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Compare the role of historical progress in the ideas of two of the following: Kant, Rousseau,

Marx, Flaubert. In your essay, you should put the emphasis on role, not on an accounting
of specific progress.

Flaubert And Mark

Flaubert was that kind of writer that that over-demanding with himself, unable to turn
his own page till it was, according to his criterion, perfect and passionate. He stands
between the Romanticism and the Realism. Madame Bovary came on stage in 1957
without the fully acceptance of some readers since it caused some scandal due to
behavior of the unsatisfied Madam Bovary. But, in other sectors, it arose great
admiration and unveil the deeper feelings of the oppression of many women who lived
unsatisfied with their lives , not only by their husbands if this was the case, but mostly
by the society which covered their miseries in a hypocrite and dissembler way. He was
an expert in portraying the society and weakness of people submerged in mere

I am convinced that Flaubert was definitely implicated in the Modernism, and he was a
really influential element in this ladder to the changes. It was said that Flaubert was
able to paint lucid verbal descrptions to such an extent that it was compared with
Mamets painting since in the area of narrative , both had the same intensity in the
language of arts.

James Wood said about Flaubert: Flaubert decisively established what most readers
and writers think of as modern realist narration, and his influence is almost too familiar
to be visible.

Another key thing to remember is that in the period of 12 years both Marx and Flaubert
had published their most important works: Marx the Estranged Labour and The
Communist Manifesto and Flaubert , his Madame Bovary in 1856. So it is impossible
to deny their contributions to the Age of Enlightment and the successive years.

Apparently opposed in their attitudes towards life, Flaubert affirmed he was

disinterested in politics and economical struggle and he considered political writings as
hypocritical and unclever , against the popularity achieved by authors such Mark.
I am inclined to think that bourgeoisie which was fostered by Capitalism broke, as much
as it could with the revolutionary thinkers impregnated of ideals of revolution, justice
and fare wages for workers.

Marx sought another form of social organization, encompassing technical advance of

modern society which would integrate both the technical advances of modern society
and a door to a field for the dignified development and, why not, enrichment of human
life with a new concept of work , freer, not alienated , against to the mechanization of
industrial work where men became slaves to work.

Whereas Mark was convinced of his political discourse, Flaubert became resistant to
political speech,

Flaubert insisted on other ways to deal with modernity ,exalting the transcendence of
man in an realm made of aesthetics, Mark thought the only way to help the alienation
on men was through the economic realm.