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TIU CHUN XY DNG Vit nam Tcxdvn 40 : 1987

Kt cu xy dng v nn Nguyn tc c bn v tnh ton

Building structures and foundations Basic rules for calculations.

Quy nh chung
Tiu chun ny quy nh nhng nguyn tc c bn v tnh ton kt cu lm bng cc vt liu
khc nhau v nn ca tt c cc dng xy dng theo trng thi gii hn trn c s p dng cc
phng php ca l thuyt xc sut v thng k ton hc.
Tiu chun ny bao gm nhng nguyn tc c bn v tnh ton kt cu v nn di tc dng ca
lc. Da theo tiu chun ny cn lp tiu chun thit k cc kt cu lm bng cc vt liu khc
nhau v nn nh, cng trnh c chc nng khc nhau.

1. C s tnh ton
1.1. Kt cu xy dng v nn cn tnh vi ti trng v tc ng theo phng php trng thi
gii hn.
Cho php tnh ton kt cu xy dng v nn ca nh v cng trnh trn c s nhng
nh gi v kinh t theo cc ti liu tiu chun tng ng.
1.2. Trng thi gii hn l trng thi m trong kt cu, nn, nh hoc cng trnh tha mn
cc yu cu cn thit khi khai thc s dng hoc khi thi cng.
1.3. Trng thi gii hn c chia thnh hai nhm:
- Nhm 1: Bao gm nhng trng thi gii hn dn n vic mt kh nng chu ti, hay dn n
s bt li hon ton v mt s dng kt cu hoc nn.
- Nhm 2: Bao gm nhng trng thi gii hn gy kh khn cho vic s dng bnh thng
kt cu v nn.
Trng thi gii hn nhm 1 gm:
- S mt n nh tng th v hnh dng.
- S mt n nh v v tr.
- S ph hu mt im bt k no .
- S chuyn i thnh mt h mi.
- S thay i hnh dng.
- Trng thi dn n s cn thit phi ngng khai thc s dng do vt liu bin dng ln, do
cc mi ni b ct do cc vt nt pht trin qu ln.
- Trng thi gii hn thuc nhm hai gm nhng trng thi vt qu mc cho php:
- S bin dng ca kt cu do b un, xon, ln.
- S dao ng ca kt cu.
- S thay i v tr.
- S to thnh hoc pht trin vt nt.
1.4. Phng php tnh ton theo trang thi gii hn nhm m bo ngn chn kh nng vt
qu gii hn trong ton b thi gian s dng kt cu, nh hoc cng trnh cng nh qu trnh thi
cng.
Vic bo m khng vt qu trng thi gii hn quy nh ti im phi ph hp vi kt cu
nh hoc cng trnh.

Nhng yu cu v tiu chun tnh ton phi lm sao cho ti trng, ng sut, bin
dng, chuyn v, vt nt, v.v... khng vt qu gi tr gii hn c quy nh trong cc tiu
chun thit k kt cu nn nh v cng trnh.

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TIU CHUN XY DNG Vit nam Tcxdvn 40 : 1987

Trong tiu chun kt cu cho php quy nh nhng trng thi gii hn khng yu cu qu trnh
tnh ton.
1.5. Khi tnh ton cn phi ch n cc c trng bt li c th xy ra ca vt liu v
t, cc gi tr bt li v t hp ti trng tc ng v trong nhiu trng hp cn tnh
n sai lch bt li v kch thc cng nh iu kin thi cng, s dng v nhng
iu kin lm vic c bit ca kt cu nn. Khi cn phi tun theo tt c cc yu cu ca
tiu chun ny v cc tiu chun tng ng khc.

Ch : Cc c trng bt li c th xy ra l cc c trng tng ng vi m bo nht


nh. Cc c trng ny c quy nh trong cc tiu chun thit k.
1.6. S hau m hnh tnh ton v cc gi thit c bn trong tnh ton kt cu v nn cn
phn nh iu kin lm vic thc t ca cng trnh, ph hp vi trng thi gii hn ang xt. Khi
, trong nhng trng hp c cc tiu chun thit k quy
nh, th cn phi tnh n:
Nhng yu t quyt nh trng thi ng sut v bin dng; nhng c im ca s tc
ng tng h gia cc cu kin vi nhau v vi nn; s lm vic khng gian, phi tuyn tnh v
hnh hc v vt l; tnh do v tnh lu bin ca vt liu v t.
1.7. Khi thiu nhng phng php tnh ton l thuyt ng tin cy hoc thiu nhng cch gii
tng t c kim tra trc cng nh trong cc trng hp cn c lun chng v
mt kinh t, vic tnh ton cng trnh cn c tin hnh trn nhng c s nghin cu c bit
v l thuyt hoc thc nghim trn nhng m hnh hoc kt cu thc.
1.8. Bin dng khng n hi ca vt liu v t (bin dng do, t bin, t bin rung), cng
nh s hnh thnh vt nt trn cc kt cu b tng ct thp, kt cu , kt cu
ct thp cn c tnh ton theo yu cu cc tiu chun thit k kt cu, nn nh
v cng trnh.
Nu trong cc tiu chun khng quy nh vic tnh ton bin dng khng n hi cho php xc
nh ni lc do trng ti v tc ng trong cc h siu tnh nh khi kt cu lm vic trong giai
on n hi, khi cc tit din hoc cc cu kin nn tnh theo cc tiu chun c tnh n cc
bin dng khng n hi trong cc trng hp cn thit.
1.9. Khi cha xy dng c phng php xc nh ni lc v ng sut c tnh n bin dng
khng n hi, cho php tin hnh tnh ton cng ca kt cu da trn iu kin l ng sut
ln nht do ti trng tnh ton gy ra (xc nh trn gi thit kt cu lm vic trong giai on
n hi) khng c vt qu cng tnh ton tng ng.

2. Cc c trng tiu chun v c trng tnh ton ca vt liu v t nn


2.1. Cc thng s c bn v cng vt liu i vi cc tc ng lc l cng tiu
chun, do tiu chun thit k cc kt cu xy dng quy nh c tnh n s phn tn ngu nhin
cc tnh cht c hc ca vt liu.
H s bo m cc gi tr v cng tiu chun ca vt liu khng c nh hn
0,95 (theo ST.SEV 384-76, tr c th s c b sung sau).
2.2. Gi tr cng tiu chun ca vt liu cho php ly bng gi tr c trng vt liu
cc tiu chun quy nh i vi vt liu. Khi tiu chun khng quy nh nhng c trng tng
ng, cho php xc nh cng vt liu theo tiu chun thit k kt cu
theo cc c trng c quy nh.
2.3. Ngoi cng tiu chun cng c th quy nh cc c trng tiu chun khc ca vt
liu (khi lng th tch, mun n hi, h s ma st, h s dnh kt, t bin,
co gt v.v... bng cch ly gi tr trung bnh ca cc s liu thng k.

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TIU CHUN XY DNG Vit nam Tcxdvn 40 : 1987

2.4. Khi tnh ton kt cu lm vic trong nhng iu kin c bit (nhit cao
hoc thp, m ln v.v...) cn phi tnh n s thay i cc c trung c l v cc c trng
khc ca vt liu (cng , n hi, nht, t bin v co ngt v.v...) theo
yu cu ca cc tiu chun tng ng.
2.5. Cc thng s c bn v cc tnh cht c hc ca t quyt nh kh nng chu ti ca nn
mng v s bin dng ca chng l cc gi tr tiu chun ca cc c trng v cng v bin
dng ca t (gc ma st trong, lc dnh kt n v, modun bin dng, cng chu nn mt
trc, cng khng ct ca v.v...).
2.6. Bng cch s dng cc c trng v cng , cho php xc nh kh nng chu ti ca
nn mng bng cch s dng cc khi cha xy dng c cc phng php tnh ton tng t
thng s tiu chun khc, c trng cho s tc ng tng h ca mng vi t nn v
c xc nh bng thc nghim.
2.7. Tr tiu chun ca cc c trng ca t nn hay cc thng s c quyt nh s tc
ng tng h gia mng v t nn c ly bng tr trung bnh ca chng.
2.8. Tr tiu chun ca cc c trng ca t nn hay cc thng s c quy nh iu
2.7, c xc nh trn c s cc s liu xc nh trc tip khi kho st a k thut
thit k cng trnh hoc c xc nh bng cc gi tr ca cc c trng hoc ca cc thng
s trn c s x l thng s cc kt qu th nghim i tr.
2.9. sai lch c th xy ra ca cng v cc c trng khc ca vt liu v t v
pha bt li nht so vi cc tr tiu chun c tnh bng cc h s tin cy v vt liu
v t.
Cc h s ny c quy nh trong cc tiu chun thit k kt cu v nn ph thuc vo cc
tnh cht ca vt liu v t v ph thuc vo phn tn thng k ca chng (vi
m bo ph thuc vo dng trng thi gii hn), ng thi cng gii thch n cc yu t
khng xc nh c bng phng php thng k (c trng ph hoi ca vt liu, khuyt tt
trn chiu dy vt cn, kinh nghim thc t v.v...).
2.10. Cng tnh ton ca vt liu hoc c trng tnh ton ca t nn l cng hoc
c trng c xc nh bng cch chia cng hoc c trng tiu chun cho h s tin cy
v vt liu hoc t. Cc c trng tnh ton khc ca vt liu cho php xc nh bng cch chia
cc tr s ca chng cho h s tin cy v vt liu.

3. Cc c trng tiu chun v c trng tnh ton ca trng ti v tc ng.


3.1. Cc c trng c bn ca trng ti v tc ng ca cc h s tiu chun ca chng
c ly bng:
- i vi ti trng tnh l cc tr s thit k ca cc thng s hnh hc v kt cu, v
tr trung bnh ca khi lng th tch c k n s liu hin c ca x nghip sn xut v khi
lng thc t ca cu kin.
- i vi ti trng cng ngh (thit b, my mc, vt liu, nhn lc v.v...) v ti trng lp rp l
cc tr ln nht c th c i vi iu kin s dng v thi cng c nh
trc c tnh n thi hn s dng ca kt cu v cc tr s, ti liu ghi trong l
lch ca my mc.
- i vi ti trng t nhin (gi, ma , sng, ng t v.v...) v tc ng t nhin
(nhit , m v.v...) l cc tr trung bnh ca cc tr ln nht hng nm hay l
cc tr s tng ng vi cc tr vt qu gi tr trung bnh ca cc giai on trung bnh nht
nh.
- i vi ti trng do my mc to ra l cc tr ti trng ng hay cc tr thit k v khi lng
v kch thc hnh hc ca cc b phn chuyn ng ca my ph hp vi s ng hc v
ch chuyn ng c quy nh trong cc tiu chun thit k.

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- i vi ti trng c bit l cc tr tng ng vi cc yu cu ca cc tiu chun chuyn ngnh


c xy dng trn c s vn dng cc phng php thng k sc sut kinh t.
- Xc sut tng cc gi tr tiu chun i vi tng loi ti trng ring c la trn trn c s cc
lun chng kinh t k thut.
- Tr tiu chun ca ti trng v tc ng, cng nh s phn loi chng c quy
nh trong tiu chun v ti trng.
3.2. sai lch c th xy ra ca ti trng v pha bt li (ln hay nh) so vi tr tiu chun
do s bin ng ca ti trng hay thay i iu kin s dng bnh thng to
ra, c tnh n bng cc h s tin cy v ti trng. Cc h s ny c quy nh c
k n s phn tn thng k ca ti trng, cng dng ca nh v cng trnh, iu kin v kinh
nghim s dng chng v cc lun chng kinh t.
Cc h s tin cy v ti trng dng tnh ton cho tng dng trng thi gii hn
c quy nh trong cc tiu chun thit k.
sai lch c th xy ra ca cc c trng ca ti trng ng (bin , tn s, xung)
so vi gi tr tiu chun c tnh n trong tnh ton ng lc theo cc yu cu ca nhng tiu
chun tng ng.
3.3. Ti trng v tc ng tnh c bng cch nhn tr tiu chun vi h s tin cy tng
ng gi l ti trng tnh ton.
Ti trng tnh ton c phn ra ti trng dng ring cho tnh ton nhm mt v
nhm hai ca trng thi gii hn.

Ch thch: Ti trng tnh ton dng trong tnh ton theo nhm mt ca trng thi gii hn
c th gi l ti trng gii hn hay cc hn, cn ti trng tnh ton dng trong tnh ton theo
nhm hai gi l ti trng s dng.
3.4. Nn tnh ton kt cu v nn theo cc t hp ti trng v tc ng bt li c th xy
ra (i vi cc tit din ca cc cu kin, kt cu v cc mi ni ca chng hoc l
i vi ton b nh v cng trnh.
Vic gim xc sut tng ng thi cc gi tr tnh ton bng mt s ti trng no
so vi xc sut tng tr tnh ton ca mt ti trng c tnh n bng cc h s t hp.

4. Tnh ton iu kin lm vic v mc ch s dng ca kt cu


4.1. Nhng c im lm vic ca vt liu, ca cu kin, ca kt cu v ca mi ni ca
chng, ca nn, cng nh ton b nh v cng trnh mang tnh h thng nhng khng
phn nh trc tip trong tnh ton, c tnh n bng cc h s iu kin lm vic.
H s ny phi tnh n tt c cc nh hng ca nhit , m v n mn ca
mi trng, ca nhng tc ng lp li nhiu ln, ca nhng c im cng trnh ch
to kt cu v ca nhng yu t khc.
H s iu kin lm vic v cch s dng chng trong tnh ton c quy nh trong cc tiu
chun thit k kt cu v nn trn c s nhng s liu l thuyt v thc nghim v s
lm vic thc s ca vt liu, ca kt cu v ca nn trong iu kin s dng v trong qu trnh
thi cng.
4.2. Trong nhng trng hp cn thit mc quan trng ca nh v cng trnh, cng nh
ngha ca hu qu ca vic t ti trng thi gii hn no c tnh n bng cc h s tin
cy v ngha ca kt cu.
Cc tr bng s ca cc h s tin cy v ngha ca kt cu v cch s dng cc
tr s trong tnh ton c quy nh trong cc tiu chun thit k tng ng c xt
n cc lun chng kinh t.

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