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beam element

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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijmecsci

on Hu-Washizu functional

Ozan Soydas n, Afsin Saritas

Department of Civil Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06800, Turkey

art ic l e i nf o a b s t r a c t

Article history: An accurate 3d mixed beam element that is efcient especially in nonlinear analysis is presented in this

Received 24 December 2012 paper. The mathematical theory is based on Hu-Washizu principle that uses three-elds in the

Received in revised form variational form. The composition of the variational form ensures independent selection of displacement,

7 April 2013

stress and strain elds. Timoshenko beam theory is extended to three dimensions for deriving strains

Accepted 19 April 2013

Available online 1 May 2013

from displacement eld. Numerical integration of stressstrain relations along control sections is carried

out for numerical analysis. The nite element approximation for the beam uses shape functions for

Keywords: section forces that satisfy equilibrium and discontinuous section deformations along the control sections

Beam nite element of the beam. This form of the element permits coupling of the stress resultants and eliminates necessity

Mixed formulation

of displacement components along the beam element except at the nodes. Consequently the element is

Hu-Washizu variational

free from shear-locking. Numerical examples on uniform and tapered structural members with solid and

Shear locking

Torsion hollow circular sections demonstrate the nonlinear interaction between axial, shear force, bending

Circular sections moments and torsion, where the results compare well with closed form solutions and available data in

literature. Furthermore, the proposed element has superior performance in both linear and nonlinear

analysis compared to a locking-free higher order displacement based 3d Timoshenko beam element.

& 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

nents that are perpendicular to the control sections of the beam in

A beam element can be simply dened as a line on which all distributed inelasticity is inability to capture coupling of section

structural properties are condensed and this peculiarity of it forces unless a suitable element that eliminates this problem is not

facilitates analysis of systems composed of beam elements. How- beneted from.

ever, the assumption of condensation of structural properties from There are two main methods called displacement based (stiffness)

three dimensions to one dimension may take away the accuracy and force based (exibility) approaches in deriving frame elements,

needed for nonlinear analysis of important types of structural where latter approach also falls into the category of mixed nite

systems like pier of a deck or load carrying skeleton of a frame element method. Fields necessary for determination of the shape

building under severe earthquake loading unless the properties in functions differ and help distinguishing two approaches from each

three dimensions are conserved. Therefore, beam nite elements other. However, ber discretization of control sections and integra-

that are capable of embodying axial, bending, shear and torsion tion of sectional properties along the beam element is common for

effects with a considerable accuracy are needed to be developed performing analysis with each approach.

for nonlinear analyses. Continuity of differential equations is violated in displacement

Material nonlinearity of beams can be modeled by assuming based elements. Therefore, assumed shape functions utilized for

concentrated or distributed inelasticity on the beam element. Con- interpolation of the displacement eld along the beam element

centrated inelasticity necessitates utilization of hinges that lump is only capable of ensuring the element equilibrium at the nodes.

nonlinearity at each end of the beam whereas in order to capture As a result of violation of the continuity requirement, in order to

distributed inelasticity, control sections composed of plenty of bers obtain reasonable values for section forces number of nodes per

that are necessary for dening material constitutive relations are element or order of shape functions should be increased which

used for accumulation of the distributed nonlinearity along the beam will result in an increased computational effort. Moreover, this

nature of the displacement based elements may cause shear-

locking in thin beam limit although reduced integration methods

n can solve that phenomena to some extent. Hughes et al. [1] offered

Corresponding author. Tel.: +90 312 210 5458; fax: +90 312 210 5401.

E-mail addresses: ozansoydas@gmail.com (O. Soydas), a reduced integration two-node element, for which integration of

asaritas@metu.edu.tr (A. Saritas). shear terms are performed with interpolation functions having

0020-7403/$ - see front matter & 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2013.04.002

2 O. Soydas, A. Saritas / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 74 (2013) 114

order less than the order of shape functions for bending, required displacement based elements since they do not need to cope with

the use of at least two elements per span to obtain reasonable shear or membrane locking, and they yield accurate results with

results. Yokoyama [2] presented a Timoshenko beam element with lesser number of elements under nonlinear conditions [8]. In a

reduced integration, which has four nodes and two degrees of recent study of Saritas and Soydas [9], the accuracy and robustness

freedom (dofs) per node. Although Yokoyama's proposed element of the mixed nite elements compared to the displacement based

was able to eliminate shear locking, accuracy under linear elastic elements were presented in detail with examples.

response was still in question with the use of single element The keystone and highly cited study in the development and

discretization per span. A consistent interpolation element with use of mixed beam nite elements under nonlinear conditions is

three nodes in total was proposed by Reddy [3]. This element had the paper by Spacone et al. [10]. In that study, HellingerReissner

two nodes at the ends with two dofs each and a middle node with principle was used in the derivation of an EulerBernoulli beam

only the transverse deection as dof. Although this element solved nite element for the analysis and capacity assessment of rein-

the locking problem, it still necessitated the use of several forced concrete columns; thus only axial force and bending

elements per span under linear elastic conditions. Both locking moment interaction was considered. De Souza [11] presented a

and accuracy problems of displacement based elements were 3d EulerBernoulli beam element through the use of Hellinger

solved by the element proposed by Friedman and Kosmatka [4], Reissner principle, where moderate displacements were taken into

where the element had two end nodes and was formulated in 2d account along element length and large displacements and rota-

by using Hamilton's principle and cubic and quadratic Lagrangian tions at the nodes were considered through corotational formula-

shape functions for transverse and rotational displacements. The tion [12]. Nukala and White [13] developed a 3d EulerBernoulli

shape functions in that study were made independent by requir- beam nite element based on HellingerReissner variational

ing them to satisfy the two homogenous differential equations principle for nonlinear analysis of steel frames having open-

associated with Timoshenko's beam theory, and the shape func- walled cross-section by including nite rotations and warping of

tions thus contain sectional geometric properties unlike the the cross-section due to torsion. In that study, nonlinear material

standard nite element shape functions. With this element, the behavior was obtained by a decoupled response of axial stress and

response of a uniform prismatic beam under linear elastic condi- shear stress through the use of a two-space Von Mises constitutive

tions was accurately modeled through single element discretiza- relation, where the element cross-section included the axial stress

tion per span. It should also be mentioned that the resulting due to axial force, biaxial bending and bimoment, and the shear

element stiffness matrix with the use of these shape functions stress due to uniform torsion only, thus shear force effect was

were earlier presented by Przemieniecki [5]. The beam nite neglected.

element developed by Friedman and Kosmatka was later used by A two dimensional Timoshenko mixed beam element free from

Mazars et al. [6] for the nonlinear analysis and capacity assessment shear-locking formed by utilization of the three-eld Hu-Washizu

of reinforced concrete columns and slender walls, where the effect variational was proposed by Taylor et al. [8] by assuming the effect

of shear force and torsion was assumed to be uncoupled. In a of shear is linear elastic and uncoupled from axial force and

recent study, Triantafyllou and Koumousis [7] developed a locking- bending moment. In a successor study, Saritas and Filippou [14]

free 2d displacement based beam nite element, where the shape developed a 2d mixed element that considers the interaction of

functions were derived under linear elastic material behavior axial force, shear force and moment, where the reliability of the

similar to the effort presented by Friedman and Kosmatka [4]. element with regards to experimental data was veried with steel

The beam element proposed in that study was used to analyze shear link elements [15] and reinforced concrete members [16].

structural members where shear effects were signicant under Recently, Papachristidis et al. [17] proposed a 3d Timoshenko

nonlinear material response. mixed element for the capacity assessment of frame structures

Last two decades witnessed the rise of mixed beam nite under high shear based on natural mode method [18] that

elements due to the computational issues faced with displacement incorporates axial force, shear force, bending moment and torsion

based elements. In mixed nite elements, independent stress and to the element formulation. However, in that study the interaction

strain elds are utilized in addition to the displacement eld in the between internal forces for the 3d beam element was not

variational form of the element, thereby relaxing the strong demonstrated. Furthermore, Wackerfuss and Gruttman [19] devel-

satisfaction of the problem solution statements faced in the oped a three dimensional frame element by using Hu-Washizu

displacement based elements derived from minimum potential variational for beams with arbitrary cross-section and nonlinear

energy principle (Table 1, where meaning of the symbols are given behavior was modeled by dening additional deformation modes

in the derivation of the proposed beam element later in this for warping and deformations in the transverse direction of each

paper). Mixed elements are advantageous compared to nodes of the element. Verication studies in the latter paper

comprised mostly of linear material and nonlinear geometric

Table 1

responses of members and thus did not provide verication of

Strong and weak satisfaction of parameters in variational principles. the nonlinear interaction between 3d sectional forces present in

the element.

Varied elds Functional name Strong satisfaction Weak satisfaction In this study, three eld Hu-Washizu variational principle is

used to develop a 3d Timoshenko mixed beam nite element that

u Potential energy u on

s

div r b 0 on

r r on t tn on t considers the interaction of axial force, shear force, biaxial bending

u un on u moments and torsion through monitoring of responses over

several control sections along element length and with the ber

u; r HellingerReissner s u on div r b 0 on discretization of the section. Shape functions that satisfy equili-

u un on u r r on

brium and discontinuous strains are used for section resultants for

t tn on t

the nite element approximation. This nature of the element

u; r; Hu-Washizu - div r b 0 on eliminates the necessity of displacement interpolations along the

s u on element length except at the nodes. Nonlinear interaction

r r on between normal and shearing stresses is achieved with the use

u un on u

t tn on t

of an inelastic 3d material model. Nonlinear analyses of uniform or

tapered members with solid and hollow circular sections are

O. Soydas, A. Saritas / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 74 (2013) 114 3

performed and the proposed 3d Timoshenko mixed element is an input in order to determine the unit vector in the direction of Z

compared with various 3d frame elements under nonlinear con- axis, z from the cross product z x y . The unit vector in the

ditions, as well as with closed form solutions available in the direction of the X axis, x formed by the difference between global

literature. It is observed that the most signicant advantage of the coordinates (X,Y,Z) of nodes i and j is found as;

proposed beam element is its high accuracy through the use of 0 1

X j X i T

single element discretization per span thereby reducing the 1B C

computational burden of the extra elds necessary in the for- x @ Y j Y i A 2

L

mulation of the mixed nite elements and furthermore the Z j Z i

element can also accurately simulate the linear and nonlinear

Determination of the unit vectors is necessary to generate

responses of tapered members without the need for the derivation

rotation matrix, ar that relates displacement dofs of the element

of new shape functions.

in local coordinates, u to global coordinates, uel linearly as follows;

T

u u1 u2 u3 u4 u5 u6 u7 u8 u9 u10 u11 u12 3

2. Three dimensional mixed beam element

T

uel u1 u2 u3 u4 u5 u6 u7 u8 u9 u10 u11 u12

2.1. Coordinate Systems and Transformations

4

The beam has a right handed coordinate system both on local

u ar uel 5

and global level. The global (X,Y,Z) and local (x,y,z) coordinate

systems have both orthogonal axes. The local x-axis is oriented 2 3

M rot 0 0 0

from the starting node i to end node j such that y-axis is in the 6 0

6 M rot 0 0 7 7

same plane with the x-axis and z-axis points out perpendicularly ar 6 7 6

4 0 0 M rot 0 5

to the planes formed by x and y axes. Forces and displacements in

the direction of positive axes are considered to be positive. An 0 0 0 M rot

accent sign is used for variables in local axis. Moreover, double

headed arrows are utilized in order to distinguish moments and M rot x y z T 7

rotations from forces and axial displacements.

Number of element end forces that are shown with the letter

p followed by a numbered subscript in Fig. 1a can be reduced

from 12 to 6 by replacing them with interdependent basic element

forces, q in Fig. 1b and following relationship is obtained in matrix

form with the transformation matrix, a for an element with

length, L

p aT q

0 1 2 3

p1 1 0 0 0 0 0

Bp C 6 7

B 2 C 6 0 1=L 1=L 0 0 07

B C 6 7

B p3 C 6 0 0 0 0 1=L 1=L 7

B C 6 70 1 Global to Local

Bp C 6 7

B 4 C 6 0 0 0 1 0 0 7 q1

B C 6 7B C

B p5 C 6 0 0 7

B C 6 0 0 0 1 7B q2 C u = a r u el

B C 6 7B C

B p6 C 6 0 1 0 0 0 0 7B q3 C

B C 6 7B C

where B p7 C 6 1 0 7

B C

B C 6 0 0 0 0 7B q 4 C

B

C

B C 6 7

B p8 C 6 0 1=L 1=L 0 0 0 7B q C

B C 6 7@ 5 A

Bp C 6 0 1=L 7

B 9 C 6 0 0 0 1=L 7 q6

B C 6 7

B p10 C 6 0 0 0 1 0 0 7 Local to Basic

B C 6 7

Bp C 6 0 0 0 0 0 1 7 v = aar uel = a g u el

@ 11 A 4 5

p12 0 0 1 0 0 0

1

There are 6 dofs at each node i and j in a 3d coordinate system

totaling to 12 for an element as depicted in Fig. 2. The coordinate

of a point that does not exist on the line connecting nodes i and j is

the unit vector in the direction of Y axis, y and should be given as Fig. 2. Transformation of element displacements to deformations.

Y L Y, y L

p4 p1 X p7 p10 q4

q4 q1 X , x q1

Z i j Z ,z i j

p9 q5 + q6

p3 L

p12 p8 q5 + q6 q2 + q3

p2 q2 + q3 q3

p6 L L

L

p11 q2

p5 q5 q6

Fig. 1. Free body diagram of the beam element. (a) Element end forces and (b) Basic element forces.

4 O. Soydas, A. Saritas / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 74 (2013) 114

Since 12 dofs are composed of 6 rigid body modes and u can be derived from Eq. (12) for small strains as follows;

6 deformations modes of displacement it is possible to relate basic 8 0 0

9

uxx dux x;y;z

0

>

> u xyz x zy x >

>

element deformation vector, v to displacements as follows; >

< dx >

=

dux x;y;z duy x;y;z 0 0

u

u

xy dy

dx

z x v x z x x 13

v au aar uel ag uel 8 >

> >

>

: u dux x;y;z duz x;y;z y x w0 x yx 0 x >

> ;

xz dz dx

Strain terms, uyy , uzz and uyz are equal to zero as a result of the

2.2. Hu-Washizu functional derivation, hence do not take part in the strain vector. In Eq. (12),

ux x; y; z, uy x; y; z and uz x; y; z are the displacements in x, y and z

Hu-Washizu [20] principle is a functional of three independent directions, respectively of any point in the section and ux is the

elds of stress eld r, strain eld , and displacement eld, u displacement of the point (x,0,0) along x-axis, vx and wx are the

dened as follows: transverse deections of the point (x,0,0) from x-axis in y and z

Z Z directions, respectively. x x, y x and z x are the small rotations

HW r;;u Wd rT u d ext 9 of the beam cross section around three orthogonal axes x, y and z,

respectively. Consequently, vector of displacements at a section of

In Eq. (9), stresses can be derived from the strain energy the beam, us is formed as;

function, W as follows: h iT

us ux vx wx x x y x z x 14

W

^

r 10 Strain elds for the beam are selected independently from

those in Eq. (13) as follows;

Strain vector that is derived from the displacements, u is 8 9 8 9

denoted by u and it is the symmetric part of the displacement < xx >

> = > < a xyz x z y x >

=

gradient, u u uT for small strains. Potential energy of the xy y xzx 15

>

: ; : > > >

;

external loading, ext due to body forces and displacement and xz z x yx

traction boundary conditions is dened as;

a x, y x and z x are the axial strain and curvature around y and

Z Z Z

z axes, respectively. y xand z x are the shear distortions of the

ext uT bd uT tn d tT uun d 11 section in y and z directions, respectively. x is the angle of twist

t u

of the cross section. Consequently, vector of section deformations,

In Eq. (11), stresses caused by body forces are denoted by b. Dot ex is formed as

product of the stress vector with the outward normal n to the h iT

boundary gives stresses caused by the traction, t rn. Super- ex a x z x y x y x z x x 16

script asterisks near t and u designate imposed or in other words

known values in the formulation. It is assumed that the external

loading is conservative which implies that the work done depends 2.4. Section stress resultants and deformations

only on the nal displacement values of u. Integrations are carried

out in the domains of the body and traction and displacement Section stress resultants vector, sx for a 3d beam element is

boundaries are , t and u , respectively. formed as in Eq. (17) and section stress resultants can be computed

by taking integration over the section area, A as in Eq. (18).

h iT

sx Nx M z x M y x V y x V z x Tx 17

2.3. Kinematic relations for the 3d Timoshenko beam element

R R R

N A sxx dA M y A zsxx dA M z A ysxx dA

There are two basic beam theories named as EulerBernoulli

Axial force Moment about y axis Moment about z axis

(EBT) and Timoshenko beam theories (TBT). EBT is the simplest R R R

V y A sxy dA V z A sxz dA T A zsxy ysxz dA

one since it considers axial and exural effects in the section but Shear force in y direction Shear force in z direction Torsion around x axis

does not take into account shear effects due to the assumption

that section plane remains normal to the beam tangential axis 18

after the deformation of the section. TBT incorporates shear Basic element force vector, q and section stress resultants

deformations by assuming constant shear stress in the section vector, sx can be related to each other by utilizing element

and section plane is no more normal to the axis of the beam. equilibrium equations by neglecting any traction along the beam

Constant shear assumption necessitates utilization of a shear element as follows;

correction factor to calculate shear force in the section correctly

sx bxq 19

[21]; however this limitation can be overcome by using higher

order shape functions for shear deformation in the section [22]. In Eq. (19), bx is matrix of force interpolation functions

Kinematic relations of TBT are preferred in this study since it dened as in Eq. (20) and also relates section deformations, ex

ensures the accuracy needed with an increased computational to element deformations, v as given in Eq. (21).

efciency. 2 3

1 0 0 0 0 0

Three eld variational principle of Hu-Washizu functional 6 0 x 1 x=L 0 0 0 7

6 L 7

presented in Eq. (9) enables specication of and u independently. 6 7

60 0 0 0 L 1 x=L 7

x

Therefore kinematic relations can be dened independent from 6

bx 6 7 20

6 0 1=L 1=L 0 0 0 77

the assumed displacement eld for the beam. Timoshenko beam 6 7

theory is extended for a three dimensional geometry as follows: 40 0 0 0 1=L 1=L 5

8 9 8 9 0 0 0 1 0 0

< ux x; y; z >

> < uxyz x zy x >

= > = Z

u uy x; y; z vxzx x 12 L

T

> >

: u x; y; z ; :> >

; v b xexdx 21

z wx yx x 0

O. Soydas, A. Saritas / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 74 (2013) 114 5

Z L

0 0 L

Computation of the variation of the functional in Eq. (9) gives Nu x u xNuxnx dx Nux uxN

Z Z Z 0 0

Z L

^

HW sd rT u d rT u d ext 0

N ux uxN0 nx dx 25

0

22

Z L 0 0

Eq. (10) is based on a strain-energy function that is in M z z x z xM z V y z xz xV y dx

0

accordance with Cauchy elastic material model. However, general-

L

ization to an inelastic material can also be made by assuming s ^ M z z x z xM z

represents an inelastic material ensuring Eq. (22) is valid for any 0

Z L

type of material.

M z V y z x z xM z0 V y dx

0

26

Eqs. (13), (15) and (18) are substituted into Eq. (22) and 0

integration is carried out along the length of the beam as follows; Z

Z Ln

L 0 0

_ _ _ o M y y x y xM y V z y x y xV z dx

HW a xNN z xM z M z y xM y M y dx 0

0 L

Z L n o M y y x y xM y

_ _ _ 0

y xV y V y z xV z V z xT T dx Z L

0

Z M y0 V z y x y xM y0 V z dx 27

L 0 0 0

Nu xa x M z z xz x

Z

L

0

Z

L

0 0

0

L 0 V z w x w xV z qz xwx dx V z wx wxV z

M y y xy x dx V y v xz x y x 0 0

0

Z L

0 0 0

V z w x y x z x Tx xx dx V z wx wxV z0 qz x dx 28

Z L 0

0 0 0

u xN z xM z y xM y dx Z

0

L

0

n 0

o L

Z V y v x v xV y qy xvx dx V y wx vxV y

L 0 0

0

v xz xV y w x y xV z

0

Z Ln o

0 0

0 V y vx vxV y qy x dx 29

0 0

x xT dx ext 23

Z

_ _ _ _ _ _

In Eq. (23),N , M y , M z , T , V y and V z are calculated similarly to 0

L L

Tx x x0 xTmx x x x dx Tx x x xT

the section stress resultants in Eq. (18). In this case, section 0 0

Z Ln o

stresses with hat ^ sign, _ s xx , _

s xy and _ s xz are derived from the 0 0

T x x x xT mx x dx 30

material constitutive relations. It should also be noted that for 3d 0

beam element syy szz _ s yy _ s zz _s yz yz 0.

Careful examination of Eqs. (25) to (30) reveals that if there can

ext is the variation of the work-conjugate of the displacement

be found suitable approximation functions for the section forces

and stress resultant elds. Moment tractions around y and z axes

and their variations such that the integral terms on the right hand

are negligible in real structural engineering problems, therefore it

sides of those equations equal to zero, then there will be no need

is assumed that my x mz x 0. If body forces are also neglected,

to approximate the displacements u, v, w, x , y and z along the

then

beam. Nodal displacement values shown in Fig. 4 will be enough

Z L n o to calculate the denite integrals of the Eqs. (25) to (30). Therefore,

ext nxux qy xvx qz xwx mx xx x dxbc

0 following equation sets should be satised to meet that condition.

24 0

N x nx 0 V y0 x qy x 0 M z0 x V y x 0

31

nx and qy x, qz x are distributions of longitudinal tractions and 0

T x mx x 0 V z0 x qz x 0 M y0 xV z x 0

transverse tractions along x, y and z axes, respectively; mx x is

moment traction around x axis as depicted in Fig. 3. bc is the 0

N x 0 V y0 x 0 M z0 x V y x 0

variation of the energy due to boundary conditions. 0 32

T x 0 V z0 x 0 M y0 xV z x 0

2.6. Finite element approximation If it is assumed that axial and transverse tractions are constant

such that nx wx , qy x wy , qz x wz and mx x mx , then

If Eq. (24) is substituted into Eq. (23), integration by parts of all

terms with derivatives on the displacement elds of the resulting

y

q y( x )

m x ( x)

n (x )

x

qz ( x )

z

Fig. 3. Traction forces on beam element. Fig. 4. Nodal displacements for an element in local coordinates.

6 O. Soydas, A. Saritas / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 74 (2013) 114

solution of Equation sets (31) and (32) gives revised version of the structure assembly process. However, a more practical approach

Eq. (19) as follows: would be to condense out all internal variables other than nodal

sx bxq sp x 33 displacements and thus keep them as internal parameters to the

element only. By this approach, the condensed response of the

In Eq. (33), sp x is the section stress resultant due to element element is readily implementable in a standard nite element

n oT

software that bases on the solution of structural nodal displace-

loading, w wx wy wz mx found as

2 x 3 ments. This choice also results in easier matrix computations due

L 1 L 0 0 0 to the reduction in structure stiffness matrix. Due to its practi-

6 x2 x

7

6 L2 78 cality, the latter solution approach for the mixed formulation nite

6 0 2 L L 0 0 7 wx 9

6

7> >

6 7>> >

> elements is preferred in this paper. The condensation process of

6 0 0 L 2

x 2

x

0 7< w y = the element variables and the resulting solution algorithms with

sp x 6

6 2x

2 L L 7

7> w z >

6 L 7>> >

> this choice are presented in depth by Saritas and Soydas [9], where

6 0 2 1 L 0 0 7: ;

6 2x 7 mx the nal form of the equation is written as follows:

6 0 0 L 1 0 7

4 L 5 KU PPR 39

0 0 0 L 1 xL

34 where K is the structure stiffness matrix, U is the structure

displacement vector, P is the applied force vector for the structure,

Evaluation of right hand sides of Eqs. (25) to (30) at x 0 and and PR is the resisting force vector of the structure obtained by

x L gives; assemblage of the response of individual element resistances.

L L Nonlinear analysis of this form of the equation requires an

Nux uxN M z z x z xM z iterative process.

0 0

L L

M y y x y xM y V z wx wxV z 2.7. Fiber discretization

0 0

L L

V y vx vxV y Tx x x xT Mixed beam element presented in this paper up to now is

0 0

derived in a general form for the nonlinear analysis of 3d structural

qT au uT aT quT pw 35 systems. Despite this generality, section types considered will focus

on solid and hollow circular sections for the purposes of verication

In Eq. (35), pw is the vector of rigid mode of applied tractions at

of the interaction of forces and furthermore for comparison with

the nodes and does not include the applied external loads at the

closed form solutions. Uniform and tapered structural members

nodes and dened as follows:

with circular sections have broad range of application area such as

pw wx L wy 2L wz 2L mx L 0 0 0 wy 2L wz 2L 0 0 0 pier of a deck, tower of wind turbines, pipelines, rotating shafts, etc.

and the following relations are derived for the section modeling of

36

the 3d mixed beam element.

Eq. (23) is rearranged in global displacements by using Eqs. (5), The relation between the strains at a ber point on the beam

(8), (16), (33) and (35) and ignoring bc until the assembly of the and the section deformations presented in Eq. (15) can be written

elements as follows: in an alternative form by dening section compatibility matrix as

Z L Z L as follows;

HW exT _

sxbxqsp xdxqT bxT exdx 2 3

1 y z 0 0 0

0 0

p

qT ag uel uTel aTg quTel aTr pw 37 6 z 7

as 4 0 0 0 ky 0 5 40

p

0 0 0 0 kz y

Minimization of Eq. (37) by equating the expression to zero

generally leads to a nonlinear equation and can be linearly

approximated by using rst order Taylor Series expansion as in xx xy xz T as ex 41

Eq. (38). As a result, three elds of the formulation are disassembled

In Eq. (40), ky and kz are the shear correction factors in y and z

in the equation. Basic element forces and section deformations are

directions, respectively and depend on section geometry and

internal variables that do not have to satisfy inter-element con-

material. These are introduced in the section compatibility matrix

tinuity requirements. Moreover, continuity requirements related

in order to estimate the shear strain energy accurately for the linear

with displacement eld are necessary to be satised only at the

elastic portion of element response. Shear correction factor for solid

inter-element nodes.

and hollow circular cross sections is the same about both axis

Z L

_ (denoted as k) and can be calculated from the general expression in

0 exT sxbxq qsp x ks xexdx

0 the study of Hutchinson [24] as given below in Eq. (42) for known

Z L

outer radius, b, inner radius, a and Poisson ratio, .

qT bxT ex exdx ag uel uel

2

0 6a2 b 2 1 2 2

k

T

uel aTg q T

qar pw 38 7a4 34a2 b

2 4

7b 12a4

2 4 2 4

48a2 b 12b 2 4a4 16a2 b 4b

42

In order to ensure that Eq. (38) is satised for all arbitrary

values of uel , q, and ex, all values that are multiplied with It should be emphasized that higher-order elements such as

these terms should vanish for the equation to be equal to zero at the one derived recently by Zhang and Fu [25] that utilizes Laurent

all times. It is possible to solve Eq. (38) with nodal displacements, series expansion form for the displacement eld eliminates the

nodal forces and section deformation variables as dofs in the necessity of shear correction factor for solid and hollow circular

assembly of structure response. Such an approach was preferred sections. Furthermore, with an assumed distribution of shear

by Kutlu and Omurtag [23] in the formulation of a plate nite strain a priori in the mixed element formulation, it is also possible

element through HellingerReissner variational and with the to eliminate the need for shear correction factor as done by Saritas

choice of nodal displacements and nodal forces as dofs in the and Filippou [14].

O. Soydas, A. Saritas / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 74 (2013) 114 7

Eq. (40) can be utilized to rearrange Eq. (17) to carry out material stiffness matrix given as follows:

integration of stresses that satisfy the material constitutive rela- 2 3 2 3

C 1111 C 1112 C 1113 C 1122 C 1133

tions r^ r

^ as follows; 6C 7 6 7

0_ 1 km 4 1211 C 1212 C 1213 54 C 1222 C 1233 5

Z s xx C 1311 C 1312 C 1313 C 1322 C 1333

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ T B_ C

T

s N M z M y V y V z T as @ xy AdA s 43 " #1 " #

A _ C 2222 C 2233 C 2211 C 2212 C 2213

s xz 49

C 3322 C 3333 C 3311 C 3312 C 3313

If derivative of Eq. (43) with respect to section deformations is

taken, tangent stiffness of section, ks x that is needed to perform

Eq. (38) can be obtained as follows:

_ Z Z 3. Numerical verication of the element response

sx _r

ks x as T dA as T km as dA 44

ex A e A In this section, verication of the proposed 3d mixed beam

In Eq. (44), material tangent modulus, km is calculated as element is demonstrated by carrying out nonlinear analysis in four

follows; set of numerical examples. In the rst example, proposed 3d

mixed beam element is compared with the 3d version of the

_

r

km 45 element proposed by Friedman and Kosmatka [4] under mono-

e

tonic loading for a uniform cross-section cantilever member. The

Numerical integration methods such as Gauss-quadrature, 2d shape functions presented in the study of Friedman and

midpoint or trapezoidal rule can be performed on section for Kosmatka [4] are extended to 3d as presented by Luo [26] and

numerical integration of Eqs. (43) and (44). rearranged by making appropriate changes in accordance with the

coordinate system used in this study. In the second set of

2.8. 3d material model examples, the behavior of a uniform cross-section member under

pure torsion and under axial load combined with torque and the

Proposed mixed element has six stress components at a performance of a tapered member under pure torsion are inves-

material point of the cross-section. Normal and shear stresses tigated. In the third set of examples, the inuence of the coupling

(sxx , sxy and sxz ) have non-zero values whereas the rest of the of stresses and resulting forces in the element is demonstrated

stress components are equal to zero on the cross-section. Trans- through nonlinear analysis of beams with solid and hollow circular

verse stresses (syy and szz ) can be equated to zero in order to sections for a uniform cantilever member under varying levels of

linearize the residuals that will arise in Eq. (38) with respect to an axial and torsional loads and bended cyclically in 3d. In the last set

initial strain and an update scheme for the unknown transverse of examples, the study by Nowzartash and Mohareb [27] is

strain elds can be obtained as follows; considered, where the nonlinear interaction between bending

8 9

" #( ) ( ) " #> xx > and torsion and furthermore the inuence of shear force on

C 2222 C 2233 yy syy C 2211 C 2212 C 2213 < =

bending behavior are analyzed for a hollow circular section that

xy

C 3322 C 3333 zz szz >

C 3311 C 3312 C 3313 : > is xed at both ends. The results presented in that paper are

xz ;

compared through the use of proposed mixed beam element in

46 this paper.

In Eq. (46), C ijkl sij =kl is the tensor form of the consistent

tangent matrix for 3d material where i, j, k and l take values 1, 3.1. Example 1: comparison of nonlinear behavior of uniform mixed

2 and 3 that correspond to x, y and z, respectively. Transverse and displacement based elements

strain elds on the left hand side of the equation are updated until

the norm of the residuals is smaller than a specied tolerance by A cantilever steel member with solid circular cross-section that

the help of the strain values on the right hand side of the equation has orientations of local and global coordinates shown in Fig. 5a is

increments of which are obtained from the nite element analysis. loaded in the global X direction monotonically by imposing tip

Isotropy of the material enables setting syz sxz 0 by imposing displacement at the free end.

yz 0. The member is assumed to have a length, L of 180 units, cross-

The material stiffness for the beam formulation given in Eq. (45) section diameter, d of 18 units, Young modulus, E of 29,000 units,

is condensed for the non-zero stress components as follows: Poisson ratio, 0:3 and yield strength, fy of 36 units. Although

2 sxx sxx sxx 3 geometric and material variables are physically consistent, they

xx xy xz

6 sxy 7 are left intentionally as numerical to focus on the effect of the

6 sxy sxy 7

km 6 xx xy xz 7 47 applied loading. Material model that is used in the analysis for the

4 5

sxz sxz sxz response of steel is 3d J2 plasticity model, where kinematic and

xx xy xz

isotropic hardening values are both assumed as zero.

It is possible to assume sij C ijkl ij and separate the normal In order to perform numerical integration of the section

strain terms in transverse direction from others as follows; response, meshing of the circular cross-section is generated in

8 9 2 38 9 both radial and circumferential directions with the use of mid-

< sxx >

> = C 1111 C 1112 C 1113 >< xx > = point integration rule and by setting odd numbers 11 for both

6 7

sxy 4 C 1211 C 1212 C 1213 5 xy

> directions as shown in Fig. 5b. Although not presented in this

: s > ; >

C 1311 C 1312 C 1313 : xz ;

>

xz study, selected neness of the mesh on the section results in a

2 3

C 1122 C 1133 ( ) sufciently accurate nonlinear response. Five sections along the

6 7 yy element, i.e. 5 point Gauss quadrature rule is utilized to model the

4 C 1222 C 1233 5 48

zz aggregation of the response of the several sections along the beam

C 1322 C 1333

length.

Normal strain terms on the left hand side of Eq. (46) are In the following gure and discussions, the response of the

substituted into Eq. (48) for the converged state of the transverse proposed mixed formulation element and Friedman and Kosmatka

stresses syy szz 0 and the resulting expression is the condensed [4] displacement based element are denoted with MF and DB,

8 O. Soydas, A. Saritas / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 74 (2013) 114

Fig. 5. Orientation of axes and radial and circumferential discretization of circular section. (a) Orientation of axes (b) Discretization of circular section (local coordinates) and

(c) Calculation of the shear stress.

shear-locking and good at modeling linear behavior. Linear elastic

250

responses of MF and DB are not presented in current study since

Shear Force in X

both element formulations give exact behavior when the member 200

is made of uniform cross-section along element length. The only

150 DB ne=1

differences arise in the internal variations, and DF model in this DB ne=2

regards needs meshing. Under varying cross-sectional properties, 100 DB ne=4

it should be stated that MF still results in exact element response, DB ne=8

while DB requires mesh renement unless special care is directed 50 DB ne=16

MF ne=1

for the derivation of shape functions as done by Friedman and

0

Kosmatka [28], Murn and Kuti [29] and Shooshtari and Khajavi 0 2 4 6 8 10

[30]. By the way, such a comparison is presented for a tapered Displacement in X

member in the next example.

Fig. 6. Comparison of the effect of number of elements on the analysis of uniform

In order to study the convergence and accuracy of both MF and solid sections with DB and MF frame elements.

DB elements as part of this example, the effect of number of

integration points nIP that is necessary to perform integration

along the element is investigated rst. It is concluded that for both explicitly as follows:

MF and DB increasing nIP beyond 5 is not necessary because from ! " #

3

that number on nonlinear load-displacement curves nearly coin- 2b 1 y 3

T y 1 50

cide with each other indicating that the accuracy does not improve 3 4

any further. Then, the effect of number of elements ne on the

In Eq. (50), b is the outer radius as dened previously,y is the

nonlinear behavior is investigated and it is observed that the use

shear stress at yield and y is the angle of twist at yield calculated

of single element discretization is sufcient for MF under non-

for the known shear modulus, G as follows:

linear behavior, while mesh renement is important for DB to

model nonlinear behavior accurately, as expected from a y L

y 51

displacement-based nite element. Fig. 6 points out that even Gb

using 16 elements for DB cannot ensure the accuracy that is If is sufciently large, then T approaches to the torque, T p

provided by MF through the use of single element. Although the indicating that the section is whole plastic as follows;

duration for analysis is very close to each other for both DB and MF !

3

with the use of same number of elements, MF necessitates 2b

Tp y 52

utilization of lesser number of elements which in turn results in 3

a reduced computation time compared to the analysis with DB.

That circumstance is veried by applying pure torsion to the

This substantiates that proposed MF is superior to DB under

free end of proposed MF element with the same geometric and

nonlinear conditions. For larger structural systems in 2d, such a

material properties in Example 1 and Fig. 7 is obtained. According

comparative study was conducted by the authors of this paper [9]

to the gure, MF matches quite well with the exact solution under

and it was found that the use of mixed formulation elements even

pure torsion with only one element. Moreover MF is also capable

for large systems reduces the computation time besides increased

of conrming the theoretical phenomenon that elastic limit is 75%

accuracy of results.

of the plastic limit for the circular section.

3.2. Example 2: nonlinear performance of mixed element under

torsion 3.2.2. Combined axial load and torque on a uniform cantilever beam

with solid circular section

3.2.1. Pure torsion of a uniform cantilever beam with solid circular The effect of combined axial load and torque on a uniform

section cantilever beam with solid circular section is investigated for the

Derivation of the exact solution of the torque, T that is applied MF element having same geometric and material properties as in

to the free end of an elastoplastic uniform cantilever beam with Example 1 by applying loading pattern dened in the study of

solid circular section is straightforward and can be obtained Gaydon [31]. In that study, Reuss equations are used to obtain

O. Soydas, A. Saritas / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 74 (2013) 114 9

1.00 under different types of application of combined axial load and

torque. Such loading conditions are experienced in critical engi-

0.75 neering components, such as couplings, bolted joints and rotating

Elastic Limit

T/Tp

shafts [32].

0.50 MF with single element per span is given a certain extension

such that entire cylinder becomes plastic, i.e. the axial stress

0.25 exceeds the yield stress. Afterwards, the axial extension is kept

Theoretical

MF n e=1 constant and torsion is applied at the fee end of the member

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 increasing gradually. Variation of normalized axial load by axial

/y load at yield, N=N y and normalized torque by a multiple of torque

at yield, T=1:5T y (as presented by Gaydon) versus normalized

Fig. 7. Comparison of the exact solution and MF frame element under pure torsion

for solid circular section.

angle of twist are monitored as shown in Fig. 8. According to the

gure, axial load carrying capacity decreases after torque is

applied, reaching asymptotically to zero where the latter con-

1 verges to 2/3 in a synchronized manner. MF beam element obtains

T/(1.5Ty )

Axial Load

N/N y the closed form expressions provided by Gaydon [31] exactly.

0.8

N/N y and T/(1.5Ty )

T/(1.5Ty)=2/3

torsion with mixed and displacement based elements

0.4

In this case, nonlinear analysis of DB and MF elements in

Torque

0.2

Example 1 having the same material and geometric properties at

one end but tapered to the other end is performed applying pure

0 torsion at the free end of the member. Member is assumed to be

1 2 3 4 5

tapered linearly having diameter d 18 at the xed end and d 9

/

y units at the free end of the member, respectively. Number of

Fig. 8. Variation of axial load and torque with angle of twist for solid circular

elements ne for DB that is used in the analysis is 2, 4 and 8,

section. Extension held constant. whereas it is only 1 for MF.

Although it is not shown in this study in above examples, a

uniform element analyzed with DB element implemented in this

9000

paper has similar response to MF under pure torsion and axial load

8000

combined with torque. However, this is not the case when the

7000

member becomes tapered. According to Fig. 9, number of elements

ne used for DB should be increased to more than 8 in order to

6000

capture an accurate response in both linear and nonlinear regions

Torque

5000

of response as compared to MF.

4000

3000 DB ne=2

2000 DB ne =4 3.3. Example 3: nonlinear analysis of uniform Beams with solid and

1000 DB ne=8 hollow circular Sections

MF ne =1

0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

The circular section beam from Example 1 is used with

Angle of Twist

identical geometry and material properties for the demonstration

Fig. 9. Comparison of the effect of number of elements for the analysis of tapered of the strong nonlinear coupling between internal forces in the

members with DB and MF frame elements. nonlinear analysis of beams with solid and hollow circular sections

1

ux=6 uz=6

ux=6

0.5 uz=6

Load Factor

0

t=

iii 0.25Ny,

i)

ux=0 uz=0 ux=0 ux=0

uz=0 uz=0

Lo

iii iv) t=1 v) t=1.5 vi) t=2

=2

Forc

rce Hi

History

ry

-1 Disp History

ry X

Disp History

ry Z

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 iv) t=1 0.25Ny,

=1, 0.25 v) t=1.5, 0.25

0.25Ny, vi) t=2 0.25Ny,

=2, 0.25

Pseudo

udo Time (t) ux=6, uz=6 ux=0, uz=6 ux=0, uz=0

Fig. 10. Force and displacement pseudo-time histories imposed on the element. (a) Loading history for case A2. (b) Loading history for case A2 for 0.25Ny (Top view in the

negative global Y-direction).

10 O. Soydas, A. Saritas / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 74 (2013) 114

in 3d. The member is this time only analyzed with the proposed At t 0.1 s, free end of the member is started to be displaced

MF element by using single element per span and with the same linearly until 6 units in global X-direction (Disp. History X in

discretization presented in Example 1. Fig. 10a) until t 0.5 s and X coordinate is kept constant until

Two different pseudo-load cases called A and B that have four t1 s, displacing linearly in the negative X-direction from now on

sub-cases each are applied to the member. In case A, the member until t1.5 s and having zero X coordinate until t 2 s.

is loaded axially at free end increasing gradually in the negative At t 0.5 s, together with the Force History and Disp. History X,

global Y-direction (Force History in Fig. 10a) up to pseudo time, free end of the member is started to be displaced linearly 6 units in

t0.1 s and kept constant until t2 s. Applied axial load on the global Z-direction (Disp. History Z in Fig. 10a) until t 1 sec and Z

member is assumed to be one of the following: 0, 0:25N y , 0:50N y coordinate is kept constant until t 1.5 s. After that instant, free

and 0:75N y , thus resulting in four sub-cases A1, A2, A3 and A4, end of the member is displaced linearly in the negative Z-direction

respectively. Axial force at yield, Ny is calculated as the area of the till t2 sec. In Fig. 10a, vertical axis named as load factor denes

section times yield strength of the member. the portion of the load or displacement imposed on the member at

that pseudo time. The displacement history imposed on the

element is presented in Fig. 10b. Nonlinear behavior originates

200 X 0*N (Case A1) from the inelasticity caused by the combination of the loading

y

150 X 0.25*N (Case A2) axially and movements in X and Z directions as depicted for solid

y

X 0.50*N y (Case A3) circular section in Figs. 11 and 12, respectively.

Shear Force in X

100

X 0.75*N (Case A4) In case B, same loading histories as in case A are considered,

y

50 where this time torsion is applied around global Y-direction

0 instead of axial force at the free end. Experiments for ductile

materials verify that the yield stress obtained from a torsion test is

-50

0.5 to 0.6 times that is determined from a simple tension test [33],

-100 and the use of Von Mises criterion in this regards gives an accurate

-150 estimate of the yield strength in shear. Therefore, in case B, torsion

-200

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

200 Z 0*T y (Case B1)

Displacement in X

150 Z 0.25*T y (Case B2)

Fig. 11. Base shear vs. tip displacement in global X-direction for cases A1, A2, A3 Z 0.50*T y (Case B3)

Shear Force in Z

Z 0.75*T y (Case B4)

50

0

200 Z 0*N y (Case A1)

-50

150 Z 0.25*N y (Case A2)

-100

Z 0.50*N y (Case A3)

Shear Force in Z

100

Z 0.75*N y (Case A4) -150

50

-200

0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

-50 Displacement in Z

-100 Fig. 14. Base shear vs. tip displacement in global Z-direction for cases B1, B2, B3 and

-150 B4 for solid section.

-200

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Displacement in Z

Fig. 12. Base shear vs. tip displacement in global Z-direction for cases A1, A2, A3

and A4 for solid section.

X 0.50*T y (Case B3)

Shear Force in X

100

X 0.75*T y (Case B4)

50

-50

-100

-150

-200

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Displacement in X

Fig. 13. Base shear vs. tip displacement in global X-direction for cases B1, B2, B3

and B4 for solid section. Fig. 15. Loading of hollow circular section for cases A and B.

O. Soydas, A. Saritas / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 74 (2013) 114 11

at yield, T y is 2=3d=23 y , where this is obtained by assuming It can be deduced from Fig. 11 to Fig. 14 that the effect of axial

a constant shear force that is a multiple of yield strength load on nonlinear behavior is more pronounced compared to the

y 0:577f y in the section at yield, and by taking integral of it effect of torsion for the solid member. Moreover, 3d mixed

over the area (Fig. 5c). In the analyses, four different sub-cases (B1, element is capable of reecting the dependency of nonlinear

B2, B3 and B4) are investigated such that applied torque on the behavior on direction of loading since nonlinear curves for X and

member is one of the following: 0, 0:25T y , 0:50T y and 0:75T y , Z directions are not the same.

respectively. The responses of the member in terms of base shear The same member is this time considered to be made of a

vs. displacements at free end in X and Z directions for each sub- hollow circular section with inner radius a and outer radius b

cases are plotted for solid circular section in Figs. 13 and 14, (Fig. 15). Same material properties, loading cases and discretiza-

respectively. tion are considered in the analyses of the hollow sections with a=b

300 300

X 0*N y a/b=0 X 0*Ty a/b=0

Shear Force in X

Shear Force in X

200 X 0*N y a/b=0.3 200 X 0*Ty a/b=0.3

X 0*N y a/b=0.7 X 0*Ty a/b=0.7

100 100

X 0*N y a/b=0.9 X 0*Ty a/b=0.9

X 0*N y a/b=0.99 X 0*Ty a/b=0.99

-100 -100

-200 -200

0 2 4 6 0 2 4 6

Displacement in X Displacement in X

200 200

X 0.25*N y a/b=0 X 0.25*T y a/b=0

Shear Force in X

Shear Force in X

100 100

X 0.25*N y a/b=0.7 X 0.25*T y a/b=0.7

X 0.25*N y a/b=0.9 X 0.25*T y a/b=0.9

0 0

X 0.25*N y a/b=0.95 X 0.25*T y a/b=0.95

-200 -200

0 2 4 6 0 2 4 6

Displacement in X Displacement in X

200 200

X 0.50*N y a/b=0 X 0.50*Ty a/b=0

Shear Force in X

Shear Force in X

100 100

X 0.50*N y a/b=0.7 X 0.50*Ty a/b=0.7

X 0.50*N y a/b=0.9 X 0.50*Ty a/b=0.9

0 0

X 0.50*N y a/b=0.95 X 0.50*Ty a/b=0.95

X 0.50*N y a/b=0.99 -100 X 0.50*Ty a/b=0.99

-100

-200 -200

0 2 4 6 0 2 4 6

Displacement in X Displacement in X

100 150

X 0.75*N y a/b=0 X 0.75*T y a/b=0

Shear Force in X

Shear Force in X

100

X 0.75*N y a/b=0.3 X 0.75*T y a/b=0.3

50

X 0.75*N y a/b=0.7 50 X 0.75*T y a/b=0.7

X 0.75*N y a/b=0.9 X 0.75*T y a/b=0.9

0 0

X 0.75*N y a/b=0.95 X 0.75*T y a/b=0.95

-50

X 0.75*N y a/b=0.99 X 0.75*T y a/b=0.99

-50

-100

-100 -150

0 2 4 6 0 2 4 6

Displacement in X Displacement in X

Fig. 16. Base shear vs. tip displacement in global X direction for solid and hollow circular sections for different a/b ratio under cyclic loading. (a) Base shear force vs. tip

displacement in X for 0 Ny. (b) Base shear force vs. tip displacement in X for 0 Ty. (c) Base shear force vs. tip displacement in X for 0.25 Ny. (d). Base shear force vs. tip

displacement in X for 0.25 Ty. (e) Base shear force vs. tip displacement in X for 0.50 Ny. (f) Base shear force vs. tip displacement in X for 0.50 Ty. (g) Base shear force vs.

tip displacement in X for 0.75 Ny. (h) Base shear force vs. tip displacement in X for 0.75 Ty.

12 O. Soydas, A. Saritas / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 74 (2013) 114

ratio varied as one of the following: 0.3, 0.7, 0.9, 0.95 and 0.99. member, M y Sf y and plastic moment, M p Z p f y to the length of

Eq. (42) is used for calculation of the shear correction factor in the member that are obtained for both solid and hollow circular

4

element response. Results of the analyses are summarized in sections. Elastic section modulus is equal to S b a4 =4b

3

Fig. 16 for the same level of N y and T y as discussed before, where and plastic section modulus is equal to Z p 4b a =3 as sum-

3

the response of the cyclically loaded member is only presented in marized in Table 2. These theoretical values and also the section

terms of global X direction. The accuracy of the nonlinear response of the proposed beam element do not consider nonlinear

responses obtained in these gures can be veried through geometric effects such as local buckling in the case of thin-walled

comparison with theoretical values under zero axial load on the geometry.

member. The base shear values can be calculated by dividing In order to present the results of the thinner walled sections in

theoretical values of yield moment under zero axial load on a more consistent scale, Fig. 17 is prepared, where the response of

the cyclically loaded member is again presented in terms of global

X direction only. For thin walled sections, the effect of axial load

Table 2

and torsion on nonlinear behavior is observed to be more

Theoretical base shear values calculated from moment at yield and plastic limit. dominant than the effect of same parameters on solid circular

section. The effect of direction of loading on nonlinear behavior is

a/b S My My/L Zp Mp Mp/L also visible in the gure. For solid circular section the effect of axial

load is important which is also important for hollow sections.

0 572.56 20,611.99 114.51 972.00 34,992.00 194.40

0.3 567.92 20,445.03 113.58 945.76 34,047.22 189.15 While the effect of torsion is relatively less important in solid

0.5 536.77 19,323.74 107.35 850.50 30,618.00 170.10 circular sections, it becomes necessary to consider coupling of

0.7 435.08 15,663.05 87.02 638.60 22,989.74 127.72 torsion on nonlinear response of hollow sections. The proposed

0.9 196.90 7088.46 39.38 263.41 9482.83 52.68 beam element in this paper in this regards is able to capture this

0.95 106.21 3823.40 21.24 138.63 4990.73 27.73

0.99 22.56 812.19 4.51 28.87 1039.30 5.77

interaction, thus can be reliably used for the analysis of members

under various loading and boundary conditions.

60 60

X 0*N y a/b=0.9 X 0*Ty a/b=0.9

40 40

Shear Force in X

Shear Force in X

20 X 0.50*N y a/b=0.9 20 X 0.50*Ty a/b=0.9

X 0.75*N y a/b=0.9 X 0.75*Ty a/b=0.9

0 0

-20 -20

-40 -40

-60 -60

0 2 4 6 0 2 4 6

Displacement in X Displacement in X

30 30

X 0*N y a/b=0.95 X 0*Ty a/b=0.95

20 20

Shear Force in X

Shear Force in X

10 X 0.50*N y a/b=0.95 X 0.50*Ty a/b=0.95

10

X 0.75*N y a/b=0.95 X 0.75*Ty a/b=0.95

0 0

-10

-10

-20 -20

-30 -30

0 2 4 6 0 2 4 6

Displacement in X Displacement in X

6 6

X 0*N y a/b=0.99 X 0*T y a/b=0.99

4 4

Shear Force in X

Shear Force in X

2 X 0.50*N y a/b=0.99 2 X 0.50*Ty a/b=0.99

X 0.75*N y a/b=0.99 X 0.75*Ty a/b=0.99

0 0

-2 -2

-4 -4

0 2 4 0 2 4

Displacement in X Displacement in X

Fig. 17. Base shear vs. tip displacement in global X direction under cyclic loading for hollow circular sections with a/b ratio equals to 0.9, 0.95 and 0.99. (a) Base shear force vs.

tip displacement in X for different level of Ny and a/b 0.9. (b) Base shear force vs. tip displacement in X for different level of Ty and a/b 0.9. (c) Base shear force vs. tip

displacement in X for different level of Ny and a/b 0.95. (d) Base shear force vs. tip displacement in X for different level of Ty and a/b 0.95. (e) Base shear force vs. tip

displacement in X for different level of Ny and a/b 0.99. (f) Base shear force vs. tip displacement in X for different level of Ty and a/b 0.99.

O. Soydas, A. Saritas / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 74 (2013) 114 13

3.4. Example 4: nonlinear analysis of uniform xed-xed pipe It is worth to mention that the lumped plasticity element by

Nowzartash and Mohareb assumes elastic perfectly plastic response

In this example, nonlinear responses of the proposed 3d and considers only the presence of plastic hinges at element ends.

Timoshenko mixed formulation beam element (proposed MF) and The formulated element necessitates a priori calculation/estimation

EulerBernoulli version of the current mixed formulation beam of sectional geometric parameters as well as the yield and plastic

element (EBMF) are compared with the examples considered by capacities of section forces as an input. On the other hand, the

Nowzartash and Mohareb [27]. EBMF element implemented as part proposed mixed formulation element does not have any of these

of this comparison considers the presence of inelastic material limitations in its formulation due to the use of ber discretization

behavior for normal stress directed along element length, and model for section state determination and distributed inelasticity

furthermore shear stress is only caused due to torsion and is formulation for element state determination.

assumed to remain in the elastic range. In the study by Nowzartash For analysis, Nowzartash and Mohareb considered a DN90 STD

and Mohareb, a 3d lumped plasticity beam element denoted as pipe section with outer diameter 101.6 mm, thickness 5.74 mm,

P3D2HE was formulated for the analysis of elevated and submerged elastic modulus 200 GPa, yield strength 350 MPa and Poisson's

steel pipes. Analysis results in the aforementioned study that ratio 0.3; and the following loading cases for this pipe are

compare P3D2HE with the elements B33, PIPE31, FRAME3D and presented for verication purposes in this paper.

ELBOW31 that exist in ABAQUS [34] are also beneted from for the

verication of the proposed MF element. Properties of elements that 3.4.1. Combined bending and torsion of a long xed-xed pipe

are employed in comparisons are summarized in Table 3, where EBT In this case, a vertical load P(kN) and torque T P(kN m) are

and TBT abbreviations mean EulerBernoulli and Timoshenko beam applied to a 6 m xed-xed beam. The load is applied to the second

theories, respectively. For through discussion, please refer to the node which is 4 m away from node 1 and nonlinear response is

study by Nowzartash and Mohareb [27]. investigated by monitoring node 2 as depicted in Fig. 18.

Table 3

Properties of elements employed in comparison of nonlinear responses.

Element Name Element type Beam formulation No. of nodes/element Number of dofs

PIPE31 TBT (shear elastic) DB 2 end nodes 6 per node

FRAME3D EBT (lumped plasticity) DB 2 end nodes 6 per end nodes

ELBOW31 TBT DB 1 intermediate node 3 for intermediate

2 end nodes 6 per node

P3D2HE TBT (lumped plasticity) DB 2 end nodes 6 per node

EB-MF EBT MF 2 end nodes 6 per node

Proposed MF TBT MF 2 end nodes 6 per node

30

25

20

Load P (kN)

15

EB-MF ne =2

B33 or PIPE31 n e=48

10

ELBOW31 ne =120

Proposed MF ne =2

5 FRAME3D ne =2

P3D2HE ne =2

0

0 50 100 150 200 250

Transverse Displacement at node 2 (mm)

Fig. 18. Comparison of load vs. transverse displacement at node 2 for long beam.

250

200

Load P (kN)

150

FRAME3D n e=2

EB-MF ne=2

100 PIPE31 n e=60

B33 ne=60

ELBOW31 n e =100

50

Proposed MF n e =2

P3D2HE ne =2

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Transverse Displacement at node 2 (mm)

Fig. 19. Comparison of load vs. transverse displacement at node 2 for short beam.

14 O. Soydas, A. Saritas / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 74 (2013) 114

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