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Pressure applied inside a pipe creates stress in the pipe wall.

These stresses are highest on which

weld orientation?
longitudinal weld

Per B31.3, how much RT is conducted on circumferential welds of a pipe in normal service?

for welded pipe, the normal thickness of under-tolerance is?

.010 or 10 mils

The corrosiveness of soils can be determined by measuring the soils:


when qualifying a weld procedure the essential variables must:

be recorded on both the WPS & PQR

In severe refinery services which type of pipe is normally used?

seamless pipe

a pipe has a thickness designation of "40S". what does the "S" mean?
Stainless steel

Generally socket-welded pipe is not used for nominal pipe sizes above:
2 inches

A propane piping system should be classified as?

Class 1

According to ASME/ANSI B16.5 flanges from plate materials can only be used for:
Blind flanges

Preheat should never be substituted for PWHT if:

the PWHT was used to prevent environmental cracking.

During welding, non-esential variables:

Must be recorded only on the WPS and must be followed by the welder.

During a hydrotest, all joints should be:

left uninsulated

ASME/ANSI B16.5 requires flanges to be:

marked with the class rating.

Graphitization of carbon steels begins to occur when metal temperatures exceed:

During pipe fabrication who has overall responsibility for compliance with the code?
The owner/user

Who has the responsibility to determine the extent of PMI (Positive Material Identification)
The owner/user

An inservice process pipe should be classified as Class 1 when the % of H2S exceeds:

A welder becomes unqualified when he has not welded in:

6 months

A PQR test coupon with a shell thickness of "T" can generally be used to qualify a wall thickness
on the WPS up to.

A pressure test is always required:

whenever the authorized inspector believes one is necessary

When can radiography not be used to qualify a welder?

when using the GMAW process with the short circuit mode

Generally, raised face flanges should have a surface finish of:

125-250 micro- inches

During a direct visual exam of a pipe weld, the minimum light intensity should be:
100 footcandles

Describe the 3G welding test position.

Vertical groove Weld

Seal welding pipe threads:

may be used to prevent leaks

Liquid thermal relief valves should be set at a pressure not higher than:
120 %

When fabricating pipe, unknown materials:

Should never be used (except for door stops)

The material verification program specified by API 578 covers:

only pressure containing components.

what is the interval for thickness measurements on a class 1 piping system?

lesser of 5 years or half life of the pipe
According to B31.3, a welder's qualification records from a previous employer can:
Be accepted if the inspector approves

When welding together piping components of different thicknesses, the thicker part should be
trimmed with a:
30 degree taper.

When performing soil-to air inspections on uncoated lines, it is recommended to excavate the
6-12 inches.

When performing preheat prior to welding or PWHT, the preheat zone and/or PWHT must
extend how far beyond the edge of the weld?
1 inch

Flange bolts are unacceptable if the bolt threads do not extend:

inside the nut within 1 thread of the nut face

Carbon steel materials are most likely to be incorrectly substituted in:

a chrome steel piping system.

Per B31.3 how much of the fabrication should be visually examined for a pipe in severe cyclic
100 %

When calibrating a UT instrument, that has a delay line with single element unit, use:
At least 2 test blocks with thicknesses near the max and min to be examined.

During pipe repairs, which welding discontinuity is always unacceptable?

Cracks and Inadequate fusion

What do you call a groove in the parent metal at the toe of a weld?

The RT procedure used for a pipe repair must conform to the requirements of:
ASME Section 5

What is the minimum holding time for all pressure tests on piping?
10 mins

When a relief device or valve is removed for repair, the inspector should:
inspect the inside of the inlet and outlet piping where the valve was removed.

Thickness measurements are suggested at pipe fittings since:

directional changes generally create increased turbulence and corrosion.
Flange leaks in certain fluids can cause:
bolts to crack and corrode

Heat Tracing could cause cracking in carbon steel piping which is in:
Caustic service

Excessive repairs to pump bearings may be a result of:

thermal growth

Loose or broken anchor bolts at pipe supports are most easily detected by:
hammer testing

A pneumatic pressure test is to be conducted on a Normal Service piping system. During pipe
erection, how many of the joint assemblies should be examined?
100 %

During a pipe repair, preheat is substituted for the required PWHT. What is the minimum preheat

Minimum time an examiner should be in a darkened area prior to using a black light when
performing MT & PT exam
5 min

The corrosion rate for newly installed piping systems or for changes in service must be
established. API 570 provides three methods of determination probable corrosion rates for these
API 570 paragraph 7.1.2

minimum duration of hydro test to evaluation integrity of a burried pipe


Maximum time before obtaining thickness readings when corrosion rate on new pipe is not
kmown (no other data available)
3 months

Maximum time that a welder maintains qualifications for a welding process without using that
6 months

Suggested interval for above-grade visual surveillance of burried pipe

6 months

Maximum interval for a visual examiner's eye check

1 year
Length of time before an API 570 inspector must recertify
6 years

Maximum thickness Inspection interval for injection point

Lesser 3 years or Half life

Maximum External Inspection interval for Class 1 & 2 Piping

5 years

Suggested interval - Close interval Potential Survey of buried pipe w/ poor CP

5 years

Suggested interval for evaluation of Soil corrosivity of buried pipe w/o CP

5 years

Corrosion rates on existing piping systems shall be calculated on either a short-term or a long-
term basis. How is the short-term corrosion rate calculated?
Readings from the two most recent inspections shall be used.
API 570 paragraph 7.1.3

Maximum inspection inerval for clean/non fouling service PRD's

10 years

Maximum external inspection interval for Class 3 piping

10 years

Maximum thickness Inspection interval for Class 2 & 3 piping:

The lesser of 10 years or half life of the pipe.

When should temporary pipe repairs be replaced?

Next opportunity

When shall temporary leak sealing devices be removed and pipe repaired?
Next turnaround
When performing a
visual exam, the minimum angle of eye to part

Hole size that must be visible in RT when using Hole-type IQI


Maximum allowed thickness on a WPS based on the plate thickness (T) of a PQR coupon

Minimun light intensity when performing VT, MT, or PT exam

100 foot-candles

Lead letter used during RT to check for backscatter


Lead letter used during RT to indicate a film-side IQI


Two primary gamma ray radiation sources

Iridium & Cobalt

Two most common CS pipe materials

A53 & A106

Maximum stress allowed during a pressure test

90% of SMYS (Specified Minimum Yield Strength)

pH of hydro test water needed to reduce likelihood of MIC


Maximum allowed SMYS (Specified Minimum Yield Strength) for pipe if fillet welded patch is
40,000 psi

Typical external corrosion rate for dry rural environment

<1 mpy

Code to follow when performing an internal inspection on pipe

API 510

Code for PMI (positive material identification)

API 578

Code for FFS (Fitness for Service)

API 579

Code for RBI (Risk Based Inspection)

API 580

Code for Valve Inspection and testing

API 598

Code for Cathodic Protection

API 651

Code for Welding on In-Service equipment containing Flammables (hot tapping)

API 2201

Code for NDE procedures guidelines

ASME Section 5

Design code for fabrication of piping relief devices

ASME section VIII

Code for Welder qualification

ASME Section IX

Code for Weld procedure qualification

ASME Section IX

NDE personnel qualification


Materials subject to temper-embrittlement

Low Alloy Chromes

Materials subject to chloride stress corrosion cracking

300 series Stainless Steel

Which material must use low chloride hydro test water & must be died after hydro test?
300 series Stainless Steel

What material is subject to polytheonic acid stress corrosion cracking?

Sensitized 300 SS

Materials where preheat can be substituted for PWHT

P1 & P3

Mill tolerance of seamless pipe


Corrosion rates on existing piping systems shall be calculated on either a short-term or a long-
term basis. How is the long-term corrosion rate calculated?

Wall thicknesses from the most recent and initial (or nominal) inspections shall be used.
API 570 paragraph 7.1.1

What does the "L" mean in Austenitic SS, like 304 L?

Low Carbon

What does the "H" mean in Austenitic SS, like 316 H?

High Carbon
The following is not a Ferritic Steel
300 series Stainless Steel

Low alloy steels can contain up to how much chrome?


The following is an Austenitic SS

316 series Stainless Steel

The following is a Ferritic SS

405 series Stainless Steel

The following is a martensitic SS

410 series Stainless Steel

Nickel alloys are what % nickel?


True or False
A Brittle Fracture grows very rapidly with minimum deformation prior to failure.

Which material is Least affected by Brittle Fracture?

300 series Stainless Steel

Resistance to Brittle Fracture is called:


What increases the likelihood of brittle fracture?

large grain size & Thicker materials

What test is used to determine a materials toughness?

Charpy Impact Test

Most Brittle Fractures occur:

Below the impact transition temperature

ASME Sec. VIII had few limitations concerning Brittle Fracture prior to:

a 4" thick 5 chrome vessel operates at 1200 psig and 900F. When is the vessel lest likely to fail
from Brittle Fracture?
During normal operation

most brittle fractures appear as:


The calculations for maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) for known materials shall
be as provided for in ASME B31.3 or the code to which the piping was designed and fabricated
(applicable code). What information is not required to be available and comply with the
principles of the applicable code?

The name of the original manufacturer

API 570 paragraph 7.2

When the MAWP is recalculated for piping systems of unknown materials, what information is
The lowest grade material and joint efficiency in the applicable code.
API 570 paragraph 7.2

When recalculating MAWP of piping systems for continued use, what thickness is used?
The actual thicknesses determined by inspection minus twice the estimated corrosion loss before
the date of the next inspection.
API 570 paragraph 7.2

Limits of soil to air area distance in air away from interface

6 inches

Distance to dig when inspectng for soil to air corrosion

6-12 inches

What is the limit of soil to air area distance in soil away from interface?
12 inches

Minimum length of buried pipe to expose when excavating for inspection

6-8 feet

Minimum downstream limit of injection point circuit

lesser of 1st directional change +25 feet or 2nd directional change
Change of an identical item, owing to corrosion + MAWP increased for the whole system is
repair and re-rating

True or False
The minimum required pipe wall thickness, or retirement thickness, is based solely on pressure.
API 570 paragraph 7.3

Which dimension stay the same regardless of the wall scheduled thickness?
Outside Diameter
ASME code for valves

Prefered inspection method for injection points

RT and/or UT

Important requirement of Material verification program

Documented Roles and responsibilities

PMI stands for

Positive Material Identification

% of Material examiniation for high risk piping system with likely material mixup

What are the most common material nonconformances with serious consequences?
Low Alloy steel pipe replaced by Carbon steel pipe

Piping most involved in material mixup

bypass piping, small diameter (2NPS) piping, valves and bolts.

Material most susceptible to brittle fracture

Ferritics CS & Low Alloy SS

Effect of T on Soil corrosion rate

Corrosion Increases with Increase in T

What indicates internal CO2 corrosion

Smooth grooving of pipe wall

Material with highest resistance to sulfidation

18/8 SS

Two main types of Environmental cracking

Caustic stress corrosion cracking and Caustic embrittlement

Modes of GMAW (Gas metal arc weld)

Globular, short circuit, and spray transfer.

Welding process where filler rod is added by hand

GTAW (Gas tungsten arc welding)

Advantage of GTAW (Gas tungsten arc welding)

Best control of weld pooling

Welding process which can be automated

SAW (Submerged arc welding)
Welding process with no creation of slag
GMAW(Gas Metal Arc Welding) and GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding)

Flux type for low hydrogen use with SAW (Submerged arc welding)

Electrode for SMAW (Shielded metal arc weld) for low hydrogen application

What type of weld for flush insert patches can be used in corroded areas?
penetration groove weld

To evaluate the effects of fire damage, FFS evaluation should be performed in accordance with:
API 579, section 11

What should be done when unexpected movement of a piping system is observed?

The inspector should discuss these observations with the piping engineer and evaluate the need
for conducting a piping stress analysis.
API 570 paragraph 7.5

What considerations do fillet welded patches require.

Weld joint efficiency & Crevice corrosion

Who approves Welding procedures qualified by others

The Inspector

If there is no conformation to ASME IX filler metal must be approved by


PQR using a S number qualifies ...

both S-number and P-number Materials

what welding process cannot be qualified by radiography

GMAW (short circuit mode)

Maximum flange size covered by B16.5

NPS 24

Piping stress analysis can identify the most highly stresses components in a piping system and
predict thermal movement. Where can this information be used to enhance the inspection effort?
To concentrate inspections at locations prone to fatigue and/or creep damage.
API 570 paragraph 7.5

Guides, added to control vibration, must be checked to insure they do not:

Restrict thermal expansion.
API 570 paragraph 7.5

What type of records is the owner/user required to maintain according to API 570?
Permanent and progressive records
API 570 paragraph 7.6.1

Where should wall thickness on deadlegs be monitored by the inspector?

This inspection should include both the stagnant end and the connection to an active line
API 574 7.4.3

In a hot tapping system, the high point area may corrode. Why is that?
Corrosion may take place at the high point area of deadlegs in hot piping systems due to
convective currents set up in deadleg.
API 574 7.4.3

Corrosion under insulation (CUI) is a serious problem. What should be done to determine the
possibility of this condition existing?
Inspect the integrity of the insulation system for conditions that could lead to CUI.
API 574 7.4.4

What are the most common forms of corrosion under insulation?

Localized corrosion of carbon steel and chloride stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless
API 574 7.4.4

Corrosion under insulation is very aggressive where operating temperatures cause frequent
condensation and re-evaporation of moisture. For carbon steel piping systems, what operating
temperature range would be considered most susceptible?
Between 10F and 350F
API 574

Carbon steel piping which operates above what temperature intermittently should be inspected
for CUI?
API 574

What operating temperature range would be considered most susceptible to chloride stress
corrosion cracking in austenitic stainless steel piping?
Between 120F and 400F
API 574 (h)

API 574 discusses other areas of possible moisture ingress that may be causes by the actual
inspection of the piping systems. Where would these areas be?
Locations where insulation plugs were removed to permit piping thickness measurements
API 574
Buried piping, without adequate cathodic protection should be included in scheduled external
inspections. What area is to be inspected during these scheduled external inspections?
The soil-to-air interface shall be included in the external inspection schedule.
API 574 7.4.5

When is it necessary to inspect for corrosion beneath the surface before resealing the joint?
If the buried piping system is over 10 years old, and the caulking or seal at the interface has
API 574 7.4.5

Mixed grades of carbon steel piping in hot corrosive oil service are susceptible to service specific
and localized corrosion above what temperature and oil sulfur content?
450F or higher and sulfur content in the oil greater than 0.5% by weight.
API 574

The removal of surface material by the action of numerous individual impacts of solid or liquid
particles is a definition of:
API 574 7.4.7

A combination of corrosion and erosion results in greater metal loss than would be expected by
either corrosion or erosion alone. What three areas should be inspected for this type of
Downstream of control valves, downstream of pump discharges, and downstream of orifices.
API 574 7.4.7 (a)(b)(c)

When making repairs and alterations to piping systems covered by API 570, what standards must
be followed?
ASME B31.3 or the Code to which the piping system was built.
API 570 8.1.1

Who must authorize any repair or alteration work, prior to commencement of the work?
The inspector
API 570 8.1.2

With regard to alteration work, who must the inspector consult with prior to giving
The piping engineering
API 570 8.1.2

Can the inspector give prior general authorization for limited or routine repair activities?
Yes, provided the inspector is satisfied with the competency of the repair organization.
API 570 8.1.2
Who must approve all proposed methods of design, execution, materials, welding procedures,
examination, and testing?
The inspector or the piping engineer
API 570 8.1.3

Whose approval for on-stream welding is required?

The owner/user
API 570 8.1.3

In order to determine the cause and provide corrective action, welding repairs of cracks that
occurred in-service should not be attempted without consultation with:
The piping engineer
API 570 8.1.3

What are the restrictions to repairing longitudinal cracks with the full encirclement or box
enclosure method?
The piping engineer must determine the crack will not propagate from under the sleeve.
API 570