 20
20 dB
B dB B/d /d
/d 0d
0dB/d +2
10
4
0
dB
/d
A 0 C
10
100 2 4 8 10
1
24 36 102
Slope of the first line is 20 dB/dec that does not cross the point (0,0) indicating the term
K
( ).
s
s
At = 2 rad/sec, slope changes from 20 rad/sec to 0 dB/dec indicating a term (1 + ) in
2
the Numerator.
Automatic control systems 13 December 2016 19 / 31
Obtain Transfer Function from Bode plot
Example 2 Cntd
s
At = 4 rad/sec, slope changes to 20 dB/dec indicating a term(1 + ) = (1 + 0.25s) in the
4
Numerator.
s
At = 8 rad/sec, slope changes to 0 dB/dec indicating a term (1 + ) = (1 + 0.125s) in the
8
Denominator.
Example 3
Determine the transfer function whose approximate plot is as shown.
2.5 10 25
A 0
0dB/d
B 2
0 dB /d
/d 0 dB
+2
10
12dB 0dB/d
C
20
100 101 102
Since the 1st has a slope of 20 dB/dec that does not cross the point (0,0), the
K
corresponding factor is ( ).
s
Automatic control systems 13 December 2016 21 / 31
Obtain Transfer Function from Bode plot
Example 3 Cntd
At 2 = 10 rad/sec, the slope is changing from 0 to +20 dB/dec and the corresponding
s
factor is (1 + ) = (1 + 0.04s) in the denominator.
25
Therefore the open loop transfer function is
K (1 + 0.4s)(1 + 0.1s)
G(s) =
s(1 + 0.04)
Example 4
Determine the transfer function. whose approximate plot is as shown.
20
A10
2
0 dB
/d 1 20 40
B 0 d 0dB/d
d B/
0
0dB/d +2
9
10
20
101 100 101 102
Since the 1st has a slope of 20 dB/dec that does not cross the point (0,0), the
K
corresponding factor is ( ).
s
Plot between 1 = 1 rad/s and 2 = 20 rad/sec, it is having a slope of 0 dB/dec. Therefore
s
at 1 = 1 rad/sec, there must be a zero and the factor is (1 + ) = (1 + s) in the numerator.
1
Automatic control systems 13 December 2016 23 / 31
Obtain Transfer Function from Bode plot
Example 4 Cntd
At 2 = 20 rad/sec, the slope is changing from 0 dB/dec to +20 dB/dec and the
s
corresponding factor is (1 + ) = (1 + 0.05s) in the denominator.
20
Plot between 2 = 20 rad/s and 3 = 40 rad/sec, it is having a slope of 0 dB/dec. Therefore
1 1
at 3 = 1 rad/sec, there must be a zero and the factor is s = in the
(1 + 40 ) (1 + 0.025s)
denominator.
To find the value of K :
Let = 0.1 rad/s be the origin.
(AB + 9) = 20(log 1 log 0.1)) = AB = 11 dB
20 log K 20 log 0.1 = 11 = K = 0.3548
9
Or simply, 20 log K = 9dB = log K = = 0.45 = K = 100.45 = 0.3548
20
Therefore the open loop transfer function is
Example 5
Determine the transfer function whose approximate plot is as shown.
60
20d
B/d
40
36 dB
40d
20 B/d
2 = 8 3 = 22.72
0
1 = 0.503 20d
12 dB B/d
21 dB 20
40d
B/d
40
60
101 100 101 102
Example 5 Cntd
Since the 1st has a slope of 20 dB/dec that does not cross the point (0,0), the
K
corresponding factor is ( ).
s
Plot between 1 rad/s and = 4 rad/sec, it is having a slope of 40 dB/dec. Therefore at
1 1
1 rad/sec, and the corresponding factor is s = in the denominator.
(1 + 0.5035 ) (1 + 1.986s)
At 2 rad/sec, the slope is changing from 40 dB/dec to 20 dB/dec and the
s
corresponding factor is (1 + ) = (1 + 0.125s) in the numerator.
7.98
At 3 rad/sec, the slope is changing from 20 dB/dec to 40 dB/dec and the corresponding
1 1
factor is s = in the denominator.
(1 + 22.49 ) (1 + 0.044s)
Therefore the open loop transfer function is
31.77(1 + 0.125s)
G(s) =
s(1 + 1.986s)(1 + 0.044s)
The gain margin is the reciprocal of the magnitude G(j) at the frequency at which the phase
angle is 180 . Defining the phase crossover frequency , to be the frequency at which
the phase angle of the openloop transfer function equals 180 gives the gain margin :
The gain margin expressed in decibels is positive if Kg is greater than unity and negative if Kg
is smaller than unity.
Thus, a positive gain margin (in decibels) means that the system is stable, and a negative gain
margin (in decibels) means that the system is unstable.
For a stable minimumphase system, the gain margin indicates how much the gain can be
increased before the system becomes unstable. For an unstable system, the gain margin is
indicative of how much the gain must be decreased to make the system stable.
The phase margin is that amount of additional phase lag at the gain crossover frequency
required to bring the system to the verge of instability.
The gain crossover frequency is the frequency at which G(j),t, he magnitude of the open
loop transfer function, is unity.
The phase margin is 180 plus the phase angle of the openloop transfer function at the
gain crossover frequency, or
= 180 +
Next figure illustrate the phase margin of both a stable system and an unstable system in
Bode diagrams.
log log
Negative gain margin
Arg(G(j)) Arg(G(j))
90 90
180 180
log log
270 Positive phase margin
270 Ngative phase margin
F IGURE Phase and gain margins of stable system (left) and unstable systems (right).
Example
Obtain the phase and gain margins of the system shown the next figure for the two cases where
k = 10 and k = 100.
R(s) k C(s)
+
s(s + 1)(s + 5)
Bode diagrams of the system shown in the next figure ; (a) with K = 10 and (b) with K = 100.
30 0
30
20
Arg(G(j)) ( )
60
10 90
g = 9
0 120
gdB
10 150
180
20
210 = 25
30 240
40 270
101 100 101 101 100 101
(a) Gain Bode plot for K = 10 (b) Phase angle Bode plot for K = 10
Automatic control systems 13 December 2016 30 / 31
Relative Stability
Example Cntd
50 0
30
40
60
Arg(G(j)) ( )
30
90
gdB
20 120
10 150
180
0
g = 10 210
10 = 24
240
20 270
101 100 101 101 100 101
(c) Gain Bode plot for K = 100 (d) Phase angle Bode plot for K = 100