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Boeing 757

Fatigue Test Program


April 1983
Structures Technology

Structural Durability

20-VEAR
SERVICE LIFE

OBJECTIVE


FULL-SCALE
FATIGUE TESTING

REQUIREMENTS VERIFICATION

757 Major Fatigue


Test Program OBJECTIVES:

VERIFY AIRFRAME STRUCTURAL DURABILITY FOR AT


LEAST 20 YEARS OF SERVICE

LOCATE TROUBLE SPOTS WELL AHEAD OF FLEET


SERVICE USE TO DEVELOP TIMELY CORRECTIVE
ACTION

CONFIRM FLEET MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION


PROCEDURES

ACCOMPLISH THE ABOVE BY USING TEST LOADS THAT


STATISTICALLY REPRESENT SERVICE LOADS

.757 OBJECTIVE COMPARED TO 727.200 USAGE


_1724 TOTAL AIRCRAFT AS OF JUNE 1982
60
Design Test Goals
DESIGN OBJECTIVE:
50,000 FLIGHTS
50

40
CURRENT TEST PLAN:
THOUSANDS 100,000 FLIGHTS
OF 30
DEPARTURES

20

10

10 20 30 40 50 60

THOUSANDS OF FLIGHT HOURS


Structures Technology

SEGMENTS OF A TYPICAL FLIGHT

Typical Flight Profile


CRUISE

UNLOADED
INITIAL
DESCENT
GROUND
SPEeD BRAKE
HANDLING
APPLICATION
TAXI

FINAL
DESCENT
TOUCHDOWN

FLAPS DOWN APPROACH


LANDING FLARE
I LANDING
ROLLOUT

TIME

Load Types Applied


in Tests
GROUND LOADS FLIGHT LOADS
"TOWING "MANEUVER - 5 LEVELS
"TURNING "GUST - 5 LEVELS
"TAXI - 5 LEVELS "SEQUENCED VERTICAL AND
"BRAKING LATERAL LOADS
" LANDING IMPACT "FUSELAGE PRESSURIZATION
" DRIFT LANDING "GROUND-AIR-GROUND CYCLE
"REPRESENTATIVE ENGINE
THRUST

-
Structures Technology

Fl.APS flAPS
I SPECHlUIoO TA~E. cow Cl,,,,e CRUISE DESCENT 00"
P fliGHT) Off OEPAR
TURE "
PAOACH

Schematic of Test
Loads Applied in
Typical Flight

VERTICill LOAO

WING, FUSELAGE.
NACEllES. AND
STABILIZER

LATERAL LOAD

.FUSELAGE "NO fiN

CABIN PRESSURE

n"ps

ENGINE ,,,RUST

",,,,N GEAR lOAO

DAil"

-SIDE

RfTA"'CT
NOSE GEAR LOAD
ACTUATOR
(TYPICALI_
VERTICAL

DRAG

SIDE
Structures Technology

FLIGHT-BY.FLIGHT TESTING
Test Spectrum
r) FLIGHT NUMBER OF APPLICATIONS
TYPE PER 5000 FLIGHT BLOCK
5 FLIGHT TYPES (A THROUGH E)
OF VARYING SEVERITY, FLIGHT
TYPES HAVE SEQUENCE IN 5000
A (MOST SEVERE) ,
'""
B
FliGHT BLOCKS. C
0 1067
E (LEAST SEVERE) 3704
UP TO 5 ALTERNATING LOAD LEVElS
RANDOMLY SeQUENCED FOR A GIVEN
FLIGHT SEGMENT OF A GIVEN FLIGHT 1'1
TYPE Y

GUST AND
MANEUVER ANAL VTlCAllOAD
lOAD __ SPECTRUM FOR A
EXCEEDANCES I GIVEN FLIGHT SEGMENT
/
_________ !.._ /TAUNCATEO

ALTERNATING LOAD

Fatigue Test
Components MAJOR TEST ARTICLES
WING/FUSELAGE:
WING
NACELLE STRUT AND ENGINE MOUNTS
INBOARD TRAILING EDGE FLAP AND SUPPORT
STRUCTURE
SLATS AND SUPPORT STRUCTURE
FORWARD, MID, AND PARTIAL AFT FUSELAGE
LANDING GEAR SUPPORT STRUCTURE

FIN/AFT FUSELAGE:
PARTIAL AFT FUSELAGE
FIN AND RUDDER

SEPARATE FULL-SCALE COMPONENTS


HORIZONTAL STABILIZER AND ELEVATORS
NOSE AND MAIN LANDING GEARS
OUTBOARD TRAILING EDGE FLAP
Structures Technology

Wing/Body Fatigue
Test Setup

DUMMY PRESSURE _rDUMMY ENGINE


BULKHEAD AND
LOADING FIXTURE \_
- .- . -'_,,:

C~~:'-j
'"
1620 '"
1180 '"""
I
..
'", -:-1
C::::~J .
-- --~DUMMY ENGINE

DELETIONS

NOSE GEAR DOORS AILERONS


MAIN GEAR DOORS SPOILERS
ENGINES WING TIPS
SLATS A'H FLAPS R/H
SLATS 3, 4 LiH OUTBOARD FLAP LiH
Structures Technology

Fin/Body Fatigue
Test Setup

DELETIONS
FIN CAP
STRUCTURE AFT OF FIREWALL

STA
1460

I
00000000

STRONG BACK -
Structures Technology
r

Stabilizer Fatigue
Test Setup

TOP VIEW

FRONT VIEW

- DUMMy SUPPORT STRUCTURE FOR


-- HINGE AND JACKSCREW FITTINGS

DELETIONS

BODY SEALS
TIPS RIH AND LIH
Structures Technology

Main Landing Gear


Fatigue Test Setup

Nose Landing Gear


Fatigue Test Setup

Outboard Flap
Fatigue Test Setup
Structures Technology

Test Setup Features CONTROLLED ACTUATORS:


63 FOR WING/FUSELAGE TEST
15 FOR FIN/FUSELAGE TEST

PRESSURIZATION SYSTEM

COMPUTERIZED LOAD CONTROLLER

STRAIN GAGES:
550 FOR WING/FUSELAGE TEST
400 FOR FIN/FUSELAGE TEST

WING/FUSELAGE TEST TIME/FLIGHT:


E FLIGHT 1.9 MINUTES
A FLIGHT 70.0 MINUTES
AVERAGE FLIGHT 2.6 MINUTES

I~~~~~:~~D-----~~~~---
I INPUT'
I OUTPUT
757 Major Fatigue I
Test System Block I
I
Diagram
HYDRAULIC TEMPERATURE
1---- HYDRAULIC F'RESSURE

I COIolPUlER
I CRACK. WIRES
I lEST COf\lfROL LIMIT SWITCH
I lOAD PROFILES
CPR COM"'A"'O r----
" SYSTUIIllONITOA I
LOGGING
I
t lEST I
I CONTROL I
I COMPUTING I
!"y~T _ SOUNOIO

:::::::_-IJ-
I
IHYOR,It,UlIC AND PNEUMA TIC

..:~!!!~
~.
!!. - - - -- "'''" I

WAV[FOA",
CONTROllER
LOAD CEll

DIGITAL TO SERVO HYDRAULIC


I ANALOG LIIIlIT CONTROLLER ACTUATOR

I ANUOG
L. CO'HROl UNIT 64 CHANNELS ~~~6
I PROFILE
ICONTRDLlED
HYDRAULIC

r-- ----- I SHUTDOWN I

I
I
I
COMPUTER

,
COMPUTER

o r .. ACOUI5ITI0"
I
I r-------------------~
,
SHUTOOWN "'NAL lSIS
I CAT OISPL""YS LIMIT CHECKS
PRINTOUTS lOAO PHASING
CIHI8F1ATIO",
I OATA PHASING

I
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ J
Structures Technology

Typical Load System

COMPRESSION SIDE

TENSION SIDE

CD CLEVIS:
USED AT EACH END OF LOAD SYSTEM; ATTACH TO FIXTURE WITH
BOLTS
CD LOAD CELL:
AN ELECTRICAL LOAD-MEASURING DEVICE
CD SPIRAL WASHERS:
TWO WEDGES THAT, WHEN TIGHTENED AGAINST EACH OTHER,
PREVENT THE SYSTEM FROM WORKING LOOSE
CD HYDRAULIC ACTUATOR:
DEVICE THAT CONVERTS THE ENERGY OF PRESSURIZED OIL INTO
FORCE APPLIED TO THE SPECIMEN
CD LOAD-ABORT MODULE:
ELECTRICALLY POWERED POPPET VALVES THAT DUMP PRESSURIZED
OIL IN A SLOW, CONTROLLED MANNER WHEN A SHUTDOWN OCCURS
CD SERVO VALVE:
ELECTRICALLY CONTROLLED HYDRAULIC VALVE THAT DIRECTS
PRESSURE TO THE TENSION OR COMPRESSION SIDES OF ACTUATOR
CD LOAD LIMITER:
HYDRAULIC RELIEF VALVE THAT PORTS OIL WHEN A SPECIFIC
PRESSURE IS REACHED TO AVOID OVERLOADING THE SPECIMEN
CD HEXCEL HONEYCOMB:
ALUMINUM HONEYCOMB THAT CRUSHES WHEN TOO MUCH LOAD IS
APPLIED
Structures Technology

SPECIMEN
Typical Servo
Hydraulic Control FEEDBACK SIGNAL (62)
lOAD
Feedback System CELL

TENSION

L
PROGRAM SERVO SERVO VALVE
o
SIGNAL CONTROLLER CONTROL SIGNAL A
HYDRAULIC
(.6.1) (tll 112l
ACTUATOR
o
res DIGITAL 5
COMPUTER y
5
HONEYCOMB T
E
M
PILOT PRESSURE

HYDRAULIC PRESSURE (3000 psi TYPJ


ENERGY ABSORBER
SUPPLY RETURN

REACTION
STRUCTURE

~o,ooo 100JOM fLICIHS


Fatigue Test UOniZON TAL T
STAUILIZ ER ! ~
Schedule I
s~~o ,oO.OO~'LICH'S

FINIDODY
'0:00100,000
I
fLlOHTS

WINGIOOn y
310,000 ~lIGH1S
NOSE
LANDING GEAR
3~.DOO fLIGHTS
MAIN
LANDING GEAR

I
I
100.0~O fLIGHTS
OUTDOAR 0
FLAP
FIRST FAA
, FLIGHT CERT

""
llllJ
.."