You are on page 1of 39

What event ignites

modern democracies?
 The Ancient Greeks?
 The American Revolution?
 The French Revolution?
 How about the….
Iroquois Confederacy!
is the benchmark for, and
beginning of modern day
democracy. The revolutionists are
copycats.
AKA:
The Haudenosaunee
(hoda-nash-shoney)
The initial five
nations of the
Iroquois
Confederacy were
located mostly in
what is now upper
and central New
York.
A peace treaty between six Indian nations;
(Mohawk, Onondaga, Seneca, Oneida,
Cayuga and the Tuscarora).

The Tuscarora joined later than the first five
tribes. They joined the confederacy in 1702,
after moving from the Carolina’s.
The six nations of the Confederacy;
Oneida, Onondaga, Mohawk, Cayuga,
Tuscarora, and Seneca. Also referred
to as the “People of the Longhouse”
Interior of a Longhouse
 The Haudenosaunee established a
government that became known as
The Great Law of Peace. This allowed
the nations to co-exist peacefully and
respectfully.
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v
=MK7OmIDmiB8
 Around 1200 CE
 This great Iroquois leader
persuaded the five Iroquois
nations to accept the
“Great Law of Peace”.
 Deganawida’s beliefs, much like the
Ancient Greek leader, Pericles, are now
seen as the foundations of representative
democracy.
 Each nation can rule their own territory
 BUT they also elect representatives to
the Grand Council to make decisions
that all the nations must agree to
 An attack on one is an attack on all
 Women elect the men to council
 1765 – Ben Franklin meets with the
Grand Council
Benjamin Franklin
 The Great law of Peace was an oral
treaty and was not written down but
rather passed on from generation to
generation.
 The treaty was not put into writing so
it was not given proper recognition
as a fundamental element of
democracy.
 Finally, after hundred’s of years the Iroquois
people received the acknowledgement they
deserved for their crucial role in shaping the
American Constitution.
 In 1987, Senator Daniel Inouye brought this
before the combined houses of Congress
and it is now written in the congressional
records that the American system is based
on the Iroquois system.
 The British Empire
had full control over
the Thirteen
American Colonies.
 Americans were more
seen as labourers for
the mother country
rather than citizens of
America.
 Iron Act (1750): Britain no longer had to pay to
get iron imported from New England.
 Sugar Act (1764): Placed a tax on wine, sugars
and other delicacies.
 Tea Act (1773): Placed a tax on tea for the
colonies.
 Quartering Act (1774): Allowed soldiers to be
housed in a given household without the
homeowners’ consent.
 The American
Revolution lasted a
total eight years and
was headed by
George Washington
against the British
Empire, led by King
George III.
 Instated freedom of
speech, freedom of
press and rule of
law.
 Limited government
control.
 Federal and State
level governments
 Introduced free
market economy.
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TnWxFO
qsWdk&feature=related
The French Revolution
1789 - 1794
Main Events
• The French support the Americans in their war
against the British (money and soldiers)
• The military returns to France with new ideals
of liberty and equality
• France still lives under the “Old Regime”
– Rigid class structure
– Absolute monarchist
– No elected representatives
• They want change!
Historical Background Info:
• Democracy – Brits/Americans
• Huge debt / unfair tax system
• Inequality in class system
• Crop failure! Famine
• Anger about royalty
Membership Numbers Privileges / Concerns
Burdens

100 000 Exempt from Lower clergy
taxation sympathized
First Churchmen with concerns of
Estate Eligible for the Third Estate
(Clergy) 0.5 % of prestigious
pop positions

Exempt from
Second Nobility 1.5 % of taxation
Estate pop. Eligible for
prestigious
positions
Everyone else 27 000 000 Middle class
Had to pay wanted to share
Third almost all taxes in power and
Estate 98 % of Ineligible for
status
pop Peasants wanted
prestigious
relief from taxes
positions and feudal dues
• Feudal institution not called since 1614
• Equal numbers of representatives of the 3
estates meet as estates
• One vote per estate
• Role was to give advice to the king
• The Third Estate hoped the king would
hear their main complaints (cahiers)
Aristocracy

Bourgeoisie: Upper Middle Class
Proletariate: Working Class
• A constitution
• Equality of taxation
• Rights for citizens
• End to hunting rights of nobility
• More of a political voice
• 3rd Estate demanded vote/head
• They are locked out of the Estates General
• Birth of the “National Assembly”
• Tennis Court Oath
– “We will create a fair constitution for France”
• The Revolution had begun!
The Tennis Court Oath
• June 20, 1789 - Although the Third Estate were locked out of their
meeting room they met in a tennis court. There were members of
the 3rd Estate and some lower clergy involved.
• Members of the National Assembly promised not to disperse until
France had a constitution. This was known as “The Tennis Court
Oath.”
• The king order the National Assembly to disperse, the group had
drawn a number of nobles and a majority of the clergy.
• On June 27, 1789 the king asked the 1st and 2nd Estates to meet
with the National Assembly.
• The National Assembly was renamed the National Constituent
Assembly
• July 14, 1789 – The Storming of the Bastille
• Feudalism is abolished
– peasants are freed, nobles are stripped of titles
• The “Declaration of Man”
• The Women’s March to Versailles - 1789
• Civil Constitution of the Clergy
– 10% land, state appoints clergy, the divide begins
• The 83 Departments and uniformity
– One: flag, currency, metric, new calendar, single language
• Royals are in trouble! (Secret Letters, Varennes, Treason, Abdicate)
• The National Convention - 1792
– French Republic formed, constitution sworn in
• 1793 - Robespierre leads the NC
• Committee on Public Safety formed
• Guillotine invented
• Reign of Terror begins (20K in one year)
• Denouncing goes overboard (sans-culottes)
• Wars with neighbours
• 1793 – (Jan) Au Revoir, Louis… why?
• (Oct) – Adieu, Madame Deficit
• 1794 – The madness ends..