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RELAY PROTECTION

Power system analysis and planning Dept.


National Load Dispatch Centre
Tel: 04.22201297
Fax: 04.22201307
Email: ppt@nldc.evn.vn
CONTENT

I INTRODUCTION
1

II PROTECTION SCHEME

III CRITICAL SHEDDING SCHEMES


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IV RELAY PROTECTION COORDINATION

V INFORMATION COLLECTION AND FAULT ANALYSIS

2
CONTENT

I INTRODUCTION

II PROTECTION SCHEME

III CRITICAL SHEDDING SCHEMES


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IV RELAY PROTECTION COORDINATION

V INFORMATION COLLECTION AND FAULT ANALYSIS


1. CAUSE AND CONSEQUENCE
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1. CAUSE AND CONSEQUENCE
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2. Relay protection system tasks

Relay protection system tasks

Minimizing
Sustaining
Disconnecting damage to
the safety
the faulty part human,
operating
out of system equipment or
state for the
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to minimize electricity
rest of the
damages supply
system
discontinuity

6
3. Relay protection system requirements

Relay protection system requirement

Fast
Sensitivity Selectivity Reliability Economics
operation
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A B

~ N
I> I>

7
3. Relay protection system requirements

Required time for main protection to eliminate fault

Voltage Maximum Maximum Maximum


levels short circuit fault fault
clearance withstand
current (kA)
time(ms) time (s)

500kV 40 80 3

220kV 40 100 3
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110kV 31.5 150 3


4. Protection classification

Base on acting principle:


Unit protection diagram
Non-unit protection diagram
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4. Protection classification
Feature unit diagram non-unit diagram
Principle Compare input/output signal of Base on measuring object
protected zone
Protection zone Limited by signal measuring Limited by sensitivity or network
device position configuration
Sensitivity Not depend on load current Protections based on phase
current are depended on load
Acting time/ Simutaneously satisfaction Simutaneously satisfaction in
Selectivity certain cases

Backup capability No Yes


for different
protection zone
Price Usually higher especially when the Depend on used technology.
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signal interchange station needed.

Application Can be applied to all voltage level, Each basic relay type rarely used
however is limited due to high on main transmission network ,
cost, usually appllied to main however, for combined types (e.g.
transmission network. Distance relay) are widely used
for all voltage level.
4. Protection classification

Classifying based on signal processing


method:
Analogue protection: signal is processed in
analogue form.
Digital protection: analogue signal is transfered to
digiatal before processing.
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5. Back up protection

Remote back up (protection zone back


up)
Usually applied to radial network, relays and circuit
breakers are backed up by similar equipment on the
in-front adjacent line (from power source)
Remote back up is mainly based on time
coordination principle.

Local back up(equipment back up)


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Back up of protection circuit, measurement circuit,


feeder, circuit breaker coil etc.,
6. Power system protection principles

Overcurrent principle

Differential principle

Impedance principle
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6.1 Overcurrent principle

Operating principle
Relay measure current signal
Current magnitude> set value relay starts,
signal is sent to trip CB after delayed time.

A B

~
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I>>

t
6.1 Overcurrent principle

Measurement current
Phase current (I)
Negative sequence current (I2)
Zero sequence current (3I0)
A

~ B
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C
3I0

7SJ61
6.1 Overcurrent principle

Operating level
Instantaneous tripping
Delayed tripping
Operating bases on independent characteristic
Operating bases on dependent characteristic
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6.1 Overcurrent principle

Coordination of overcurrent
protection
Time coordination
Magnitude coordination
Combined time and current magnitude
A I> B I> C I> D

HT
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t ta = t + tb
tb = t + tc
tc = t1
L
6.1 Overcurrent principle

Setting
Instantaneous over current protection
Ik = Kat * INngmax
Delayed over current protection
Time coordination
Ik = (Ktc /Ktv)*Kmm* Ilvmax
Combined time and current magnitude
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coordination
Ik = Kat * INng
6.1 Overcurrent principle

Improving sensitivity, including directional


characteristic or low voltage checking
Directional overcurrent protection (67)

I> I> I>


2 4 6
~ 1 <I 3 N <I 5 <I
~
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6.1 Overcurrent principle

Overcurrent protection with voltage


checking (51V)
I(A)

I2

I1
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U(V)
Uk
Responsive characteristic
6.1 Overcurrent principle

Measurement signals: U, I

~ B

C
3I0

7SJ61
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6.2 Differential principle

Compare in - out
currents of protected
object Isl = I1 + I2
Normal
I1 = -I2
Isl = 0
I1 I2
Internal fault
I1
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I1 = I2
Isl = 2I1>0
I2
6.2 Differential principle

Setting
Isl > Ikcbmax
To improve the sensitivity of relay using
restrained differential principle
Idiff = |I1 + I2|
Ibias = (|I1| + |I2|)/2
Relay will compare Idiff with Ibias to
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recognize the fault


6.2 Differential principle

Normal operation
Idiff = |I1 + I2| = 0 I1 I2
Ibias = (|I1| + |I2|)/2 = I1
Idiff < Ibias not operating

Internal short circuit


I1
Idiff = |I1 + I2| = 2I1
Ibias = (|I1| + |I2|)/2 = I1 I2
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Idiff > Ibias Relay operates


6.2 Differential principle
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Information interchange between 2 differential relays


6.2 Differential principle
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6.3 Impedance principle

Relay operates when:


Z = Ur/Ir < Zset.
Short circuit power direction is
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same as relay set direction.


6.3 Impedance principle

Operating zones
Independent operating zone: 1 4
zones

Operating zone with supporting


channels
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6.3 Impedance principle

Zone 1:
80-85% line inductance or
impedance is protected.
Delay time t1=0s.

A B
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zone 1
6.3 Impedance principle

Zone 2:
Protect the whole line
Delay time t2 = t1 + t.
Z2= 120% line inductance or
impedance is protected.
Zone 2 must not surpass zone 1 of
21 relay at rear.
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6.3 Impedance principle

Zone 3:
Protect the whole line and back up
for the adjacent line
Delay time t3 = t2 + t .
Inductance or impedance of zone 3
(Z3) must not surpass zone 2 of the
adjacent 21 relay.
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A B C D
Zone 3 Zone 2
6.3 Impedance principle

Za3 Zb3
Za2 Zb2
Zc2
Za1 Zc1
Zb1

A B C D
F21 F21 F21
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Independent zone coordination


6.3 Impedance principle

Permissive overreaching transfer


trip (POTT)
100% line length is protected
Z1B = 120125% line inductance or
impedance
Operating time 0s
Operating conditions:
Recognize fault in protected zone
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Receive tripping signal from the opposite end

F21 F21
6.3 Impedance principle
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POTT Diagram
(permission overreach transmit trip)
6.3 Impedance principle

Circular characteristic: MHO.


Quadrangular characteristic:Quadrilateral.
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CONTENT

I INTRODUCTION

II PROTECTION SCHEME

III CRITICAL SHEDDING SCHEMES


www.nldc.evn.vn

IV RELAY PROTECTION COORDINATION

V INFORMATION COLLECTION AND FAULT ANALYSIS


2. Protection scheme

Generator protection
Transformer protection
Line protection
Bus-bar protection
Breaker failure
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2.1 GENERATOR PROTECTION

Differential protection (87G)


Stator frame earth fault protection (64,
59N/27N, 67N)
Over-current protection (50/51, 51V)
Under-impedance protection (21)
Rotor frame earth fault protection
(64R)
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Unbalance protection(46)
2.1 GENERATOR PROTECTION

Field loss protection(40)


Stator overload protection (49)
Over-voltage protection (59)
Under-voltage protection (27)
Directional power (reverse power)
protection (32)
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Frequency protection (81)


Over-fluxing protection (24)
Pole slip protection (78)
2.1 GENERATOR PROTECTION
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GENERATOR DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION

Protects against phase-phase


internal fault in generator
Calculates differential current from
phase currents, uses restraint
function related to phase current
and harmonics
Setting current: Ist > Iunbl
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GENERATOR DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION
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90% STATOR EARTH FAULT PROTECTION

Prevent internal earth fault in


stator
Supervise 3U0 voltage at terminal
or at star-point of generators
Can protect only 90-95% of
generators stator winding,
starting from the terminal.
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90% STATOR EARTH FAULT PROTECTION
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90% STATOR EARTH FAULT PROTECTION
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100% STATOR EARTH FAULT PROTECTION WITH
3RD HARMONIC

Can protect 100% of the stator


winding
Supervise the 3rd harmonic of
3U0 voltage at terminal and
star-point of the generator
Can not protect the generator
when the generator is not in
service
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100% STATOR EARTH FAULT PROTECTION WITH
3RD HARMONIC

Generator

~ B

3U0 (150Hz)
7UM
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3U0 (150Hz)
100% STATOR EARTH FAULT PROTECTION WITH
3RD HARMONIC
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100% STATOR EARTH FAULT PROTECTION WITH
3RD HARMONIC
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100% STATOR EARTH FAULT PROTECTION WITH
3RD HARMONIC
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100% STATOR EARTH FAULT PROTECTION WITH
3RD HARMONIC
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UNDER-IMPEDANCE PROTECTION(21G)

Prevent faults in generator, bus-bar,


back-up for differential protection
Use power swing restraint lock

~ B

C
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21G

Reverse Forward
UNDER-IMPEDANCE PROTECTION (21G)

~ B

21G
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Forward
UNDER-IMPEDANCE PROTECTION (21G)
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UNBALANCE PROTECTION (46G)

Prevent unbalanced load that leads


to negative sequence magnetic field
Calculate negative sequence of the
fundamental phase current
Setting based on the heat
dissipation characteristic of the
generator
tperm = K/(I2 / IN )2
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K unbalance constant
UNBALANCE PROTECTION (46G)
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FIELD FAILURE PROTECTION (40)

Avoid loss of excitation or low


excitation that cause local heat
dissipation on rotor
Maintain system stability
Process current and phase voltage
to detect fault
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FIELD FAILURE PROTECTION (40)
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DIRECTIONAL POWER PROTECTION (32)

Calculate active power using current and


voltage signal
Prevent motor-mode caused by loss of
feeding power
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ROTOR EARTH FAULT PROTECTION (64R)

Prevent earth fault in


excitation circuit that leads to
unbalanced magnetic field

Supervise rotor-to-ground
resistance
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OVER-VOLTAGE (59)

Prevent over-voltage due to manual


excitation adjustment, AVR failure,
load rejection, islanding

Process positive voltage signal


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FREQUENCY PROTECTION (81)

Prevent low frequency due to lack of


generation / governor failure

High frequency due to lack of load or


frequency control failure
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OVER-CURRENT (50/51)

Back-up for differential and other


protections
Use DT/ IDMT characteristics
Setting must be coordinated with
adjacent line protections
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OVERCURRENT (50/51)
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2.2 TRANSFORMER PROTECTION

o Main protection:
Electrical based Relay:
Differential protection (87T)
Restricted earth fault differential protection
(87REF)
Non-electrical based Relay:
Gas detector relay 96
Low oil level relay 33
Thermal relay 26:
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Oil temperature relay 26O


Winding temperature relay 26W
Tap changer gas detector relay 80
Oil pressure relay 63
2.2 TRANSFORMER PROTECTION

o Back-up protection:
Over-current protection (F50/51, 67/67N)
Overload protection (F49)
Over/under- voltage protection (59/27)
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2.2 TRANSFORMER PROTECTION

EVNs regulation regarding 500/220 kV


transformer protection:
Main protection no.1:
Combination of functions : 87T, 49, 64, 50/51,
50/51N, current signals from each side are taken
from the inside-transformer CTs.
Main protection no. 2:
Combination of functions: 87T, 49, 50/51/50/51N,
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current signals are taken from CT of all CB


connecting to transformers ends.
2.2 TRANSFORMER PROTECTION

Back-up protection for the 500 kV


winding:
Combine functions: 67/67N, 50/51, 50/51N,
27/59, 50BF, 74,
Current signal taken from the CT of the 500
kV side transformers CB
Voltage signal taken from the VT connected to
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the 500 kV bus-bar


2.2 TRANSFORMER PROTECTION

Back-up protection for the 220 kV


winding:
Combine functions: 67/67N, 50/51,
50/51N, 27/59, 50BF, 74
Current signal taken from the CT of the
220 kV side transformers CB
Voltage signal taken from the VT
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connected to the 220 kV bus-bar


2.2 TRANSFORMER PROTECTION

Back-up protection for the medium


voltage winding:
Combine functions: 50/51, 50/51N, 50BF, 74
Current signal taken from the inside-transformer CT at
the 35 kV side

Technology protection:
Thermal relay(26)
Pressure relay (63)
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Gas relay (96)


High oil level relay (71) is always equipped with
transformer and sends tripping order to CB at both sides
2.2 TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
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ELECTRICITY
OF VIETNAM
2.3 LINE PROTECTION

Differential protection (F87L)


Distance protection (F21)
Directional over-current protection
(F67/67N)
Over-current protection (F50/51,
F50/51N)
Over/under-voltage protection (F59/27)
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Auto-recloser (F79)
2.3 LINE PROTECTION

EVNs regulation regarding 500kV line


protection:
500kV lines having 2 independent optic
fibers:
o Main protection no.1: combine functions: 87L,
67/67N, 50/51, 50/51N, 85, 74
o Main protection no. 2: combine functions: 87L,
67/67N, 50/51, 50/51N, 79/25, 27/59, 50BF, 85
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o Back-up protection: combine functions: 21/21N,


67/67N, 50/51, 50/51N, 79/25, 27/59, 50BF, 85, 74
2.3 LINE PROTECTION

500kV line having only 1 optic fiber:


o Main protection: combine functions: 87L,
21/21N, 67/67N, 50/51, 50/51N, 79/25, 27/59,
50BF, 85, 74
o Back-up protection: combine functions:
21/21N, 67/67N, 50/51, 50/51N, 79/25, 27/59,
50BF, 85, 74
For differential protection , optic fiber is used for signal
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transmission
Distance protections at two ends are coordinated via PLC
2.4 BUS-BAR PROTECTION

Main protection:
Bus-bar differential protection (87B)
Back-up protection:
Over-current protection (50/51, 50/51N)
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2.5 BREAKER FAILURE (50BF)

If a tripping order is not executed within a period of


time T after being sent to CB, breaker failure protection
will send tripping orders to other relevant CBs
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2.5 BREAKER FAILURE
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2.5 BREAKER FAILURE
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3. PM3 GEN-TRANSF. GROUP PROTECTION

1st scheme
7UM511 7UM515 7UT512 7UT513 7UT512

Underexcitation Overflux generator Transformer Ttransforme


differential differential r differential
Overvoltage Stator earth fault
100%

Frequency Sstator earth


fault U0>
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Reverse power Frequency

Phase OC Rotor earth fault


3. PM3 GEN-TRANSF. GROUP PROTECTION

2nd scheme
7UM516 7UM512 7SJ511 7SJ511

Impedance Over/undercurrent Phase/earth Phase/earth


fault OC fault OC

Stator earth fault Stator earth fault


U0> U0>

Unbalance load Frequency


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Reverse power Rotor earth fault


4. PM3-T500PM LINE PROTECTION

7SD 523 7SA 522


(2nd scheme) (1st scheme)

Differential Distance (F21)


(F87L) POTT
SOTF
Back-up overcurrent (51/51N)
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CONTENT

I GII THIU CHUNG V RLE BO V

II BO V CC PHN T TRONG HT

III CRITICAL SHEDDING SCHEMES


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IV PHI HP THC HIN CHNH NH RLE BO V

V THU THP THNG TIN V PHN TCH S C


III. CRITICAL SHEDDING SCHEMES

1. Load shedding scheme with respect to


frequency (F81)
2. Critical load shedding scheme at
220kV/110kV substation in Northern
network
3. Critical load shedding scheme at
220kV/110kV substation in Southern
network
4. Power rejection with fault in 500kV line
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Nha Be Phu Lam


5. Power rejection South East region

83
1. Load shedding scheme with respect to
frequency(F81)

Objectives:
Load rejection balances the power
and demand, to adjust the system
frequency into the limited range
(over 49Hz).
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84
1. Load shedding scheme with respect to
frequency(F81)

Effects:
o Keep power system stability, prevent
from blackout because of lack of
generation
o Restore system frequency with transient
process when fault
o Reduce hot reserve power in the system
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85
1. Load shedding scheme with
respect to frequency(F81)
Amount of load shedding(%)
Frequency(Hz)
The North, The Centre The South

49,0 5 5

48,8 5 5

48,6 5 10

48,4 5 15

48,2 5 10

48,0 5 10

47,8 10 10
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47,6 15

47,4 10

Total 65 65

86
2. Critical load shedding scheme at
220/110kV SS in the North

Objectives:
A load of ~ 950MW is shed at 220/110kV
substations in the Northern power network, to
prevent blackout of the North due to frequency
reduction.
Setting values:
Group 1: f 48.0 Hz and t = 0.2 s
Group 2: f 47.8 Hz and t = 0 s
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87
2. Critical load shedding scheme at
220/110kV SS in the North
No Substation name Group

1 220kV Dong Hoa Group 1

2 220kV Thai Binh Group 1

3 220kV Nam Dinh Group 1

4 220kV Bac Giang Group 1

5 220kV Ninh Binh Group 1

6 220kV Phu Ly Group 1

7 220kV Dinh Vu Group 1

8 110kV Dong Anh Group 1


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9 220kV Pho Noi Group 2

10 220kV Mai Dong Group 2

11 220kV Ha Dong Group 2

88
3. Critical load shedding scheme at
220/110kV SS in the South

Objectives:
A load of ~ 1000MW is shed at 220/110kV
substations in the South to prevent blackout
due to frequency reduction when serious fault
(loss gas supply for thermal power plants Phu
My - Ba Ria)
Setting values:
Group 1: when f 47,5 Hz and t = 0.0 s
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Group 2: when f 47,5 Hz and t = 0.5 s

89
3. Critical load shedding scheme at
220/110kV SS in the South
No Substation name Shedding routes

1 220kV Vinh Long 171

2 220kV Ca Mau 172, 173

3 220kV Rach Gia 171, 173, 174

4 220kV Tra Noc 173

5 220kV Cai Lay 174, 175, 133, 134

6 220kV Ba Ra 175

7 220kV Da Nhim 173, 175

8 110kV Nha Be (group 2) 171, 834, 835


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9 220kV Phu Lam (group 2) 178, 180, 135, 136

10 220kV Hoc Mon (group 2) 135, 136

11 220kV Tri An (group 2) 172, 173, 176

12 220kV Long Binh 180

90
4. Power rejection: Hiep Phuoc, Phu My
22, 3, 4

Objectives:
To prevent overloading 220kV line Nha Be
Phu Lm when fault occurs on 500kV line Nha
Be Phu Lam
Operating conditions:
Power in 500kV line Nha Be Phu Lam
reduces from 500MW to under 50MW in 0.2
seconds, and
Simultaneously trip CB565, 585 Nha Be, and
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Current in 220kV line Nha Be Phu Lam


reaches one out of six setting values

91
4. Power rejection: Hiep Phuoc, Phu My
22, 3, 4

Setting levels
Level 1: 3002A/1569A trip 1 or 2
Hiep Phuoc units.
Level 2: 3411A/1842A trip 1 or 2
Hiep Phuoc units and 1 Phu My 22 unit
(or Phu My 3).
Level 3: 3684A/2046A trip 1 or 2
Hiep Phuoc units, 1 Phu My 22 unit (or
Phu My 3) and 1 Phu My 4 unit.
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92
4. Power rejection: Hiep Phuoc, Phu My
22, 3, 4

Setting levels
Level 4: 3820A/2320A trip 1 or 2 Hiep
Phuoc units, 1 Phu My 22 unit and 1 Phu My
3 unit.
Level 5: 3955A/2455A trip 1 or 2 Hiep
Phuoc units, 1 Phu My 22 unit, 1 Phu My 3
unit and 1 Phu My 4 unit.
Level 6: 3002A/1569A sending warning
signal after 5 seconds.
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93
4. Power rejection: Hiep Phuoc, Phu My
22, 3, 4
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94
5. Power rejection of South East region

Objectives:
To prevent overloading and losing connection
of one circuit if the other one is faulted in
case of 220kV double line Phu My 1 Long
Thanh or Long Thanh Long Binh.
Operating conditions
One circuit fault of Phu My 1 Long Thanh
line and the other circuit is overloaded
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155%
One circuit fault of Long Thanh Long Binh
line and the other is overloaded 134%
95
5. Power rejection of South East region
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96
5. Power rejection of South East region
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97
CONTENT

I INTRODUCTION

II PROTECTION SCHEME

III CRITICAL SHEDDING SCHEMES


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IV RELAY PROTECTION COORDINATION

V INFORMATION COLLECTION AND FAULT ANALYSIS

98
1. DECENTRALIZATION IN RELAY SETTINGS
CALCULATION

National power system dispatching level


(A0)
Calculate settings of protective relays and
automatic devices in 500 kV system

Approve settings of protective relays of power


plants having P> 30 MW

Calculate settings of under-frequency load


shedding relays of the entire system
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Verify the coordination of protective relays


and automatic devices under the supervising
authority.
1. DECENTRALIZATION IN RELAY SETTINGS
CALCULATION

Regional power system dispatching level


(Ax)
Issue settings of under-frequency load
shedding relays in compliance with
requirements of NPS Dispatching level

Calculate settings of relays and automatic


devices in 220/110 kV power system under
controlling authority
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Verify setting values of protective and


automatic devices of the distribution networks
under the supervising authority
1. DECENTRALIZATION IN RELAY SETTINGS
CALCULATION

Distribution network dispatching


level
Calculate settings of relays and
automatic devices for the distribution
networks under controlling authority

Monitor and check setting work and


performance of under frequency load
shedding relays in the distribution
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networks under the controlling authority


2. RELAY SETTING COORDINATION BETWEEN A0
AND POWER PLANTS

Relays protecting generator, step-up


transformer and auxiliary transformer are
calculated and set by power-plants
themselves.
To ensure safety, reliability for the national
power system, A0 will check all protection
functions that are related to the NPS
Frequency protection (81)
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Over-current protection (50/51)


Over/under-voltage protection (59/27)
Distance protection (21)
3. PROTECTION SLIP SETTING UP COORDINATION

Connecting units provide technical


documents of electrical devices and
protection system to dispatching unit

Documents provide enough no Dispatching unit sends


information for setting up feedback text to
protection setting slip
connecting unit

yes
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Dispatching unit issues relay protection


setting slip
3. PROTECTION SLIP SETTING UP COORDINATION

Connecting unit registers with dispatching


unit the time to set relay parameters in
accordance with protection setting slip

Approved by no
dispatching unit?

yes

On shift dispatching no
engineer allows relay setting
in accordance with slips?
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yes 1
3. PROTECTION SLIP SETTING UP COORDINATION

Connecting unit sets relay parameters in


accordance with protection setting slip

Connecting unit signs on the cover page of the


protection slip to confirm relay setting
completion

Connecting unit sends signed cover pages to


dispatching engineer by fax
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Dispatching engineer confirms into the


operational logbook and send fax papers to relay Finish
department for archiving
CONTENT

I GII THIU CHUNG V RLE BO V

II BO V CC PHN T TRONG HT

III CC HT SA THI C BIT TRN HT VN


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IV PHI HP THC HIN CHNH NH RLE BO V

V INFORMATION COLLECTION AND FAULT ANALYSIS


1. Purposes

Purposes:
to determine cause of the fault to
propose overcoming and preventing
methods
Implementation sequence
1. Fault information collecting
2. Making and submitting fault reports
3. Fault analyzing
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2.Fault information collecting

Power plants/Power transmission


companies collect information:
Fault occurring instant, faulty components;
Equipment operating state prior to fault occurrence;
Fault occurrence details;
Incident/fault managing process of system operator;
Events record, faults record, oscillation record, fault
navigating,related to fault which has just occurred
and information is provided from recording devices in
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substation;
Actual setting value in protection relays, automatic
devices in substation have operated and/or start
when fault occurring.
2. Fault information collecting

Dispatching levels control the information


collecting process:
Fault occurring instant, faulty components, weather/
working/fault occurring location condition
Equipment operating state prior to fault occurrence.
Fault occurrence details :
Incident/fault managing process dispatching
engineer A0/Ax;
Information which is related to fault and provided
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from all recording devices under accessing authority


of the dispatching level.
3.Making and submitting fault reports

Power plants/Power transmission


companies are responsible to:
Making and submitting fault reports to a controlling
dispatching level (A0 or Ax).
Information which is accessed from recording devices is
included in email to controlling dispatching level by
following addresses:
phantichsuco.A0@evn.com.vn;
phantichsuco.A0@gmail.com to A0
phantichsuco.Ax@evn.com.vn;
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phantichsuco.Ax@gmail.com to Ax

Fault report deadline: no later than 24 hours from fault


occurring instant.
3. Making and submitting fault reports

Regional load dispatching centres (Ax)


are responsible to:
Making and submitting fault report to A0.

Fault report deadline: no later than 48 hours from


fault occurring instant.
National load dispatching centre is
responsible to:
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Making and submitting fault report to EVN.

Fault report deadline: no later than 72 hours from


fault occurring instant.
4. Coordinating fault analyzing.

Tasks of Power plants/Power transmission


companies :
Analyzing fault bases on collected information:
Determining cause of fault;

Assessing relay protection systems;

Assessing equipment operating programe.

Making and submitting fault analyzing report to


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A0/Ax when required by A0/Ax;


Proposing fault preventing methods (if available)
3. Coordinating fault analyzing.

Dispatching levels tasks:


Basing on fault report and collected information to
analyze and determine cause of the fault;
Assessing reliability, safety of devices, quality of
system operation, relay protection system
operation;
Proposing fault preventing methods (if available)
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