Stress Ribbon and Cable-supported Pedestrian Bridges

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Stress Ribbon and Cable-supported Pedestrian Bridges

© All Rights Reserved

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ISBN 978-0-7277-4146-2

doi: 10.1680/srcspb.41462.055

Chapter 5

Effects of prestressing

For a better understanding of the function of prestressing in During post-tensioning and during the service of the structure,

stress ribbon bridges, some basic facts will be recalled. the effects of prestress can be expressed by an equivalent load at

According to FIP (1998) prestress is applied through a con- anchors by the force N P acting in the direction of the

struction control process (prestressing) by stressing tendons tendons and along the length of the duct or at deviators by

(prestressing reinforcement) relative to the concrete member. radial forces r. These radial forces are the resultant of the

The prestress is exerted by tendons made of high-strength normal and tangent forces k and t.

steel (either bars, wires or strands). The tendons can be pre-

tensioned or post-tensioned. The normal and tangent forces can be determined from the

theory of frictional loss of a cable around a curve. Consider

Post-tensioned tendons can be situated inside (internal tendons; an innitesimal length ds of prestressing tendon whose centroid

Figure 5.1(a)) or outside of the cross-section (external tendons). follows an arc of radius () (Figure 5.2). The change in angle

The internal tendons can be bonded to the structure by grouting for a length ds is

or left provisionally or permanently unbonded.

ds

d 5:1

In the structure with bonded tendons the cement mortar

grouted between the prestressing steel and the ducts guarantees

that, after post-tensioning, any additional strain is the same for where

the concrete and steel in all sections. In the ultimate limit state

ds d: 5:2

the force in the steel that resists the ultimate load therefore

corresponds to the width of the cracks. Along the length ds the force P() is changed by dP(). The

forces P() and P() dP() act on this innitesimal element.

The internal tendons can also be formed by monostrands,

greased and sheathed strands. Since there is no bond between The action of these forces can be substituted by normal forces

the steel and concrete, the strains in the concrete and steel are k() and by tangent forces t(). Their resultants are

different. In the ultimate limit state the force in the steel that

resists the ultimate load therefore depends on the total elonga- dK ds k 5:3

tion of the tendon between the anchors. The force in the tendons

is therefore smaller than for the case of the bonded tendons. and

The external tendons can be situated inside (Figure 5.1(b)) or dT ds t: 5:4

outside (Figure 5.1(c)) the depth of the section. The tendons are

These forces can be determined from the conditions for equili-

anchored in so-called anchor blocks and deviated at deviators.

brium. The equilibrium in the direction of the tangent is

The deformations of the structure and the tendons are the same

only at anchor blocks and deviators. The deviator can be rigidly d d

connected to the tendons or it can allow the movement of the P cos P dP cos dT: 5:5

2 2

prestressing steel in the ducts. At the ultimate limit state the

force in the external tendons corresponds to the elongation of Since

the tendons between the points in which the tendon slippage is

prevented. The actual geometry of the tendons has to be consid- d

cos 1;

ered in the analysis; a sectional analysis alone is not sufcient. 2

55

Stress Ribbon and Cable-supported Pedestrian Bridges

Figure 5.1 Types of prestressing: (a) internal; (b) external within Figure 5.2 Equivalent forces

perimeter; and (c) external outside the perimeter

(a) a

da

V(A)

Lt

A

bonded fcd

tendon

X

wcr Pu

a

(a)

P(

dR

unbonded fcd da a)

tendon

P(a) + dP(a)

a)

r(

Lt,u P

P(

a)

)

dK(a

(b) da/2

a)

dR(

dT(a

t(a) ) P(a) + dP(a)

dT(a

da/2 )

Ld

dK(a k(a)

fcd ds )

P

Ld,u

(c)

we have

P d dK: 5:8

Ld

In other words,

fcd

ds

dK P

P

Ld,u

ds

k ds P 5:9

P

we have k :

dT dP: 5:6 Friction t() is proportional to the normal compression k()

and the coefcient of friction , thus

Equilibrium in normal direction is

t k: 5:10

d d

P sin P dP sin dK: 5:7

2 2 The friction force always acts against the direction of movement

of the tendon.

Since

d d The value of the tendon force P() at the point X is given by the

sin well-known formula

2 2

dP 0;

2 cient of friction, is the sum of angular displacement along x, k

56

Effects of prestressing

(a) (d)

a

1 a) a

3

r(

a

P0 Pm

a2 P0 y Pm

i 1

Pi 2

t(a1) k(a) t(a3) i

Pi 1 i +1

Pi 1 Pi Pi +1

t(a) Pi

(b) initial stressing stage

Pj anchoring

Pavr (e)

Pavr Pavr

a

P0 Pm e0 em

Pi 1 Pi

r

f

(c)

P0 Pm Pi 1 Ri (f)

Pi PV PV

MP r MP

Pi +1 PH

Ri PH

Pi

y a

i 1 yi 1

i yi yi +1

i +1 L

x xi xi 1 xi xi +1

is the unintentional angular displacement or wobble (per unit From the geometry of the tendon and the forces in the elements,

length) and x is the length of the tendon from the anchor. we can determine the equivalent radial forces R:

With k() and t() determined using equations (5.9) and (5.10), yi 1 yi

tan i 1

the resultant force r() can be determined xi xi 1

y yi 1

q tan i i

xi 1 xi

r k2 t2 : 5:12

Rxi Pi 1 cos i 1 Pi cos i 5:13

This force that acts along the length of the cable represents the

equivalent load of the tendon. It can be transformed into the Ryi Pi 1 sin i 1 Pi sin i 5:14

global coordinate axes X and Y. q

Ri R2xi R2yi : 5:15

Since most of the structures are currently analysed by the nite

element method, it is not necessary to determine the function of Although the above procedure is relatively simple, it requires

forces r(). It is more appropriate to determine the forces at some effort. It can be easier to model the tendon as a chain of

several nodes along the length of the tendons. Figure 5.3(a) straight, mutually connected elements. The elements are

shows a typical layout of a tendon formed by two straight linked to the nodes of the analysed structure by rigid links.

parts and one parabolic curve. The tendon is post-tensioned The tendon elements are pin-connected to the rigid links and

from the left anchorage. have zero stiffness (EA 0) during the post-tensioning phase.

They are stressed by axial forces determined according to

Figure 5.3(b) depicts the prestressing force which is inuenced Figure 5.3(b). Since the members have zero stiffness, the

by the friction losses and the wedge draw-in at the anchorage. resultant of forces in each node has the same value and direction

The tendon is divided in several elements along the length of as the forces determined according to Equation (5.15).

the structure in which we can substitute a continuous force

diagram with a piecewise constant diagram. The length of the After the post-tensioning of the structure, it is possible to give

elements should be chosen in such a way that sufcient accuracy the tendon elements their actual stiffness (Es, As) and make

is ensured. the nal link of the structure. In this way it is possible to

57

Stress Ribbon and Cable-supported Pedestrian Bridges

Figure 5.4 Curved beam equivalent load: (a) section AA; (b) section BB; (c) elevation; and (d) plan

rH

(a)

rV2 rV

(b)

rV1 RV

rH RH

(c) A B A B

PV rV1

PV RV RV

rV2 rV2 PV rV rV PV

A B A B

(d)

PH PH

rH PH RH RH PH

correctly describe the function of the tendon in the structure: normal forces k and are given by

during the post-tensioning the tendon is not a part of the struc-

ture (it is not included in the stiffness matrix) but after the post- a 8f

f tan ; r PH : 5:17

tensioning the tendon contributes to the stiffness of the struc- 4 2 a2

ture (it is included in the stiffness matrix). Any loads will To understand the behaviour of the prestress, it is useful to

cause corresponding stresses in the tendons proportional to review several basic examples of post-tensioned structures.

the stiffness, position and connection to the structure.

Figure 5.6 shows simply supported beams and beams with

Modelling the tendons by a chain of straight members also restrained ends. One end of the beam is rigidly xed so it cannot

allows us to easily describe the function of the draped tendon undergo any rotation or displacement; the other end is prevented

in structures curved in plan (Figure 5.4). Figure 5.5 shows the from rotating but is free to move longitudinally. These beams of a

calculation model of the structure post-tensioned by internal span length L are post-tensioned by straight and parabolic

and external tendons both during the post-tensioning operation tendons. It is assumed that the horizontal component of the

(Figure 5.5(a)) and during service (Figure 5.5(b)). prestressing force is constant along the length of the cable.

For preliminary calculations we can assume that the structure is Figures 5.6(1)5.6(4) show the equivalent load, normal forces

post-tensioned by a tendon for which the horizontal component and bending moments in the beams that are post-tensioned by

of the prestressing force PH is constant and is equal to the hori- the straight tendons. In all these cases the effects of post-

zontal component of the average value of the prestressing force tensioning can be expressed by the equivalent load acting on

Pavr (Figure 5.3(b)): the concrete at the anchorages:

PH Pavr cos const: 5:16 N PH :

If the curve of the duct is a second-degree parabola (Figure Since the tendon has an eccentricity ea eb in cases 2 and 4, the

5.3(e)) the radial forces r are assumed to be equal to the normal force N introduces external bending moments at the

58

Effects of prestressing

Figure 5.5 Modelling the curved beam: (a) during post-tensioning acting at the anchorages:

and (b) during service

N PH Pavr cos :

(a) P P

P

Since the tendon has eccentricity ea eb in cases 5.6(6) and

P

EI = 5.6(8) the normal force N loads the beam ends with bending

EI = moments:

P

P

Ma Mb Neb :

P

EA = 0 EA = 0

P Because the tendons are laid out as a parabolic curve, the beams

P

are also loaded by radial forces:

P

P P

P P 8f 8f

P

P P r PH 2 :

a2 L

(b) force N.

EI = EI = Since the radial forces are constant, the bending moments have

the shape of a second-degree parabola.

EsAs

EsAs In the case of Figure 5.6(5), the bending moment at mid-span is

ML=2 18 rL2 Mb PH f PH eb PH f eb :

moments are the same for the layout of prestressing steel

beam ends:

shown in Figures 5.6(7) and 5.6(8). As also noted above, the

Ma Mb Neb : equivalent bending moment acting at the beam ends cannot

cause any rotation of the beam. The bending moments at the

In all cases, the girders are stressed by a constant normal force ends are therefore:

N. However, a bending moment

1

Ma Mb 12 rL2 23 PH f

M Ma Mb

and the bending moment at mid-span is

is seen only in the case of the simply supported beam. In the

beam with restrained ends the bending moment is zero, since 1

ML=2 24 rL2 13 PH f :

the equivalent bending moment acting at the beam ends

cannot cause any rotation of the beam. In this case, the so- Figure 5.7 shows curved beams post-tensioned with curved

called primary and secondary bending moments have the tendons. The tendon is situated in the beam axis or parallel to

same value but opposite sign: the axis. The beams of span L are circular with radius . The

beams in Figures 5.7(1) and 5.7(2) are simply supported; the

Ma0 Ma0 Mb0 Mb0 Neb : beams in Figures 5.7(3) and 5.7(4) have rigidly xed ends that

cannot undergo any rotation or displacements. It is assumed

Figures 5.6(5)5.6(8) show the equivalent load, normal forces that the prestressing force P is constant along the length of

and bending moments in the beams that are post-tensioned the cable and the friction (tangent) forces are zero.

with parabolic tendons. In all cases the tendon has the same

sag f. Similarly to the previous example, the effects of the The effects of post-tensioning can be described with the

post-tensioning can be described by an equivalent loading equivalent loads acting at the anchorages and the radial

59

Stress Ribbon and Cable-supported Pedestrian Bridges

Figure 5.6 Equivalent load, normal forces and bending moments in straight beam

1 2 3 4

eb eb

a b a b a b a b

M M M M

PH PH PH PH PH PH

PH PH

5 6 7 8

f eb f eb

f f

a b a b a a

PV PV b PV b

PV PV M M PV PV M M PV

PH PH P H P H PH PH PH PH

r r r r

forces. Since the tangent forces are zero, the radial forces are These uniform radial forces create a constant normal force in

constant and the beams:

P N P r:

k :

Figure 5.7 Equivalent load, normal forces and bending moments in curved beam

1 2 3 4

a b a b a b a b

P P P P P P P P

r r r r

60

Effects of prestressing

Figure 5.8 Radial forces acting on stiff and slender arch Since the reactions due to prestress are zero, the bending

moments are constant along the length of the beam.

(a)

P P From Figures 5.7(3) and 5.7(4) it is evident that an arch struc-

ture, which is post-tensioned by a tendon that is parallel to

NP NP

the axis, is stressed only by normal forces. This is only true

for structures in which deformations due to normal forces are

not signicant, however.

tures in which the nal state of stresses is determined on the

(b)

deformed shape the bending stresses are signicant. From

P P Figure 5.8, which depicts radial forces and deformations of a

typical and slender arch structure, it is evident that the radial

NP NP

forces change their value and direction. Any analysis therefore

has to include this phenomenon.

This is also true for the curved beam in which both ends are stressing tendons are modelled as a chain of members loaded

xed. Bending moments originate only in the simply supported by axial forces.

beam (Figure 5.7(2)) that is post-tensioned with an eccentric

tendon. The anchor forces create equivalent moments at the REFERENCE

ends of the beam: FIP (1998) FIP Recommendations 1996: Practical design of

structural concrete. Proceedings of FIP Congress, Amster-

Ma Mb PH eb : dam. Thomas Telford Publishing, London.

61

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