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The “Rebirth”

14 th – 17 th Centuries
 Directly translated from
French, renaissance means

 Seen as a movement away from
the stagnation of the Middle

 Advances in the arts, science,
literature, politics, and
education occur as a “middle
class” begins to emerge in
European societies
 The people weren’t
 They had lived under the
feudal system as peasants
for hundreds of years,
since the fall of the
Roman Empire.
 “Ignorance is Bliss”-
Peasants were kept
ignorant, to stop
 The Bubonic Plague had
killed over 1/3rd of the
population of Europe.
 Pope of the Roman Catholic
Church had sanctioned the
 This led to the discovery of
new items, such as spices
and trade goods.
 The Church held supreme
power over people, and even
over kings, at times.
 The Rise of Independent
Cities in Northern Italy

 Florence, Tuscany

 These cities became
hotbeds for new ideas,
and the resurgence of
Ancient Greek ideals.
 The Renaissance
created a richer
middle class

 This led to an
increase in the arts
and technological
research, as the
middle class society
spent their wealth.
The Renaissance led to the
prominence of several
artists including...
 The painter of “The Last Supper”(1498), Mona
Lisa(1505-1507), along with the “Vitruvian Man”(1485).
 He was also considered a scientist, and invented many
machines, including scissors, submarines, a flying
 A renowned sculptor, he created the “Bronze David”,
the Tomb of Giovanni Crivelli, and many others.
 Donatello created the first nude sculpture seen since
the fall of Rome.
 Created the statue of “David” and the Sistine Chapel
 An artist who worked for the Vatican
 The Vatican city is filled with his pieces of art,
including “The School of Athens” and “The Wedding
of The Virgin”.
• The Renaissance spread to Spain
from Italy during the 15th and 16th
• New focus on art, literature and

• Great importance placed on
• During this time, the Americas
were discovered by Spain.
FRANCE - 1495

• Imported artistic forms of
architecture, painting,
sculpting, music, and sciences.

• Early exploration of The New
World by explorers such as
Jacques Cartier
IN ENGLAND, 1500’s
• Main focus on literature and music.
• Poets and playwrights flourished such as:
William Shakespeare, John Milton, and Christopher
 After the collapse of
the Roman Empire,
many of the
technological advances
made were lost

 People lived in fear and
poor conditions, with
constant wars going
on, known as the Dark
 The feudal system had
lasted for centuries,
with no economic
freedom or individual
rights for the people

 The greed for wealth
and power within the
Catholic Church led to
 During the 16th
century the nobility
and clergy held a
majority of the
power and wealth
 Speaking out
against the church is
• Catholic Church had
control over most of
Europe (1500’s )
• people would pay 10% of
their wage (tithe) and even
more wealth for
“indulgences” from the
Church, so that they would
be able to get into heaven.
The Catholic Church became very
wealthy through indulgences.

The Church used this money to
establish control and build many
cathedrals and churches
all across Europe.

It was also used to fund missions
to the new colonies
Martin Luther disagreed with the selling of indulgences

Martin Luther then
came up with the
95 Theses.
-Questions raised about the Roman Catholic religion
- Causes much question about ideas of the Church
- Separation and reformation of the Church occurs
- This disagreement results in much warfare and violence
Catholic denominations
through Reformation:
- Advertists
- Lutherans
- Pietism
- Baptists
- Anglicanism
- Methodists
- Calvinists
Society started to change rapidly and the flow
of different ideas got introduced
Peoples values and beliefs
used to be controlled by a
dictating Church that
ruled over everyone with
absolute power. But now
everyone was able to break
free and create and follow
their own ways of worship.
Thoughts of Adam Smith
 what was the Enlightenment all about?
'Man is an animal that
‘No society can surely be flourishing
makes bargains; no other
and happy, of which the far greater
animal does this, - one
part of the members are poor and
dog does not change a
miserable.' Adam Smith
bone with another.' Adam

'No benevolent man ever lost
altogether the fruits of his
benevolence.' Adam Smith
 The textile industry has begun to boom
 New wealth is being put towards education and
 They wanted to have an influence on the world
through new inventions and ideas
 Local philosophers refused to
believe what they were
told in the past.
 They believed ideas had to be
investigated and examined
 wrote “The Wealth of Nations”, in 1776.
 The main ideas of his book revolved around
capitalism: human self-centeredness drove the
 Government should not interfere with the free market
(known as laissez-faire)
 Believed and supported individualistic ideas such as
self-interest, competition and economic freedom.
 He believed that the “invisible hand”
that guides consumers to
purchase cheaper items.
1806 - 1873
• During his life women had very few
freedoms. They were often seen as
possessions that were meant to be
controlled by the men of society.
• Women rarely worked and even
given the opportunity to they were
sent to do remedial and simple
tasks with very little pay.
• With Mills deep passion for
equality and Utilitarianism he
fought for the equality of women in
both the workplace and in society.
• Mill lived during the Industrial Revolution
and witnessed a dramatic change in attitudes
regarding industry and labour.
• Mill saw an opportunity to push for equal
women's rights.
• Instead of using women as house keepers
and possessions, Mills fought for their
rights to work in association with men,
and to have equal rights in the areas of:
• Utilitarianism: Mills believed
that an action is morally right as
long as it leads to happiness. He
was one of the great liberal
defenders of personal
autonomy, civil liberties,
creativity, and individuality.
• In this time Mills would have
been seen as a radical politician
bringing his country into an age
of modern liberalism a far leap
across the political spectrum.
His Ideas…
• Fiercely defended right to free speech and was
against censorship

• Taught that individuals were rational enough to
make decisions regarding their well being

• Individuals should be free to choose whatever
religion they wanted

• Began pushing for women’s rights, animal rights,
and public education
John Stuart Mill developed the concept of

The Harm Principle
• which stated any individual has the right to
act as he wants, so long as no one is
harmed because of it.
• Your actions should benefit society not just
• Watch this:
 The Renaissance is viewed as
a shift to the left.
 The creation of Humanist
 Celebrating the individual
 Recognized as the
greatest period of art
production, and thought.
 Renaissance is used in
modern English to show
a resurgence in
something, i.e. “The
Renaissance of the
American Car Industry”
 Humanist theories seen
in resurgence
 Ideas of investing in the
arts and their value
perseveres to this day
 Helps form Modern
 New Philosophies and
 Math Theories- 3D&2D
Scales for Artists
 Education- History
 Architectural Revival
 Religious upheaval
Renaissance Man
(Blister In The Sun By The Violent Femmes)